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C H K S H » *^ 


OR 06H I R E 

fl o 

S C A L C . 



0«C 27 «/lSC 

f F J. tti. 

igfnr- a MAt»w*. irrt., iJiOP. 










lAll Sights Ttsrrval.} 

"^^nijA ufdS i/Zird^/ufe 























ix — xiv 

XV — ^xviii 

xix — XX 

xxi — xxii 

, . xxiii — ^Ixxxiii 

. Ixxxiv — xciii 

xciv — xcvi 

xcvii — ^xcviii 

xcix — ciii 




On the publication of a Gloesary 4>f the archaic and proTindal 
vordfl, &o., in n8&— or known to haye been in xuse — ^in Shropshire, it 
eeemB incninbent npon me to famish some account of the way in which 
the work has been carried out, in order to give assurance that it has, to 
the utmost of my power, been done thoroughly, and that so £ur it may 
be relied upon as trustworthy. 

In the spring of 1870 I was reading the Bey. Isaac Taylor's Words 
ajid Piaees, when at p. 120 1 came across two words — ' tine* and 'tining ' 
—which struck a key-note in my memory, calling up recollections of the 
time when in early childhood I had lived in Shropshire, ' hi from the 
busy town * — ^had heard the folk-speech day by day, and had shewn such 
aptitude for 'picking it up' — ^words, tones, and aU— that I had not 
unfrequently incurred the censure of my parents for ' speaking like a 
little Shropshire village-child.' It was a great leap my mind took from 
now to then ; but as clearly as if but yesterday, I heard that, in obedi- 
ence to some order given, ' John Boberts wuz gwun 56th 'is brummock 
an' mittins to the uwer leasow to tine a glat the ship 'ad maden.' 

Then another and another phrase associated with some incident of 
the mxal ' surroundings' of my yoxmg days rose up before me, until at 
last I ' made notes ' of them. These I shewed to a literary man of my 
acquaintance whom I knew to be interested in dialects. After considering 
them for a few minutes, he said, 

* There's the foundation here of a good Glossary; why not make one P ' 

That was the first idea of the work In three days from that time 
il was begun ' in right good sadness.' 

Word-collecting was soon in fall swing. At the outset of this I was 
often advised to take the Glossary appended to Mr. Haitshome's 



Balopia Antiqua as the basis of mine; but I had formed for myself a 
pLvn of independent work, and to that I resolved to keep. 

Ultimately, however, when my Glossarial MSS. shewed a total of 
more than three thousand words, I collated my work with that of Mr. 
Hartshome, and from the latter made lists of words not contained in mine. 
These I endeavoured to verify, and in every case where I was successful 
in doing so I included the word in my collection, but not otherwise. 

My Glossary begun, I went on steadily working in my own way till 
the formation of the English Dialect Society in 1873 led me to Cambridge 
to talk matters over with Mr. Skeat. From him I received much 
valuable help and counsel. 

Two of the most important suggestions he made to me were these— 
to represent the sounds of the words by Glossic symbols, according to 
Mr. A. J. Ellis's method ; and to add the localities where the words 
were heard or known to be used. 

I saw clearly that by such an extension of my scheme a largely- 
increased usefulness would be given to my work in a philological point 
of view, and I at onoe made up my mind to carry it out, though it 
involved the cost of going over again in detail all my previous three 
years' work. I could grudge no pains which should tend to the more 
worthy accomplishing of that which I had begun with the set purpose 
of giving to it my best of brain and heart ; for from the first it was a 
* work and labour of love.' It proved a most troublesome task to localize 
words which in many cases had been contributed by friends who had 
made no notes of their whereabouts, and still more difficult was it to 
arrive at any trustworthy rendering of their sounds. 

However, at the end of four more years of patient work my words 
were aU fairly-well assigned to their respective districts, and their 
pronunciation indicated. 

In order to attain this end, I had conceived the idea — ^based upon a 
general knowledge of the trend of phonetic variations in the dialect — of 
mapping out the coxmty into a given number of districts, and then 
visiting centres of these arbitrary divisions for the purpose of collating 
my words, and by 'personal audition' noting their sounds. 

The plan worked weU, and led to many valuable results — ^variation: 
of form, phonetic change, and other like noteworthy fiustsi It was my 
wont on dialecting tours, when I had been settled in head-quarters for a 
day or two, and had made friends with the good folk there, to begin my 
work by having a chat with the village blacksmith about his tools, the 
implements he was making or repairing, and so forth. Often on these 


oocaaioiiB I was met with some such remark as, ' Yo* seemen to know 
sommat about 'em, Ma'am. I could shewn 70' a noud-fashioned tool 
Bich as I dax' say yo' never sid afore.' And then would be brought out 
of some dark hole or comer an obsolete agricultural implement, and all 
its parts and usee would be explained to me, and measurements given. 
And so I learnt all about that, and picked up many words and sounds 
into the bargain. 

The wheelwright would then be visited, and the terms of his craft 
acquired in like manner. The butcher would allow me to go into his 
•hop to see how the great joints — ^ slenoh,' ' lift,' fta— were cut for his 
country customers. Some neighbouring farmer and his wife would be 
pleased to shew me the &rm-yard, the poultry-yard, and the dairy, and 
thus I learnt the lore they had to teach. The school-master or nustrees 
would tell the children 'to gather posies and bring them to school for 
tiie lady ; ' and then they would allow me to ask them by what names 
they knew the flowers they had gathered. I leamt most of my plant- 
names in this way, a good many bird-names also, and other things 

I visited the old people in their cottages^ and, leading them to talk of 
past times, would elicit many a word now dead or dying out, and, 
liftftwTig it, would note its sound. 

I was often fortunate in interesting some intelligent person of the 
peasant^dass in my work, and to such a one I would read over my MS. 
word-lists, which I invariably took with me. The emendations of these 
thus obtained were invaluable. 'That inna-d-our word — we. sen 
so-and-BO ; ' or, ' That'll do, nobody can mend that,' would bring out a 
new tena to be recorded, or would confirm the accuracy of my work. 

I proceeded on this plan, with more or less of interruption caused by 
fragilB health, until the summer of 1877, when illness compelled me not 
only to give up a visit I was about to pay to the south-east part of the 
county, but also to relinquish all further investigations which would 
have involved fi&tigaing journeys. However, by methods such as I 
have described I had accumulated a mass 'of authentic information ; 
frienda had most kindly supplemented my own efforts by furnishing me 
with very minute answers to the crucial teet-questioiis I had framed in 
order to elicit evidence upon doubtfol points ; and I felt, that though I 
would gladly have done more had strength been given to me for the 
work, I had yet ' done what I could,' and that I might fearlessly leave 
all that I was unable to do^ without incurring the reproach of conscience 
within or of critics without. 



The Introductory Qrammar faUs fiir short of my wuhes, but, as tai 
as it goes, it wOl, I hope, be found usefoL It is, I think, the first 
attempt of the kind for the Shropshire dialect, and, bearing in mind 
what Max Miiller says, — 'The first gnunmar of a language is a 
work of infinitely greater difficulty than any later grammar ' ISdenee 
of Language, p. 180], — I trust my effort may make it easier for 
some one coming after me to complete more worthily that which I 
haye begun. 

And now I leaye my work to speak for itself: its errors are not those 
of carelessness, and whatever of merit it poss e ss e s may fedrly bo shared 
with those who hare with the utmost kindness and cordiality given me 
their assLstanoe. Of these, some have been fellow-workers with me from 
the beginning, others later on ; but to each and all I owe a debt of 
gratitude for the good service they have rendered me in my arduous 
task. The Shropshire Word-Book could not have been either so copious 
or so complete as it is but for these helpers. 

Chief amongst them are, taking them in the order of the districts : — 

lis. BoBEBT Eddowbs Davies, of Eingsland, Shrewsbury, who for 
upwards of eight years of my work has contributed largely to its general 
usefiilness. His word-lists have been more especially for the Shbewb* 
BUBY, WoBTHEX, and Glee Hills districts. 

Mbs. Gboves, of Qreat Hanwood, has done most valuable work fbr 
PxTLYEBBATCH and WoBTHEN. The ohtoleU words assigned to those 
districts are what she remembers her grandmother, Hannah Fletcher, 
using, who died in 1822, aged 86 years : the date for their decay is thus 

The Bey. John Bubd, M.A., Yicar of Chirbury, has supplied some 
words, &c., for the Wobthek district. 

Mb. Geoboe Puoh, of Wheathill, near Wellington, has contributed 
a very considerable number of words for the Clee Hills district, also 
for Ludlow, Bbedoitobth, &o. 

Mb. Oybil Joyoe, of Burford, has famished a copious Ust of words 
from that neighbourhood — the extreme south of Salop; and Mb. 
Thoicas MoBaAK-Boxnn), of Orleton, has given much valuable help in 
the LxTDLOW district generally. 

Mb. Hubebt Smith, F.B.H.S., of S. Leonard, Bridgnorth, has in 
various ways assisted me materially in working up the Bbidokobth 

Mb. W. p. Bbookbs, F.B.O.S., has done very useful work in the 
Mt7CH Weiylocx district. 


Mb. Bobkbt Akslow, of Welungton, has sent oompiehensiTe lists 
of wozds lor iihat distiioty and many words for Mttgh Werlook, Ac. 

Mb. Thomas Pabtok^ F.G.S., has contributed a good deal of nseftil 
infarmation relatiye to Colliery and Mining terms. 

Miss C. 8. BxTBirEy of Edgmond, has done a great deal of excellent 
work for the Newfobt district. 

Mb. a. J. MuKBYy F.S.A., of the Inner Temple, has sappHed many 
words for the Coixieby and Newfobt districts. 

Mb. Bobebt Gill, of Hopton, Hodnet, has giyen a long list of 
words, well exemplified, for the Webc district. 

The Bev. John Evans, MA., Vicar of Whixall, has been of yery 
great assistance to the work with relation to the northern part of Salop 
generally, and more especially to the districts of Newfobt, Wek, and 

The Bey. William Walsham How, MA., Bector of Whittington, 
has oontribnted a list of words, ftc., for the Oswestby district. 

Mb. Askew Bobebts, of Oroeswylan, both personally and by means 
of his ^Bytgtmet* colnmns, has given much help in the Oswestby 

Three oontribntors to my work, who did much to enrich its pages, 
have passed away — the Bev. J. L. Sheffabd, MA., Bector of Abdon ; 
the Bev. G. L. Wasey, M.A., Incumbent of Quatford and MorviUe ; and 
Mb. Jambs Tubneb, of Wellington. The Clee Hnxs, Bbidonobth, 
Welunqtok, and Qojaxeay districts, respectively, owe a great deal to 

Mb. Thomas Halt. am, of Manchester, — an eminently good phonetic 
scholar, — has from time to time given the Gloisie symbols which indicate 
the pronunciation of the chief words the benefit of his revision ; and 
more than that^ for on submitting to him a 'draft' which I had 
framed as the basis for a synopsis of all the vowels, diphthongs and 
fractures, of the consonants and digraphs, I had noted as characteristics 
of the Shropshire folk-speech, he most kindly — ^in conference with me — 
went through it in detail ; and bringing to my aid that more perfect 
knowledge of general phonology which he possessed, but I lacked, he 
enabled me to make the tabulated Ust of vowels, diphthongs, &c,, which 
will be found in the opening pages of the Grammar Outlines— a list 
that cannot, as I trust, fail to be useful. 

The critical revision of my proof-sheets, as it is the latest service in 
order of time that has been rendered to me in my arduous task, so it is 
the last to be placed on tiiis record of grateful acknowledgments ; but 


that it is very iax from being the least in importanoe will be obyious to 
all those who giye thought to such matters. I owe it to the good offices 
of my friend, the Bey. W. W. Skbat, M.A., Professor of Anglo-Saxon 
at the TJniTersity of Cambridge, that this crowning work has been done 
with genuine interest^ with soholarly acumen, and kindly spirit Here 
I stop-— the story of the book is told. 

Georgina F. Jackson. 

White Friars, Chester , 
October, 1878. 


The scope of this Shropshire Word-Book is to record — 

1. Old Words, some more or less modified, preserred in tlie ootmty 

2. Words imported, as from Border CountieB. 

3. Idterary Words used in a peculiar sense, marked pec, 

4. laiterary Words in common use, spoken ^th a variation of the 

receiyed pronunciation, marked var, pr, 
6. Words used in a slangish way, marked «/.? 

6. Words which are now — or soon will be — slang terms, marked sL 

7. Some few words apparently coined in certain localities. 

8. Frovincial and local names of birds, plants, &c. 

9. Words used by Colliers and Miners in the Coal-field, fta 
10. Certain Place-names remarkably pronounced. 

Each word is assigned to the district or districts in which it is known 
to be used or, if obsolete, to haye been used ; but it is not meant by 
this that it is restricted within such boundaries. AH that is intended 
to be conyeyed is the/ocf that its range has so tax been established. 

The Table of Districts will shew — ^as has been explained in the 
Preface — that these haye been arranged somewhat arbitrarily; but 
neyertheleas great thought has been giyen to them, with the yiew of 
indicating by their means the trend of phonetic change, dialectic yaiia- 
tion, and so forth. 

The topographical position of each is determined on the lU/erence 

In some instancee words haye been recorded whose usage was 
^ipaiently limited to a narrower area than that of the DiiMct, In such 
eases the more immediate neighbourhood is named where they were 
loond to obtain ; see, for example, Besmotter, an old word, not — so far 
as could be ascertained — ^in use in other localities lAian the one giyen. 


Where a word is ascribed to several localities of whicH PulTerbatch 
is one, it may be safely assumed, as a general role, that its colloquial 
illustration is drawn from tJuxt neighbourhood ; the same holds good of 
words recorded as commoxL. The exceptional cases are few, but what 
there are can be easily distinguished by the phonetic structure of certain 
words embodied in the examples, and so allotted to their respective 
localities— the synopaiB of ' vowels^ diphthongs,' &c., affording the 

The literary citations which illustrate the text are in the main the 
result of independent reading, but when they are borrowed the source 
from which they haye been obtained is acknowledged. When several 
authors are quoted they are for the most part arranged in chronological 
order, beginning with the oldest ; always excepting such as claim to be 
* Salopian,* which are usually placed first; and the Dictionary Quota- 
tions, — these coming almost invariably last. 

By reference to the list of 'Authorities Quoted' it will be seen 
which are Salopian, such being distingmshed by f; these possess a 
peculiar value in connection with the Shropshire Word-Book of this date, 
for the writers of the Salopian dialect of long ago have left their impress 
on the Standard English of to-day. 

Mr. Oliphant, in his admirable work, Sources of Standard English, 

has a good deal to say on this subject, and the gist of many of his most 

interesting remarks may not inaptiy find a place here. To begin, then, 

as £Eir back as 1220, the date of the Ancren Biwle, which, it is said, has, 

more than anything written outside the Danelagh, influenced the 

Standard English. It was a popular piece in the Dorsetshire dialect, 

and copies of it are extant in other dialects; of these the Salopian 

variation is the most remarkable. Following a critical comparison of 

the differing forms of the Ancren Biwle, Mr. Oliphant has a note (p. 124) 

here given at length: — 'In Salop [1220], forms which were used in 

Lothian and Yorkshire seem to have clashed with forms employed in 

Gloucestershire and Dorset; something resembling the OrmiUum was 

the upshot. In each succeeding century Salop comes to the front. The 

Wohunge of ure Lauerd seems to have been written here about 1210 

(Morris's Old English Himxlies, First Series, p. 269). In 1340, or so, the 

Bomance of William of PaUme was compiled here. In 1420 John Audlay 

wrote his poems in the same dialect (Percy Society, No. 47). In 1580 

Churchyard had not dropped all his old Salopian forma Baxter, who 

came from Salop, appeared about 1650 as one of the first heralds of tiie 

change that was then passing over Standard English prose, and that 

nrrRODUCTiON- xvu 

sobstitatiiig Dryden's style for that of Milton. Soon after 1700, 
Farquliar, in his BecruUing Officer, giyes ns much of the Salopian 
hrogue. This intermingling of Noithem and Southern forms in Salop 
produced something not unlike Standard English.' 

*Sir Ion Audlay/ the blind monk-poet of Haughmond, who wrote 
his Terse in 1426, * lived on the border-land between Northern and 
Sonilkfim Tarieties of English speech, as a few lines from his poema 
(p. 65} wHL shew : 

* ** And Tij. ay^ to our lady, 
Fore 9che is the wel of al pit6, 
That heo wyl fore me pray.' ' 

* Thirty years later the Southern forms seem to haye lost ground in 
Audlay's Shire.' Ludlow Castle is more closely linked with the history 
and Uteratore of the country than almost any other spot in England. 
* There it was that Bichard, Duke of York [he held also Sandal in 
Yorkahire], brought up his children.* It was from the 'Castill ot^ 
Lodelowe the iij day of June ' [1454] that ' a joint letter was written 
to tiieir &ther by the future King Edward IV. and the boy Butland, 
who soon after fell at Wakefield. This letter [which see in the Faaion 
LeUen, YoL I. c. xi, ed. Gairdner] shews the clipped English which 
must haye been learnt in their childhood by the York princes and 
ihmr sister ' — ^Margaret — ^who afterwards as Duchess of Burgundy so 
materially helped and influenced Caxton. 

' After 1461 these clipped inflections of Ludlow (and Sandal) must 
haye become familiar to the ears of the ladies and knights who begirt 
K. Edward IV. and the Kingmaker at the court of London.' In 1468 
Margaret was married to Charles the Bold, and two years later she was 
in tiie Low Countries, interesting herself in that work of her country- 
man Oaxton which was destined to fulfil such mighty ends, but of which 
the more immediate effects were felt on the Mother Tongue of the Duchess 
and the Printer. Caxton worked under the eye of Margaret. His South- 
ern English was not approyed by her ; she ' found defaute ' with it, and 
deored him ' to amend it,' and the book she bade Caxton go on with, — 
the first eyer printed in the English Tongue, — ^when it came out in 1471, 
shewed that her own speech, fashioned on more Northern models in the 
fiir-away Shropshire home of her early years, had been brought to bear 
upon it : most of the Kentishman's Southern inflections were done away 
with, and henceforward the triumph of the Midland English as the 
standard for the future was assured. It had been reseryed to Caxton 
and lus Press to bring this about 


That Shzopabiia retains still in her folk-speech many of the wordM 
of the old writers will be evident to the readers of this ' Word-Book' ; 
but the tounda of the words have their interest also, — ^their important 
bearings on philology, — ^for, to quote Dr. Murray,— fTiMorteaJ /lOro- 
ducUon to the Dialect of the Southern Countiea of Scotland, p. 90, — 
* Mr. Ellis's enquiry into the history of Early English pronunciation 
shews how much the restoration of past stages of the language is aided 
by what has been already done for the phonology of the existing dialects ; 
how much greater would the aid haye been if all the yarieties of pro- 
nunciation in use were faithfully noted I ' 

In accordance with these yiews, the phonological part of the pre- 
SMit work has receiyed its due share of careful consideration. The 
synopsis of sounds contains nothing but what has been ' proyen,' and 
may therefore be relied upon so fisir as it goes ; — ^it does not pretend to 
represent the complete body of sounds heard in the dialect throughout 
Shropshire, but is giyen rather as a finger-post to indicate the way to 
Ihat end than as the end itself attained. 

The Shropshire folk-speech proper, that is, when unaffected by the 
impinging dialects of border counties, — ^notably those of Oheshire and 
Stafford, — ^is characterized in its utterance by a rhythmical cadence and 
quick, clipped pronimciation yery difficult to attain by those ' not to the 
manner bom.' This peculiarity is most noticeable in the utterance of 
the women, whose speaking yoices, without being positiyely shrill, are 
yet pitched in an unusually high key. 

It may be that these qualities of the speech come of a Welsh lineage, 
but it must be left for * Scholars' to determine that Mr. A. J. Ellis's 
inyestigations on the whole range of dialects will tend to throw light on 
much that makes the Salopian yariety one of peculiar interest to the 
Student of History in Language. 


1. Shbewsbttrt. 

IJptcm Magna 

(a). Atcbax. SuMLiOrui. 



Gi. Hanwood 


The Seyem 

1 CRAYEir Asms. 


(6). Ghubch STRETToar. Bub-dU- 







Acton 8oott 









Bishop's Castlb aitd 










Clan Forest 





OoRYE Dale AiiD Ot.kk FTtlm, 





Cleobury Moituner 




Stanton Lacey 





Lttdlow. 8ub-di9trict. 


BroTn field 



Oleobury Mortimer 





8utton Maddock 









Upton Cressett 



8. MUOH Wenlook. 



little Wenlock 




Acton Bound 








Acton BnmeU 




9. Wki-linoton. 


Whiixjuukcu. Suh'distrid. 

Child's ErcaU 


















West Felton 





1. Nbwpobt, 



Market Drayton 


St. Martin 











Olonio STmbols. — ^Theee will be Teiy easQy undentood by giTing 
a little attention to the following key to the BOnndB which they rop r e e q at^ 
the symbole being invariahle. Tie. : — 

a abort as in gnat. 

a' fine Sonthem English a as in ask, between a and aa. 


ae as in Froyincial English net ; Fr. e; Geim. A. 


ao open Italian o, between o and oci, 

aaaain oa«L 

e as in Soathem English mL 

ee as in beet 

ei asinbtte. 

eo dose Fr. e» in peti; feu. 

en as in Europe. 

V not qnite u\ which see. 

i as in hntt 

f as in y final in beaat^* happy; &a, 



oe aa in open Fr. eu in yetcf ; Gtenn. S, 

oo as in cooL 


u' obscoze sound as in &tal; abide; InnchMn; Ac. See h'« 

^ be t w e en u and oo, 

naFr. a; Germ. dL 


uo same as bush ; full ; &c 

dhaathin thia. 

th as in thin, 

zh as in azure ; diyiaion ; meamre. 

[•] denotes accent, as [bi'sei'd] = beside. 

The foregoing is all that is necessary for the general reader to be 
acquainted with in order to make himself master of the simple — or 
compromise — Glossic, which indicates with dose accuracy the pronun- 
ciation of the chief words throughout the Glossary. 

The more minute analysis which in some cases is added, as for ei = i 
[a'y ; aay* ; ah* ; ftc], is intended for those critical students of phono- 
logy to whom Mb. A. J. Ellis's Univenal Ohuic will not be as ' the 
accents of an unknown tongue.' 

See for extended examples of both < Oompromise ' and ' Analytio ' 
Glossic the SpedmeM of the Folh4tpeech following Orammar OuUineBf fta 


The * affixed to a word denotes that it will be found more 
parfcictilarly explained or exemplified in the body of the Glossary. 


The Alphabet — How the letters are said together with ^. 
A [aa-] B [bai-] C [sai-] D [dai] E [ai-] 

F [aef-] G [jee-] H [ai-ch] I [ei] J [jaa-] 

K [kaa] L [el] M [em-] N [en-] O [oa-] 

P [pai-] Q [koo-] R [aa-r*] S [ess-] T [tai] 

U [oo-] V [vai-] W [dub-1 oo] X [ek-s] Y [wei-] 

Z [zod-] an' [n'n] & empassy on ♦ [em-pu*si*on*']. 

Zad an' expassy and [ek'spu'si'and] are heard about Wobthen. 


A. — 1 = [a] in closed syllables, as, back, cat, gnat, had [ad*], that ; 
Com. Master [mas*ta'r^], refined pronunciation ; Newport. See 
below (6) and (7). 

2 = [a'], Ann [a'n-], dance [da'n-s], make [male], take [ta'k*], Ac 
This is the fine Shropshire a, still pretty general, but gradually 
passmg away. See further. Specimens of Folk-speeeh. 

3 = [aa-], mare = mai^ [maaV], bare = bar' [baa-r^, rare = rar' 
[r'aaT^, scarce [skaa-r's], Ac. ; Com. 

4 = [aa-], father [f:aa-dhuV], Cleb Hills, Ahdon. Cf. A (7). 
Started [staaVti'd], warm [waa-r'm], Com. 

5 = [aa], want [waan-t], ladder [laadh'u'r']. Com. Wash 
[waaah-]. Craven Arms; Cleb Hills. See below (6). 


6 =: i = [ae], wash = wesh [waeeh*], catch = ketch [kaech*], 
Com. Thatch = thetch [thaech-], gather = gether [g(yaedhTiY], 
Bee g (2) (consonants) \ Pulvbrbatch; Newport. Grass = gress* 
[gr^aes-], Kbwport ; Ellesmerb. Master = mester [maesiniV], 
Wellington j Newport ; Ellesmere. Make = mek [maek], 
take = tek [taek*], before initial vowels; Newport. These 
words are sounded [mai']^ [^^'J* before consonants ; ibid, CI 

7 = [ai'], father [fai-dhuY], master [mai'stu'r*], water [wai'tuY], 

8 =s [:Ai*]> scarce [sk:ai's], Com. See above (3). 

9 = [ai-h*], sage = saage [sai'h'j], Church Stretton. Ale* 
[ai'h'l], same [sai'h'm], Ludlow, Burford. 

. 10 => [ai], bacon [baik'n], mason [mais'n], paper, &c.; bake, name, 
tale, &c.; Com. 

11 s= [an-], call [kau], fall [fan*], Newport. 

12 = [:au'], a before II, as, all [:au*l], call, fall ; Com. Talking 
[t»u'ki'n]. Com. 

13 = [a'y], danger [da'ynjuY], Shrewsburt; Pulverbatch. 

14 = [:ee*], lame preein], Newport. 

15 = [ee'h'], mare = meer [mee'hV], share = sheer [shee'hV], 
&c.; Newport. 

16 = [:ee*h'], market [m:ee*h*r'ki't], Bridgnorth. 

17 = [o], bank = bonk [bong'k], thrash = throsh [thr'osh*], can 
= con [kon*], &c.; Com. Apple = opple [op'l], Cravejy 
Arms ; Clun. Gather = gother [godhni'r'], Clun. 

18 = [o*'], barrow = borrow [boVu*], Corve Dale. 

19 = [u], was (accented) [wuz-], was not [wun*u'], Com. 

Ai. — 1 = [aa-], fair = far [faaV], pair = par [paaV], &c. ; Com. 

2 = [aa], waistcoat [waas'ku't], Craven Arms. 

3 s= [aa-y], rain [r'aa'yn], lain [laa-yn], &c.; Bishop's Castle; 

4 = [:aa7], rain [r'laaTn], lain [l»a-yn], &c. ; Craven Arms ; 
Chuboh Stretton. 

5 = [aay], rain [r'aayn], lain paayn], &c. ; Shrewsbury ; Pul- 


G = [ae], fair [faer'-], Clun. Cf. ai (1) above. 

7 = [e], said [sed*], Com. 

8 = [ee], rain [r'een-], drain [dr'een-], bait [beet*], &c.; Nkw- 


9 = [eeh'], chair [chee'h'rT, Com. Fair [fee-h'r'], &c ; Newport. 
10 = [i-hl, lain [rth'n], diain [di'ih'n], Newport. 

Ail— 1 = [a], laugh [laf-]. Com. 

2 = [o], laugh [lof •], CoLUEBT ; Newport. Naughty [noti*], 

3 = [au*], daughter [dau'tu'r^, Com. 

4 = [aa-], daughter [daa*tu'/], Newport. Sauce* [saa's], Corvs 
. Dale. 

Aw. — 1 = [an-], crawl [skr'au*!], Com. ' Claw • [klau*], Qy. com. 

2 = [an*], gnaw [nuiu*], straw [str'rau'], Com. 

3 = [i'an], caw • [ki'-au], Weic 

4 = [ai-]y strawberries [str'ai'brTz], oheoU.; Pdlyerbatch. Claws 
[klai'z]. See Cleys.* 

5 = [ee*], daws* [kleez*]. 

Ay.— 1 = [a'y], May [ma'y], pay [pa'y], day [da'y], &c. ; Shrews- 

2 = ai (3) = [aay], day, &c.; Bishop's Castle; Cluk. 

3 = ai (4) = [aa^y], day, &c; Craven Arms; Church Stret- 


4 s= ai (8) = [ee], day, &c.; Newport. 

5 = [ah-y], dray * [dfah-y], Church Strbtton. 

Aye. — 1 = [ay], aye (yes) [ay], Shrewsbury; Pulyerbatch. Qy. 
2 = [ahy or ah^], idem ; JSiswrov^t. 
B.— 1 = [e] in closed syllables, as bless [bles*], peck [pek*], get 
[get-], wench [wen'sh], &c.; Com. 

2 == [ee*], pewit [pee^wi't], Pulyerbatch. Qy. com. Cf. (6) 

3 = [tee*], he [:ee*], we [w:ee']. See Personal Pronouns. 

4 = [Men"], there [dhieen'r^, where [wieeTi'r^, Com. 

5 = [ai-], feYer [fiii'Yu'r^, secret [sai'kr^i't], scheme [skaim], &c.; 


6 = [:«ai], complete [ku'mpl:ai-t], &c.; Com. Pewit* [pau^wi't], 
Shrewsburt. Me [m:ai'], Newport. 

7 = [aa*], serve [saa'tV], sermon [saaVmu'n], certain [saai'ti'n], 
&c.; Com. Yes [yaas]. Church Strbtton. Mere [maaV], 
Ellesmerb. Cf. mere below (13). 

8 = [aay], yes [aays], Church Stretton, Leebottoood. 

9 = [a], fetch [fach-], belly [ball']. Com. Cf. a (6). 

10 = [ae], berry [baer'-i'], remlet* [r^aem'let], render* [r'aen'duY], 
ever [aevuV], never [naevu'r'], &c; Com. Yes [yaes*], New- 

11 = [i], shelf [shilf-], clever [klivuV], seldom [sildu'm], &c.; 
Com. Cf. i (6). 

12 = [i'], in ed, verbal suffix pronounced as a distinct syllable, as 
in wanted [waan'ti'd], drowned = drown'ded [dr'uwndi'd], &c ; 
Com. Also in yes = iss [i'ss*], very general Cf. yes above 
(7), (8), and (10). 

13 = [a'], in mere in composition (tmaccented), as Ellesmere 
[el'zmu'r'], Colemere [kuomuV], or more modem [koE'lmu'r*], 
&c.; Com. Cf. mere above (7) ; also o (24) (a). 

Ea. — 1 = [ai'], tea [tai*], cream [kr'ai'm], veal [vai'l], &c. ; Com. 
Wheat [wai*t], Pulverbatch (occasionally heard) ; Wem. Cf. 
wheat below (15). Leaf [lai'f], Newport. 

2 = [ai], beat [bait], seat [sait*], &c.; ConL Bean [bain*], Pul- 
verbatch. Cf. bean below (14). 

3 = [ai'u'], wheat [wai*u*t], Newport. 

4 = [aa*], learn [laaVn], bear [baaV], &c; Com. C£ a (3). 

5 = [:ae'], deal [j'Ae-1], dead [jrae'd], death [j»e*th]. Com. Cf. 
ea (13) below ; also d (1). 

6 = [ae], cheap [chacp'], weak [waek*], leaf [laef], &c. ; Shrews- 
bury ; Pulverbatch. Qy. com. 

7 = [e], team [chem*], Com. Heath [yeth*], Clun ; Wem. Ct 
heath below (16). 

8 = [:ee*h'], ear [:eehV], year, idem, Qy. com. Mean [m:ee*h'n], 
Ludlow, Bur/ord. Bear [b:ee*hV], wear [wiee'hY], &a ; New- 
port. Cf. bear above (4). Leaf [hee'h'fj, Wem. 

9 = [:ee*u'], heard [:ee*uYd], Com. 


10 = [ee*], break [bi'ee*k], great [gr'ee't], Newport. 

11 = [i], feather [fidhniV], Com. Measure [mizhniV], Com. 
[miznV], ELLBaMEBB. Cheap [chip*], Kkwfobt. Gf. ohei^ 
above (6). 

12 = [i'aa-], beard ♦ [bi'aaVd], Pulverbatch. Qy. com. 

13 = [i'ae], deal [di'ael*], dead [di*aed*], death [di'aeth-], Nbw> 
PORT. Cf. ea (5) ; also d (1). 

14 = [i'-h'l bean [bi'h'n], leaf [U'-h'f], Com. Stean* [sti'h'n], 
FuLYSBBATCH. Cf. Icaf above (6). 

15 = [ru*], beast • [bi'u'st], wheat = w'eat [wi'u't], Com. 

16 = [r-u*], beam* [bi'-u'm]. Qy. com. Heath [yi''u'th]. Church 
Strbtton. Cf. heath above (7). 

17 = [i'u], dead [di'ud*], Ludlow, Burford, 

18 = [u], heap [yup'], head [yud*], ibid. 

19 == [ay-], clear [klayuV], SHBSwaBURT; Pulvbrbatch; Ellbs- 

Be. — 1 = [ee*], eighteen [a'yt-tee*n], indeed [indee'd]. See Sped- 
mens of Folk-apeeeh. Indeed, very emphatic is ['in*dee*d], with 
stress on first syllable. Com. Seed [see'd] = seen, saw; New- 
port; Wbm; Whitchurch; FiIj.brmbrb. 

2 = [d'], wheel [wd'l], Shrewsbury; Pulvbrbatch. Qy. com. 

3 = [i], been [bin*], seen [sin*], sheep [ship'], &c. ; Com. 

4 = [i*], beef [bi'f], week [wi'k], seed [si'd*] = seen, saw; Com. 
C£ seed above, ee (1). 

5 = [ud'], thee [dhiai*], tree [tr'iai'], &c. ; Newport. 

6 = [ee'h'], seen [see'h'n], Ludlow^ Burford. 

K. — 1 = [ai-], conceit [ku'nsai't], Leighton [lai'tn], Com. Either 
[ai'dhnY], Ludlow ; Newport. Qy. com. 

2 = i = [aay], neighbour [naaybuV] ; Shbewsbubt ; Pulveb- 

3 = i = [aay], weight [waayt*], Shbewsbubt ; Pulvbbbatch ; 
Newpobt. Height [aayt-], Shbewsbubt ; Pulvbbbatch. 

4 = i = [a'y], eighteen [a*yt"teeTi], Shbewsbubt; Pulvbr- 

5 = [ahy], height [ah-yt], either [ah-ydhu'rQ, Nbwpobt. 

6 = [ee*], neighbour [nee*buY], Nbwpobt. 



7 = [ee'h*], reina [r'ee'h'nz], Newport. 

8 =.[aa-], heir [aaT*], Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch. 
Eu = [oo], deuce (of cards) [doos*], Ludlow. 

Ew. — 1 = [uw], ewe [yuw], dew* [dyuw], Com. 

2 = [:uu'w], mew* [my:uu'w], few [fyruu'w], Com. 

3 = [uuw], lewn* [luuwn*], obsols, 

4 = [i':uu'w], dew [ji'mu'w], Pulvbrbatch; ohsolsA 

6 = [au-], chew [chau*], Ludlow ; Newport. Qy. com. 

6 = [oo-], brew [br'oo*]. Qy. com. Crew* [kr'oo'], Pulveb- 
BATCH ; Wbm. Dew [doo*], new [noo*], Shrewsbury [soo'zbr'i'], 
see (11) below; Newport, which in the local vemacular^ = 

7 = [oe*], sinew [sen'oe'], Pulverbatch. 

8 = [roe-], approximately, in few [fi'oe*], Newport. 

9 = [u*], sinew [sen'u'], Shrewsburt. 

10 = [u'r'], sinew [sin*uY], Newport. 

11 = [oa-], Shrewsbury [shr'oa'zbr^i'], refined; [sr'oa'zbr'i*], semi- 
refined; [soa-zbrY], Com. Shrewd [shr^oa'd], Worthed; Cluk; 
[sr'oa'd], Pulverbatch ; Wem. 

Ey.— 1 = [ai-], key [kai-], Com. Cleys* [klai'z]. 
I. — 1 = [i] in closed syllables, as sit, pig, window [windu'], fright- 
ened [fr'it'nd], &c.; Com. 

2 = [r], priU * [prll-], ivy [i'vi'], pick [pi'k-], stick [sti'k-], &c. ; 

3 = [a'y], 1 (see Personal PronoimB), tidy [ta'ydi*], like 
[la'yk], &c. This is the fine Shropshire diphthongal i ; very 

4 = [a*y], mice [ma'ys*], &c.; idem, 

5 = [ahy or ah^y] = oi, approximately ; right = roight [r'ahyt 
or r'ahyt], so also night, like, &c. ; Newport. 

6 = [ae], think [thaeng'k], till [tael*], arithmetic [uVaeth'mi'ti'k], 
&c.; Com. Cf. e (11). 

7 = [ae-], girl [gaeYld], Com. 

8 = [e], since [sen's], Com. 

9 = [:ee-], right [r'lee't], bright [br'ree't], night [niee't], Wbm ; 


10 =: \jSS\, with \mh'l win (vb.) [551], &c.; 8. Shr. general See 

11 = [u\ with [wudh*], Wbx; Ellesmebi. Muster [mus'tuV], 
Nbwpobt. Bun [bun-] = bin = been; bunna [bun*u'] = 
binna = be not ; Oswestrt, Whittington. 

12 := [n-], simh [suVi'], Com. 

13 = [h\ will (vb.) [wM-], Wbm; Ellbsmerb. 

14 = [i'-], hiccough [i'*ku'p], Com. Cf. gh (3). 
le. — 1 = [i], sieve [siv], yield [il*d], Com. 

2 = [i'l field [fi'l-d], behef [bi'UT], &c.; Com. 

(a) ,y final in magpie [mag*pi'], Shbewsburt ; Pulverbatcd. 
Qy. com. 

3 = [ai-], belief [bilai-f], Newport. Field [fai'ld], sometimes 
heard; Qnd. 

0. — 1 = [o] in many closed syllables, as nod = not, mop, top, roL, 
&c; Com. 
(a) „ rope [r'op-], yoke = yok ♦ [yok*]. Qy. com. 

2 = [u], Tom [tum-], long [lun(g], strong [str*iin(g], wrong [r*an(;,'], 
tongne [tung'g], foreign [fur'-i'n], &c.; Com. Stone [stun], in 
composition and unaccented, as grind-stone = grindlestun ; or 
of weighty 'five giun three,' &c.; Newport. Cf. o = n in 
zeoeived English onion, and see (15), (16), (17) below. 

3 = [oa'], bosom [boa'zu'm], Com. Plover [ploa'vu*r'], Shrews- 
BDRT. Stone [stoa-n], Newport. Cf. stone below (26). 

4 = [:oa'], lose [Iroa'z], no [n:oa*], so [s:oa'], Com. 

5 = [oa], fold [foad*], sold [soad'], cold [koad-], Newport. 

6 = [oa-h'], cold [koa'h'ld], Pulvbrbatch, Smetkcote. Cf. (21) 

7 = [xjan'], afore [u'f:oa*uY], tore [t-.oani'r^, porket* [proa-u'r'- 
kft], &c. ; Com. 

8 = [65], woman [65mTi'n]. Qy. com. Worsted [o58'ti'd], 
wool [o51'], &C.; Com. in Mid. and South Shr. Go [goo], Com. 
Groing [gSo-i'n], Ellesmere. 

9 = [oo*], gold [goo'ld], Shrewsburt ; Pulvbrbatch, obsoh. 
Story [stooVi'], going [goo*i*n], Newport. 

10 = [oo'h'], more [moo'hY], Newport. 


11 = [»u"], love [lau'v], Com. 

12 = [au], morning [maur**nrn], &c.; Com. 

13 = [a], wrong [r'an(g-],PuLVBRBATOH; Church Strbtton. Cf. 
wrong above (2) ; also ng (2) (consonants), 

14 = [aa], yonder [yaan'tuV], Com. ; [yaan'duY], Newport. See 
th (4). Foreign [faar'-rn], Church STRBTTONy Leehottcood, 
Cf. foreign above (2). 

15 = [a'y], onion [a'yniVn], Shrewsbury; Pulvbrbatch. 

16 = [aay], „ [aayn'u'n], Church Stretton. 

17 = [ahy], „ [ahyniVn], Bridgnorth. 

18 = [uo], love [luov], Newport. Cf. love above (11). Comb 
[kuom], Com. 

19 = [uob**], cord [kuob'T'd], Shrewsbury, Ufflngton. C£ cord 
below (23). 

20 = [uu], for = fur [fuur'], thorn [thuur'n], Com. 

21 = [ou*] = [:uu*w] when followed by Id, the 1 being suppressed, 
as fold {sb.) [fruu'wd], sold [siuu'wd], very general. Gold 
[gtua-wd], Wellington; Newport. Qy. com. Cf. fold (5) 
and gold (9) above. 

22 = [ou-] = [uw], hold [uwt], old [uwd], fold {vK) [fuwd], 
cold pcuw'd], &c.; Shrewsbury; Pulvbrbatch. Qy. com. 

23 = [uu], cord [kwuur*'d]. Church Stretton ; Clun. Cord- 
wood [kwuur'd 55d], Pulvbrbatch; Cleb Hills; Bbido- 


24 = [u'], so [su'], to [ttt'], and sometimes go [gu'], when unem- 
phasized ; Newport. CL go (8) above. 

(a) „ in more in composition (unaccented), as Blakemore = 
Bleakmur [blee'kmuY], Whitmore [wit-muY], &c. ; Newport. 
Cf. e (13). 

25 = [i**], going [gwi'-i*n], Shrewsbury ; Pulvbrbatch. 

26 = [oe], gone [gwoen*], bone [bwoen-], stone [stwoen*], Com. 
Oa. — 1 = [oa], loaf [loaf*], soap [soap*], &c; Com. Eoad [r'oad*], 


2 = [oa-h'J, road [r'oa-h'd], Ludlow, Burford, 

3 = [i-u'], road [r'd-u'd], load [li-u'd], Wem. Qy. com. 

4 = [uoh'], board [buo'hYd], Shrewsbury. Qy. com. 


5 =5 [uo'-h*], boaid Qrao'hVd], Whitchuboh- 

6 =» pS-k*], oatB [S^hVs], (nuib • [o5-h'n-£], Pulvibbatch. 

7 = [u], oak [wok-], oatk [wuih*], SHBEwaBUBT ; Pulveb- 
BATCH. Qy. com. Oats [wat-s], Com. See w (3) (eon- 

8 = [n«i"], board = bwoid [bwmuVd], Pulvebbatch. Cf. (4) 
and (5) above. 

(a) „ hoar = ur [wmuV], a *wur fros'j' Shbswbbubt; 


9 = [ao-], road [r'ao'd], load [lao'd], &c ; Nbwpobt. 
06l — 1 = [an*] in hoe ; Com. 

2 =s on = [niu'w] in hoe ; Bishop's Castlb ; Cldk. 
5 = [oa*] in hoe ; Nbwfobt. 
QL — 1 = i = [ei] = [a'y], loin = line ♦ pa'yn], join = jine • 
[ja'yn-], spoil [spa'yl], &c.; Shbbwbbubt; Pulvebbatch; very 
geneiaL Coin [kwa'yn], Pulvebbatch ; obeA 

2 = [a'y], oiled [a'yld], ibid. Boil [bwa'yl], Pulvebbatch. 
CI i (3) and (4). 

3 = [ahy], spoil [spahyl], &c.; Newfobt. 

4 = [a' 7], spoil* [spwa'-yl], Bishop's Castle; Cluw. 

Oo. — 1 = [00], spoon [spoon-], moon [modn*], room [r'SiJm-], took 
[t55k-]y &c.; ConL 

2 = [00], goose [goos'], gooseberries [gooz'br'i'z]. Cf. s (1). Shook 
[shcok*], took [took'], empTu See below (7). Newport. 

3 = [:oo"], good [g:oo*d], coop* [kioo-p], Shbbwsbubt; Pui/- 
vbbbatgh. Qy. com. 

4 = [oo-n'], door [doom'/], floor [floo-u'r*], Newpobt. Cf. (8) 

5 = [oo'h'], moon [moo'h'n], Ludlow, Bur/ord, 

6 = [no], cooty* rkiioti*], Pulvebbatch. Coother* [knodh-n'r'], 
Clb Hills. Tooth [tnoth-], Newpobt. 

7 := [n], foot [fut'], soot [sut-], tooth [tuth*], brook [br'uk], roof 
[/of*], &c, ; Com. Took [tok'], shook [shok*], UTiemph, Cf. (2) 
above. Newpobt. 

8 = [nn], floor = flnr [flnur'], door = dur [dnnr'-], Com. Cf. 
(4) abovSL 


9 = [:oa-], choose [chroa'z], shook [sh:oa'k], Com* Cf. O (4), 

10 = [oa*], coop* [koa'p-], Bishop's Castlb; Clun. Ct coop 
above (3). 

11 = [i'oo], fool [fi'ool-], pool [pi'ool-], school [ski'ool-], Newpobt. 

12 = [ue], book [buck*], nook [nuek*], Whitcihurch, TiUtock, 

13 = [i'ue], school [ski'uel], Whttchubch. 

14 = p'], Woodward (proper name) = Withart [wi'dhTiVt], 
Whitohxtroh, Whixall. Cf. d (5). 

Ou. — 1 = [ou] = [uw], house [uwss*], mouse [muwsa-], Shkkws- 


2 = [ou-] = [uw], housen (for houses) [uwzn], proud [pr'uwd], 
ibid. See further, Specimens of Polk-speeoh. Shoulder 
[shuwduY], Shbewsburt. This does not seem to be the 
normal pronunciation. Cf. shoulder below (14). 

3 = [uwu''], our [uwuV], an hour [u' nuwu'V]. See Specimens 
of Polk-speecL Pour (vb,, as of rain that has fallen) [puwu' V]. 
Cf. pour below (10). 

4 = [ou] = [uuw], bought [buuwt*], thought [thuuwt*], coarse, 
rough speakers ; Newport. 

5 = [ou-] = [uuw], shoulder [shuuwduY or shuuwlduY], Nbw- 
poRT. Cf. shoulder below (9). 

6 = [ou-] = [:uu-w], slough (morass) [8l:uu*w], through 
[thr^:uu-w], Pulverbatoh. 

7 = [oo'], shoulder [shoo-duY], Church Strbtton. Sough* 
(vb,) [soo-], Clun ; Wekl 

8 = [85], pouch ♦ [pSSch-]. Qy. com. Would [55d-]. See 

9 = [oa-], trough (for kneading) [tr'oa-], Pulybrbatoh, obsols. 
Shoulder [shoa-du'r^, Shrewsbury. 

\ 10 = [:oaTi*], your [y:oa-uV], Com. Pour {vb., as of rain coming 
down) [pioam'r^, Shrewbburt. Qy. com. Cf. pour above (3). 

11 = [au], bought [baut-], thought [thaut-], &c, ; Com. See 
Specimens of Folk-speech, No. 2. 

12 = [o], tough [tof-], Com. Trough [tr'of-], occasionally heard. 
Bought [hot-], thought [thot-], Newport. Cf. (11) above. 

13 = [:uo], tough [tiuof], trough [tr'iuof], Newport. 


14 = [no-], shoulder [shuo'dhu'r^, Shrewsbubt ; Pulvebbatch. 
Cf. shoidder above (2). 

15 = [no], couch [kaoch-], coulter [knotmY], &c. ; ConL 

16 = [u], bound [bim-d], found [fun-d], pound [pun^d], trough 
[tr'uf •], &c. ; Com. Should [shud*], would [wud-], Newport. 
en would aboTe (8). Slough (skin of a snake) [sluf], PuL- 

YSBBATCH. Qj. COUL SoUgh * {sb.) [suf -f], CoUL 

17 = [ti], cooiant * [kiir'an-t], could [kiid], Pultbbbatch. See 

18 = [n*], cough in composition and unaccented, as chin-cough 
[chin-ku'f]. Com. Courant* [kuYan-t], Cleb Hills. 

19 = [ue] in words ending in ous, as curious [ki'ooVruez], &c ; 
WoBTHEN ; Clee Hills, Abdon. 

Ow. — 1 = [o*'J hewl (basin) [boa*l], mow (vh,) [moa*], &c. ; Com. 

2 = [ou-] = [uw], bowl (a hoop) [buwl], bowl (vK) [idem], 
mow* (sh.) [muw], bow (for arrows) [buw], Com. 

3 = [ou*] = [mu-w], mow (vh.) [mmuw], Bishop's Castle; Clun. 

4 = [ou] = [uuw], howl {yuuwi], Com. 

5 = [i'uuw"], cow [ki'uuw], Whitchubch. 

6 = [oe], cullow* [kuol'oe], killow* [kil'oe], &c, ; Pulveb- 
batch, ohscls. Burrow [buVoe], ibid. 

7 = [u'], leasow [lezn'], meadow [maedii*], window [wi'n'du'], 
&C. ; Com. 

8 = [uY], leasow [lezniY], &c. ; Newport. 

Oy. — 1 = [any], boy [bw»uy], Shbewbbubt ; Pultebbatch ; 

v. — ^1 = [u] in most closed syllables, as nut, tub, but, &c. ; thus, 
butcher = [buch'uY], put [put*], full [ful*], bull [bul*], &c. ; 
Com. Pull [pul-], Nbwpobt. Cf. pull below (8). 

2 = [eu-] = [yoo-], use (vh.) [yoo'z], Com. 

3 ^ [en*] = [y:oo-]. Union (work-house) [yiooniVn], &c. ; Com. 
Utick* [yioo-tiTc], Shbewsbxiby; Newport. Qy. com. 
Humoursome* [yioomuVsu'm], Pulvebbatch; Nbwpobt; Weic; 

4 = [eu] = [yoo], use {sb.) [yoos*], usened* (we used) [yooe-nt], 
Ellbbmebe ; [yoos'tn], idem ; Newpobt. 


5 = [ae], urine [aei'i'n], Com. 

6 = [eu-] 7= [i'oo-], music [mi'oo'ri'k], fury [fi'ooVrj, &c ; Com. 
Musey* [mi'oo'zi'], WerrcHUBOH. Puke* [pi'oo'k], Pulvkb- 
batch; WoBTHBir. Muse* [mi'ocss], PuLysBBATOH. Qy. 
com. Cornute* [kaur'iiroo't], Pulvbbbatoh. Curious 
[ki'ooyi'uez], Wobthen; Cleb Hills, Abdon. CL on (19). 

7 = [eu'l = [i'loo*], curate [kf rooVi't], fuel [fi*:ooil], &c. ; Com. 
Musicisner • [mi'oo-jd'8h*'u'nu'r'], Pulvbrbatch ; Weil 

8 = [oo*], pull [poo'l], tune [choon], supple [soo'pl], dubious 
[joo'bu's], Ac. ; Com. Duke [doo'k], music [moo'zi'k], curious 
[koo'rTu's], &c ; Newport. Cf. ow (6). 

9 = [:oo'] after r : cruel [kr'iood'l], gruel [gr'roo'i'l], &a ; Com. 

10 = [oo], Sukie (proper name) [shook'i'], tube [choob*], &a ; 

11 = [:ooh*] before re in sure [shroo-hV], Shbewbbubt ; Pulvbr- 
batch. Qy. com. Cure [k:oo-h'r'], Kbwpobt. 

12 = [i':oo'u'] before re in cure [ki':oo"uY]. Qy. com. 

(a) = [u'] „ „ in nature [nai*tuy], creature [kr'ai-tuY], 

feature [fai'chuY], &c. ; Com. 

13 = [i'] in fortune [faur'ii'n], Com. 

14 = [ou*] = [uw] in cucumber [kuwku'mbu'r^, Com. 

15= [65] in cucumber [kuwkoSm'-uV], Shrewsbubt; Pulvbr- 

16 = [uo], duck [duok'], shut [shuot*], just [juost], &c. ; New- 
POBT. Cullow ♦ [kuol'oe], Pulvebbatch, obsols. Cf. OW (6). 

17 = [iio], pun* [puon*], Com. 

18 = [ii], nuchid* [ntikh-i*d], Pulvebbatch; Wobthen; nearly 
obs. CI eh (3). 

19 = [uu] before r in fur [fuur*-], bur* [buur**], ui'chin* [uur'*chi'n], 
turf [tuur*-f], &c; Com. 

20 = [ae], chuck [chaek], shut* [shaet], just [jaest*], sludge 
[slaej*], burying (funeral) [baer^'i'n], Com. Cf. (16) above. 

21 == [ae*], bury* [baeVi*], Ludlow, Burford; Newport. 

22 = [i], pulpit [pil*pi*^]» pl^inib [plim*], Com. 

23 = [o], in composition with n, as ontidy, onlucky, &c. Qy. com. 
in 8. Shr. 


Ve. — 1 = [oo], fine [floo], blue [bloo], due [doo], Tueadaj [tooz'di* or 
chooz-di'], &C.; Shbewsbubt; Pulysbbatoh; Niwfobt. Qy. 

2 = [»o*], trne [tr'roo*], glue [gl:oo-], &c. ; xhid, 

3 = [i*], aigae [aaVgi'], Com. 

4 = [i'oo], aigue ♦ [aai'-gi'oo], Wbm. 

Ui — 1 = [oo], juice [joos*], Shbbwsbubt; Pultxbbatcb. Qy. 

2 = [oo*], nuisance [noo'su'ns], ibid. 

3 = \yaQ'\ fruit [fr*:©©*!], ibid. 

4 = [il, build [bi'l-d], gmlty [gil-ti*], QM. 

Uy. — 1 = [a'y], buy [ba'y] ; Shbbwbbubt ; Pulvekbatoh« Qy. 

T. — 1 = [i], bymn [im*], hyssop [iru'p], syllable [sin-n'bl], &c ; 

Shrewsbubt ; Pulvebbatch. Qy. com. 

2 = [ae], syrup [saei^Ti'p], pyramid [paer'Ti'mi'd], (bid, 

3 = [u], sycamore [sulfu'moa-liV], Shbewsbubt; Pultbbbatch; 
Cbaven Abm& Qy. com. Syringe [sul'i'nj], Pulvebbatch. 

4 = [uu], myrtle [muur^'tl]. Qy. com. 

5 = [a'y], when final and accented, as by [ba'y], my [ma'y], 
why [wa'y], &c. ; Shbewsbubt ; Pulybbbatch. Qy. com. 

6 = [ahy or ah*y] = oi approximately, as by [bahy or bahy], 
my [mahy or mahy], &c; Nbwpobt; but these words are 
rarely emphatic there. 

7 = [i*], when final and unaccented, as in tidy [ta'ydi*], ready 
[r^edi*], &c.; pig-sty [pigsti*], my [mi'], why [wi'], &c. Com. 
Cf. ie (2) (a), (wwfifo, ^c). 


B. — 1 = Py as paiher* = bather* = batter; Elusmebb. Cf. p, below. 
C. — 1 = E : twice = twize [twa'yz], &c. ; Com. Face [fai-z], very 

2 = g in carrots = garrits [garTts], canoty = garrity [garY ti'], 

Pulybbbatch. C£ g (3) below. 
Ql — 1. This digraph == sh in bench [ben'sh], drench [dr'en'sh], 

wench ♦ [wen'sh], &c. ; Com. 


2 = ky in perch (measurements of land, &c.)y [paer''k],! Clbb 
HiLi^ ; Ludlow. Muchin ♦ (a pig) [muti'n], Wbm. 

3 = [kh], a guttural spiraut, in muchin [makh'i'n], Clun : and 
in nuchid* [niikhi'd], a nearly obsolete word, meaning ill- 
nourished ; PULVERBATCH ; WORTHBN, Cf. gh (6). 

CI.— 1 = [kl] not [tl]. 

D. — 1 = j, in deal [j:ae-l], dead [jiae'd], death [jiae'th], Com. Cf. 
ea(13). Darn [jaaVn], dew = je*ow [ji':uu*w], PuiiVBRBATOH. 
See ew (4) (vowelsy ^c). 
2 = t when final after ar, as custard [kus'tu'r't], backward 

[bak'uYt], awkward [auk'uYt], &c. ; Com. Cf. t (1). 
3 — is often omitted at the end of syllables and monosyllabic 
words as, landlord [lan'lu'r't], Com. ; [lan-luYt or lon-luYt], 
Newport; and [u'n], Com.; find [fei'n] = [fa'yn], lend [len*], 
send [sen-], &c. ; Shrewsbury ; Pulvbrbatoh. Qy, com. 
4 — is sometimes added to the end of words, as girl = girld 
[gae'-rld], wine = winde [wa'ynd], gown [gou'nd] = [guwnd], 
Shrewsbury; Pulverbatch; believed to be general with 
varying diphthongal sounds. 
6 = th = [dh], Edward = Yethart [yaedh'u'r't]. Woodward 
[wi'dh'uYt], Whitchurch, Wkixall. Cf. th (5) below. 
Dd = th = [dh], ladder = lather [laadh'uY], edder (for adder) 

= ether [aedhniV], Com. 
F. — 1 — is usually omitted in of, which = o'. 

2 = th in frock [thr'ok*], from [throm*] ein^jh., [thr'u'm*] unemph. 
Qy. com. 

3 = V in feerings • = veerings [vee*h*r*i*nz], Clee Hills. Cf. 
V (2) below. 

0. — 1 — as in received English generally. 

2 — ^is palatal in some words = [g(y], as get [g(yet], gether (for 

gather) [g(yaedh-u'r'], &c.; Pulverbatch. Qy. com. 
3 = c in Goldfinch = Coldfinch ; Whitchurch. Cf. c (2) above. 
ng is the gutturo-nasaL 

1 = n : that is, nasal [n] is substituted for nasal [ng]. This usage 
is very extensive, more especially in words and syllables ending 
in -iug. 


(a) Verbal nouns, as] huntmg = hontin' [iin*ii'n], ranning* = 

TOimm* [r'uni'n], &c. ; ConL 
(ft) Participles wherever occurring, as getting = gettin* [g(yeti'n], 

am coming pcnmi'nj^ &c. ; Com. 
{e) kingdom == kin'dom [kin'du'm], Com. Nothing [nuthi'n], 

anything [aeni'thi'n], Com. Nothing [naothi'n], anything 

[ani'thi'n], Newport. Cf. (4) below. 

(d) In place-names^ ending in -ton, as Wellington := Wellington 
[wael'intu'n], Donnington = Donnin'ton [donintu'n], Lopping- 
ton = Loppin'ton [lop'intu'n], &c. This is a refinement npon 
the pronimciation of place-names as given helow (6). 

(e) In length = lenth [len-th], strength = strenth [sti^enih]. 

2 = [n(g]. Some words, chiefly monosyllabic adjectives, ending 
in ng, have the gnttoro-nasal sonnded weak, as long ^ limg 
[lnn(g], wrong = wrung or wrang [r'un(g or r*an(g], strong = 
strong [8tr'un(g], Shrewsbury ; Pulverr&tch. Qy. com. 

3 = [ug(gf i^]- ^ many words where ng is sounded [(g] or [g] 
is added, making : — 

(a) [ng(g] where the words are final or followed by some conson- 
ants, as sing [8ing(g], ring [r'ing(g], &c. Eing the bell [r^U]g(g 
dhu' bel'], &c. Qy. com. 

{h) [ngg], (a) in the middle of words between two vowels, as 
singer [sing"gu'r^, ringing [r'ing-gi'n], &c. Com. 

(c) at the end of words in sentences where the following word 
begins with a vowel, or h (always mute), as bring it [br'ing'g i't], 
bring her [br'ing-g u'r], sing a song [sing'g u' 8ong(g], &c.; Com, 

4 = [ngk], thong = thunk [thung'k], Wem. Nothing [nuth'- 
ingk], anything [aeni'thingk or ani'thingk], something [sum*- 
thingk], an affected vulgar pronunciation adopted by servant 
girls, of town-life more especially. Cf. (1) (c) above. 

5 = [nj] in some proper names ending in Aam, as BeUingham = 
Bellii^jam [bel'inju'm], &g. Qy. com. 

usually omitted in place-names ending in ton, as Wellington 
= Welli'ton [waeM'tn], Donnington = Dunni'ton [don-i'tn], 
Loppington = Loppi'ton [lop'i'tn], &c. Cf. (1) (i) above. 


6L — 1 — This digraph = k in sigh = sike ; ♦ Com. 

2 = f in cough, dough, enough,* slough (of a snake), sough ♦ (sb.) 
tough, trough (for pigs) ; Com. See on {vowelsy ^c). 

3 = p in hiccough [i'*ku'p], Com. 

4— is silent in sough* {vb,)^ Clun; Wbm; in slough (a miry 
place), PuLVERBATCH ; in trough = [tr'oa*], a kneading vessel ; 


5 — ^is a weak gnttural spirant = [(kh], in quaigh * [kwai(kh-], a 
word on the verge of obsolete, meaning as a verb ' to bend ; ' as 
a noun, a wooden vessel of * bend ware ' ; Cobvs Dalb. The 
only instance in which this sound of gh has been noted. Cf. 
ch (3). 

GI = [gl] not [dl]. 

H. — 1 — It is recorded by Bp. Percy, in a note to an interesting 
MS. collection of Bridgnorth Words — ^now in the possession of 
Mr. Hubert Smith of Bridgnorth — that ^ the Bridgnorth Dialect 
was [1774] distinguished by an almost universal misapplication 
of the aspirate H — ^applying it when it should not be, and 
omitting it when it should.' 

The Eev. Charles Henry Hartshome speaks [1841] to the 
same effect with reference to the county at large. — ScUopia 
Antigua, p. 453. 

At the present time [1878] concurrent testimony goes to prove 
that H aspirate is never heard in the folk-speech of Shropshire : 
it is only misapplied by half-educated-— or would be fine- 
speakers. People of this type always try to talk their best to 
^the paas\' and hence perhaps has arisen the dicta of the 
Authorities above quoted upon the use and abuse of * poor letter 
H * in Salop. 
2 = y : head = [yed* or yaed*], hair = yar [yaaT], howl = 
yowl [yuuw-l], &c.; Com. Heath = yeth [yeth or yaeth], 
Wbm ; Ellbsmerb ; [yi'-u'th], Chuboh Stbetton. Heron = 
yam [yaaVn], Whitohuboh, TiUtock, 

J. — as in received English. Ci d (1) above. 

TL — 1 — is usually pure [k], but when palatal is heard in some 
words = [ki'], kype* [kiVyp], kibe* [kiVyb], kimet* 


[kiVymi't], Pclverbatgh. Kerlock Od'aeVlu'k], Craven 
Arms; Ludlow. 
2 — is dropt in make and take j Ck>LUERT ; Newport. See a (6), 
(vowels^ ^c) ; also in taken = ta'en ; Com. 

L — 1 — 18 silent in -aid and old, as scald = scand [skaud'], bald 
[baud'], scold = scoud [skuwd or skniu-wd], &c.; Com. See 
(6) (21) (22), {vowels, ^c). 
2 — is silent in -alt, -anlt and -olt, as salt = sent [saut- or san-t], 
&Qlt =2 fant [&ut* or faa*t], bolt = bout [baw*t or b:au*wt]y 
&C.; Com. Alaoinolp: holp* [oa^)], bolpen* [oa-pn]. 

silent in al (1) as a prefix in Almighty = A'mighty, oZreadj 
=s a'ready, almost = aamust, altogether = aatogether, Al- 
biighton (place-name) = Aibnrton [ai'bnVtn and au'buYtn], 
&C. ; Com. (2) in fidse = fatise [fau'ss], Com. 

silent when medial in some place-names, as Cnlmington = 
Cnmmiton [knmi'tn], Calvington [kay-intu'n or koyi'tn]. See 
ng above, (1) (d), also (6). Colemeie = Coomer [knomnV], &c, ; 
Com. ; also in only = on'y ; Com. 
5 = n : in homily ♦ = hominy [omm'ni'], Pulverbatch. 

LL — 1 — ^is silent in all = [an*], call, and fall ; call = callen (pl.\ = 
cann pcann], fiedlen (p.p.) = fann [faun], Newport. These 
instances of eeUl and faU are somewhat exceptional and extreme, 
though they do obtain. ' Whatten [what don] they eo* ye I ' 
bnt ' Whatten they ectU 'im 1 ' and faun is less nsual than felFn, 
TE's /dTn down.' All = [an*], Whitchurch. Stalled* = 
Btaud [stan*d], Newport; Wbm; Whitohttrch. Gallon = 
gann* [gaun], Pulverbatoh. 
2 s= n, in syllable * [sinn'M], Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch. Qy. 
eom. lilleshall (place-name) = Linsel, obsols. CI 1 (5) 

K — 08 in received English. 

V. — 1 — ^fi&Us away from an and is prefixed to the initial vowel of 
the following word : — a narrand = an arrand, a nauf := an 
aof ,* &c See an {adjectives of numeration), 

'This letter' (N), says Sir Frederic Madden, 'by a species 
of prosthesis is often taken firom the end of an article or 


pronoun and prefixed to the substantive which follows. 
Examples of this occur in a noynement for an oyiiemerUy my 
notheTy for myn other. . . . The practice existed in familiar 
writing so late as the reign of Q. Elizabeth, and perhaps later 
stilL'— See ' Glossarial Index ' to William of Paleme, p. 291, ed. 

2 — ^is generally dropt in the prepositions in and on, as *t* the 
cubbert,' ' o' the shilf ; ' Com» 
P. — = b : as pat = bat * ; Ludlow. Poke = boke ♦ ; Shrews- 
bury ; Wem ; Whitchurch. Cf. b above. 
Q = [kw], as in received English. 

S. — 1 = [r*] is, as a general rule, distinctly sounded, except in a 
very few words in which it is entirely omitted. See (4) below. 
It is somewhat strongly trilled in the middle of words. Its 
quality is similar to that of the Welsh B. 

2 — ^preceded by i is transposed in one word, thirsty = thrusty ; 

3 — preceded by u is transposed in a few words, as curds = cruds,* 
scurf = scruf; Com. Bursten = brusten; WBLLmaTON. Also 
before e in pretty = perty ; very generaL 

4 — ^is omitted in Shrewsbury [soo-zbr*!* or soa-zbr'i']. See ew (6) 
and (11) (votoels, ^c). Parson [paasn], scarce [skais*]. Ct a 
(3) (vowehy ^c). Swarth (of grass) [swath*], worth [wuth*], 
curse [kus*], nurse [nus*], purse [pus*], worse [vnis*], very 
general; but the r is usually sounded in nurse, purse, 
parson; Newport. Girth [guth-], gorse [gos*], I^bwport; 

6 = 1, in syringe = sullinge [sulTnzh], and in rather = lather 
[laa'dhuY], ohaols.; Pulverbatch. Rather = lother [lodh'u'r], 
ohsoU,; Whitchurch, WhixalL *! 

8. — 1 = z in goose, when this word is used either adjectively or 
in composition, as goose oil = go6ze ile [gSSz'a'yi], Com» 
[gooz-ahyl], Newport. Gooseberries [gooz'brTz], ibicL 

2 = ah: (1) before u, as suit [shoot*], suet [shooi't], &c; Com. 
(2) before ea = 6, in seam [shum-], Pulverbatch, obs, ; [shem], 
Cleb Hills. 


ffli = 8 befoie r, as shrink [sr'ing'k], shrab [sr'ab*], &c; Com. 

Shrewsbniy [sr'oa'zbr^i]. See ew (11) (vowelf, ^c). 
8p is transposed in wasp = wops ; * Newport. This may be rather 

the O.E. word retained, toops = wagp, by Metathesis. 
8s = th = [dh] in scissors = scithors [sidh'aVz], Com. 
T. — 1 = d : in not = nod, what = whad [wod'], partner = pardner 

[paaVdnuV], very general, but the permutation of t to d does 

not obtain in the district of Newport. Cf. adland* and 

adianti* also d (2) aboye» 
2 = ch in team = chem [chem*], tone [choo*n], Tuesday [chooz'di*], 

Com. See ue (1) (vowels^ ^c). 
3 — is dropt at the end of some past tenses, as felt = f el', kept =s 

kep', &C.; Com. See Strong (and other) verbs. Also in 

other instances, as ficost = fros', &c. ; Com. See Voims (plurals 

in es and s). Cf. d (3). 
TlL— 1 = O.E. J) = [th], and « = [dh]. 

2 = f in thistle = fissle [fis'l], Worthbn ; Church Stbetton ; 
Cluk ; Clee Hilu9. 

3 = d in farther = furder [fuur^'duY], farthest = f^irdest 
[fuur^'du'st], Ludlow. Cf. d (5) above. 

4 = t in fifth = fift, sixth = sixt, twelfth = twelft. See 
A^jeotives of Humeration (ordinals). 

Tl = [kl] in some words ending in ttle, as, brittle [br^iki], little 
[lik'l], rattle [r'ak'l], very general, but not known about New- 
v.— 1 — ^is omitted in over = o'er; Com. Give (imperative) = gi'e ; 
very general See Indefinite Pronouns (some = ever, &c). 
2 = f in vetches = fetches ♦ [fechi'z], Pulvbrbatch. Victual 
= fittle [fifl], CoRVB Dale. Cf. f (3) above. 
W. — 1 — IB omitted in ward when a last syllable, as backward = 
hack'arl^ awkward = awk'art, &c., and in always = al'ays ; Com. 
2 — ^is omitted when initial before its cognate vowel sound, as, 
woman = 88man, wood = 5M, worsted = Seated, &c ; Com- 
mon throughout Mid. and South Shr. 
3 — is added initially to some words before o and n sounds, as, hot 

= whot [wot'], oak = wuk [wuk*], oath == wuth [wuth'], oat- 



meal = wutmil [wut'mil], &c. ; Shrewsbury ; Pulvebbatch. 
Qy. com. in Mid, and Sovth Shr. See oa (7) {voutelSy ^e.), 
4 — ^is inserted after some initial consonants, as, bone = bwun 
[bwoen*], stone = stwim [stwoen*], gone = gwnn [gwoen*], &c ; 
very general Boy = bwoy [bw:auy], Shrewsbury ; Pulver- 
BATCH ; obaoh. Boil = bwile [bwa*yl], Pulvbrbatch. Post 
= pwust [pwiis*t], Shrewsbury; Pulverbatch. Qy. conu 
in 8. Shr. Coin* = quine [kwa'yn*], Pulverbatch, oh8.% 
Cord = querd pkwiii'*d], Church Strbtton; Clun. See 
X. — 1 — ^As in received English ; Com. 

2 = ksh in axe [ak'sh], ' a coaling aksh ;* * Lublow. 

T. — 1 — ^When initial is frequently dropt before the cognate vowel 

sounds 66 and i, as, yield = ild, yes = iss, yesterday = 

isterd'y, yet = yit = it ; Com. 

2 — is sometimes sounded initially before K and a sounds, as, 

Edward ♦ = Tedart, &c. ; Com. Ale = yale [yael*]. See Ale.* 

3 = th = [dh] in yonder = thander [dhaan'duV], Clun, Hereford 

in received English. 



Pliuralfl in 6n and n. — Examples of these endings are not numer- 
ous, but such as exist are for the most part of everyday use in the 
localities where they respectively obtain, as childeren,* childem * (a 
double plural), peasen,* rotten, neesen, housen, eyen, flen, shoon, &c 

All known instances of these usages will be found in the body 
of the Glossary. 

Plurals in 6S and s. — Nouns of the singular number ending in 
st mostly change the t to s and add 68 to make the plural ; as, crusty 
crusses; fist, fisses; post, posses: in the Newport district they 
sometimes reduplicate this plural, and say crusses-es, &c. 


Instances occur where the t is merely dropt to form the plural ; 
aSy beast, beas, &c. 

Plural in er. — Only one instance known, viz. childer.* 

Plurals formed by Vowel-change. — The known examples corre- 
spond to the literary English forms, thus — ^mon, men ; ooman, women 
[wi'm'i'n], tuth, tith; fut, fit; gSSse, or gus, gis; mouse, mice; 
loose, lice. 

Tooth, taith; fut, fait; goose, gaise; obtain in the Newport 

Constant plurals, &c — Many nouns have no singular form, as, 
aigles, afterings, cruds, drippings, fleetings, grains, &c., &c. 

Some noims are tieated as plural without a plural sign, as, broth, 
browis ; &c., &c. : of which it is said, ' they bin good,' or * saut,' or 
what not. 

Nouns whose signification is that of a genuine plura], while the 
form is distinctly singular, are represented by e«9 = ashes. 

Nouns of time, weight, measure, or number, when used col- 
lectively or with a numeral expressive of plurality, remain for the 
most part unchanged ; as, three 'ear, six wik, ten pund, five strike, 
two couple, &c., &a 

Some nouns are used in the singolar form only, as, battin, 
thrave, fowl, vittle, &c. 

PossessiYe Case. — ^When place-names are compounded of two 
words, the first — ^being a proper noun — ^is generally put into the pos- 
seesive case; as Wenlock's Edge, Hayton's Bent, Bieton's Heath, 
Exford's Oreen, &c., &c. 

CoIleetiYe nouns, expressive of large quantities, are — ^mort, vast, 
djel, dyel = deal, power, sight, &c. ; the last three are of common 

Nouns compounded with ful in literary English, have in numerous 
instances the suffix tie or le = fdl ; as, appam^^ * = apron-/t£Z, 
caatle* = caxL-fid; and so with hncketle, pocke^Z^, han/^,* &c. : 
most of these will be found in the body of the Glossary. In the 
Newport district ful is fl: bucket^/ — sometimes bucke/Ze — can/*/, 
ban/*// but not cBxUle, hantle. 



Acyeotives of Quality. — Besides those that obtain in literary 
English — ^whether simple or derivative — with suffixes such as /iJ, 
'fied, 'ishf -le, -less, -some^ -ouSf -y : there are many others of both 
classes which form an exceptional category, including old forms and 
remarkable words ; as, bisson, brief, burrow, curst, dark, ebb, erne, 
gain, linnow, nesh, oval, thone, unkit, long/u/, succourfuZ, maisteri/iee?, 
ivf\&i\fiedf c&dish, brickZe, ayeuless, darksome, light9077Z«, iempeTsome, 
lungeotM, miYitvLouSy temptuoutf, broody, fdme^, &c., &c — these and 
more of like kind will be found in the body of the Glossary. 

Degrees of Comparison are, as in received English, formed 
regularly by or and est, but double comparisons are frequent, as 
more beautifuller, most innocentest ; examples of this are met with 
ID the earlier writers, as — * moste elennest flesch of bryddes,' Piers 
PZ., Text B., pass. xiv. L 43 ; ' the most tinkindest cut of all,' Julius 
CcBsar, ILL il L 187 ; * more better than Prospero,* Tempest, L ii 19 ; 
*more corrupter ends,' K, Lear, IL ii 108; *most straitest sect,' 
Acts xxvi 5. 

The Superlative Absolute is formed by adverbial prefixes, such 
as mighty, right, despert, oncommon, &&, &c. 

It is also expressed by similes — * as hard as brazil ' ♦ — than which 
notlung can be harder, — as * sour as vargis/ ' as linnow * as a glove,' 
&c, &C., ad infinitum. 

Than after the oomparative degpree is expressed by nor in the 
southern part of Shropshire, and by till on the K and N.E borders 
of the coimty : t^n = till is also used in some localities. 






^ Bettermore [baet'or'mur'] obtains in the Newport district 

^ ' Where love is great, the littlest doubts are fear.' 

2 Hamlet, III iL 181. 


better + more* 

better + most 

worse + er 

worst + est 

more + er 

most + est 

little + er 

Uttle + est s 


Oreat is used idiomatically to express intimacy, familiarity = 
'thick' — a slang term. 

Intensitiyes such as 'ancient owd/ 'teeny little/ are often 


A, an [the Indefinite Article]. See definite numerals (one). 
The [the Definite Article]. See demonstratiYe prenonna 


Definite nnmerals are the received Cardinal and Ordinal 
numherSy with certain varieties of usage. 

One [wun*], Com. ; [won*], K and K.K borders of Salop. 

An [the Indefinite Article] = one = A.S. an, is invariably heard 
as a, the n falling off alike before vowels and consonants, or other- 
wise prefixed to the following word : a egg ; a naur = an hour. See 
n (consonants), 

Two = both; Com. * I t55k it i' my firo 'onds ; ' 'Itwnzaffill 
wik afore 'e conld stond on 'is itoo fit^ See both below. 

The numerals 21, 22, 31, 32, and other like, are counted one 
and twenty, two and thirty, and so on, as a common and general 
usage. In money this is invariably the rule for sums under forty 
shillings — *8ix an* thirty shOlin' for a pig,' not one pound sixteen ; 
the term pound being reserved till the denomination amounts to two 
or more, when it is ' two pund,' ' three pun' ten,' Ac. In some 
localities — as, for instance, Shrewsbury, Worthen, Pulverbatch, and 
Burford — 19, 29, 39, and so on, are expressed by twenty sd one, 
thirty sa* one, forty sa* one, && : a method of numeration limited to 
the number next below the multiples of ten ; obsols. 

In counting at cards — 

One is ' the odd un.' 

Two „ deuce [doos*]. 

Three „ trey [tr'ai*]. 

Nine „ 'rough nine.' Ludlow. 

Seore = 20 is generally employed as a reckoning of age — ' four 
scare istcrd'y.' C£ Pa xc. 10. 


It is also used in counting sheep, as for sale— * Them ship bin 
too thick o' the groun' ; I'll diaw a couple o' score [= 40] to sen' to 
the far nex' wik.' 

Sheep are counted in the field bj couples. 

The DistributlYes — 'one by one/ as of persons walking in 
Indian file ; * two by two,' as of two abreast ; * two apiece ' = two 
to each one, ' two at once ' = two at a tima 

Multiplicatives are double, two-double,* treble. 

Both.— The usual form of this is the both— 'I'll tak' the hoih: 
Cf. Fr. tom-les-deux. See Demonatrative Pronouns {the). 

Both = the two, — ' I canna-d-affbrd the two ; ' Com. 

Both =: the pair on 'em, when speaking of persons or animate 
objects ; Com. See two (adjectives of numeration). 

The Ordinals exhibit few peculiarities : — 

First is pronounced by children at play as firsses [fur'si'z] ; ' me 
firsses;' Shrewsbury. 

Second [eek-u'nt], Com. ; [si'k'u'nt], Newport. 

Pifl ♦ == fifth = A.S. fi/ia. 

Sixt* = sixth = A.S. sizta. 

Twelft = twelfth = A.S. twelf. Shrswsburt; Pulverbatch. 

The tone = the one ; Newport, but rare. The tether = the 
other; Com. ^Second has replaced the O.E. other = one of two ; 
thset ftn = the first ; thsst other = the second. In M.£. these 
became (1) that oon and that other, (2) the tone (toon, tone) 
and the tother.' See Dr. Morris's Historical English Grammar, 
p. 99. 

Indefinite Humerala. — All = whole = entire ; as all the lot 
on 'em = the entire number. All the village was out = the whole 
of the inhabitants. 

Many. — Large indefinite numbers are expressed by a power, a 
sight,* a deal [dyel or djel], scores, &c. ; Com. 

Pew.* — A good /(W/7, a tidy good feic = a considerable number, a 
concourse of people ; a * good tuthree. ' [tuth'r'i'] = two or three, a 
* tidy tuthree,' a much smaller assemblage. These terms are also used 
to denote quantities, as of apples, &c. 

Practions of Quantity are 'afe [auf, Newport] = half, quarter, 


part ; asy a 'o/e pund, ^afe a pund, quarter of a pund, &c. Part is 
the fiactioiial quantity mostlj in use — 'jpart of a glass ' of beer ; 
' beet part ' = the laigest portion, two parts = half, three parts = 
three fourths, as three jxit^ of a glass of beer ; but three ^rfo, as of 
an apple cut into quarters, would be three several parts. 


[Shbewsbubt; Pulyebbatch.] 

Singular. Plural. 

1. I 1. We 

2. Thee 2. Yo' 

3. A,* 'e (masc,) ; 'er (fern.) 3. A,* they 


1. [a'y] emph, [V] unempk. 

2. [dh:ee-] „ . • [dhu*] „ 

3. [aa] „ ~ [u'] 

„ [:ee*J „ UJ i» 


1. [w:ee-] „ [wi*] „ 

2. [y:oa'] „ [yu*] „ 

3. [dhai*] ,y [dhae-] „ 

Singular. PluraL 

1. I^ 1. We 

2. Thou, thee* 2. Yo' 

3. 'E (mase.)j 'er (fern.) 3. They 

^ [ah']. * Thou and thee are alike pronounced as Fr. le, me, te, 
&c. [dhu*], but emphatic thee is [dhai*]. 

Oeneral Observations. — 'Em* = them; Com. It represents 
an old f omu 

The accusative 'er is invariably employed for the nominative she. 

The substitution of the nominative we for the accusative us is 
general in the southern part of Shropshire; Worthen; Cbaven 
Arms; Bishop's Castle; Clun; Cobve Dalb; Cleb Hills. 'It's 
mighty bad for toe ; ' ' Miss Nellie's bnngin' we some vittlo.' 


He and him ^ = it, which is used only in an abstract sense ; 
Bishop's Castle; Clun; Clee Hills. 

* The Maister gid me this piece o' garden instead o' the other, an' 
I mucked Hm well/ said John Nicholas, of Clun Hospital [1875]. 

'This spittle's a mighty good un'^ — 'e shoots me right well.' 
(Ahdon,) • 

Me = I, him = he, them = they, ate commonly used, ^'/mand 
me wenten — * tJiem as said it,' &c. 

^ See Db. Mobbis's Historical English Accidence, p. 120. 


[Shrewsbubt ; Pulvebbatoh.] 

Singular, Plural. 

Myself [mi'saeli] Ouraelyes [uwu'r'sael'vz] 

Yoreselves [yu'r'saelTz] 

Theeself [dhi'sael-f] 
Yoieself [yu'r'sael'fl 
'Isself [izsael-f], not com. Thaiselyes [dhaai^sael-'Tz] 

'Imself [imsael'f] Themadyes [dhaemsaeWz], not 



Mysen [mi'saen*] Oursens [ — ^t saen-z] 

Thysen [dhi'saen*] Teisens [yaefsaen'z] 

Yersen [yaer^sen*] 

'Issen [izsaen*] Theirsens [dhaei^saen'z] 

Bel = sen is also occasionally heard — ^mysel, &c. 


[Shbewbbubt; PuLyEBBATCn.] 

Singular. Hural. 

My [ma'y •] empK, [mi*] unemph. Our [uwu' V] 

1 Yore 8 [y :oa -hY] 

'Is [iz-], 'er [ur^, its » [ifs] Thar [dhaaV] 



Singular. FluraL 

My [mahy] Our 

Thy [dhahy] Ter [yaer*-] 

•Ib [iz'l 'er [up^, its * Tbeir [dhaer^ •] 

^ Thy ifl not used. 

' Its, thoagh occasionally heard, as when addressing a very young 
child, — ^ihufl, * come an' warm its fitties,' or ' little toeties,' is usually 
represented by on it^ as well in speaking of the smaller animals as 
of inanimate objects ; the track, hole, or marks on it ==. its track, 
hole, or marks ; the legs <m it (chair, table, &c), not its 1^8» 

• Tore = A.S. e6wer. 

^ See note (2) above. 

absolute possessives. 

[Shbewsbubt; Pdlvebbatch.] 

Singviar, FlvraU 

Mine [ma'yn.] Ours [uwuVz] 

1 Yores [y:oa"hYz] 

Is [iz-J 'ers [ur'z-] Thais [dhaa-r'z] 


Mine [mah*yn] Oum 

Thine [dhahyn] Youm [yoo'hYn] 

'Isn [izTi], 'ersn [ur'z-n], 'em Theim [dhaer'n] 

I Thine is not used. 


The [dhu'], Com. ; [dh'], Newport, before vowels, not before 

The is used before the names of months and seasons when 
speaking of any particular circumstance connected with the time, — 
as, * I wuz theer i' t?ie June ; ' "E died i' the Christmas.' Also before 
the adyerb first, as, 'It's a pity as 'e adna done it at t?ie first ;^ BJid- 


the Ordinal!, first, second, third, &c : as, 'Tom come in the second 
an' Jack th^ third.* It is likewise prefixed to both and its equiva- 
lents. See both {adjectives of numeration). 

This [dhi's*], that [dhat*], have the emphatic form this 'ere and 
that there. Gf. Fr. ce^i, ce-la. 

These [dhee'z], them = those, have the emphatic forms these 
'ere, them theer. Cf. Fr. ceux^i, ceux-la. 

They = those ; Cobye Dale. 'Thej pasen' [dhai* pai'zu'n] = 
those peas. They is occasionally found in Tudor English [1485 — 
1600] as the plural of the. See Db. Morris's Historical English 
Orammar, p. 115. 

Such [si'ch']. Com. 

Tanter [yaan'tur*] = yonder ; Com. 

Tander [yaau'dur*] = „ Nbwport. 

Thander [dhaan-dur'] = „ Clun, Hereford Border, 


As * = who, which, that ; Com. 

That == who ; Com. ' A girl that can milk.' 

Whad* [wod-] = what See t (1) (consonants). 


Who [:oa'], Com.; [oo-u'j, Shrewsbury; Pulvbrbatch., 
Whosen = whose. * Wliosen housen bin 'em ? ' Gorve Dale. 
Which [wi'ch-]. Whad. ; 


Each = everyone ; ' everyone took one ' := each took one. Cf. 
Spenser's F. Q., Bk. I. c. ii. s. viiL See Distributives {two apiece). 

Some; any = e'er-a [aenr'n'], refined usage, ever-a* [aevu'r*u'] ; 
the negative — ^not any, is ne'er-a [naeVu'], with the corresponding 
refined never-a [naevu'r'u'] ; Com. 

Enough [u'nuf-], sing, anew* [u'nuw], anew* [u'noo-], jpZ. The 
distinctive use of the plural form is now [1877] dying out; and 
anow^ — anew == enough, sing, are not unfrequently heard. See Dr. 
Morris's Historical English Accidence, p. 147. 


Either = e*er-im [aoT'on], which has two degrees of refined 
usage, (1) d'er4H>ne [aeyu'wun], and (2) ever-a-o&e* [aevuVu'- 
wnn]; Com. 

Veither = ne'er-un [naeVun] has its corresponding degrees, 
ne'er-a-one and nsfver-arone ; Com. 

Else = or ; ' 'Er said as 'er'd mind the child awilde I wuz out 
else [= or] I oodna-d-a lef the 'ouse ; ' Com. 

Snmmat [samTi't] = somewhat = something ; Com. Something 
has in a great measure repkced somewhat. This [latter] usage is as 
early as the thirteenth century. See Da Morris's Historical 
English Grammar, p. 123. 


Verbal Inflexions. — ^Personal endings in the plural are formed 
regularly by en or n. A few examples of this usage are to be found 
in Spenser and Shakespeare — F. Q., Bk. I. c. iv. s. xxzvii Mids. 
Nights Dream, XL L 56 ; — ^but it was Archaic in Spenser's time. See 
Dr. Morris's Historical English Accidence, p. 176. 

En and n are also occasionally used in the singular of the past 
tense, as — I thoughts ; 'e comen. 

Participles in numerous instances have the termination en or n. 
See list of Strong (and other) Verbs below. 

Weak Verbs often have the ed and d of their preterite and past 
participle reduplicated as attack'c^^J; diowoided, &c. — ^This is a 
mere vulgarism. 

The present tense is frequently employed for the past, as — ' 'e 
come out an' run away, an' we send after 'im.' 

The negation of Verbs is made by nad = not. The d falls away 
from nad and -na appears as an affix to the verb — can-na, shan-na, 
&c. — as a general usage throughout the county ; but in many places 
the full form nad is retained before vowels, the final d being sounded 
in a distinct kind of way, apart from the na. This peculiarity is 
represented by an intervening - (indicating pause) in the examples of 
the folk-speech, but it is omitted in the conjugations of the verbs in 
order to preserve the integrity of the negation. There are some 
localities— for instance Ludlow and Newport — where -na stands 



alike before yowels and consonants, and where also, but quite excep- 
iiarudly, not is nsed for na before vowelSy as, conno^ 'ef munno^ 





" Part. Paa. 


Arrove [Cobvb Dale] 

Bear [bring forth] 



Bear [carry] 





beat, beaten 






bid, bidden 


bond,* bund * 

bond,* bund * 



bit, bitten 




Boat = burst 

host, hosted 

bosten, boat, hosted 



broken, brosten * 



Choose, chose • 


chosen [choz-n] 

Cleave [split] 

clove, cleaved 

cloven, cleaved 





clomb * 

clomb, clomben 


come, corned 








Delve * 







did, done 







drunk, drunken 



druv, druven 


et, ete * 

etten, ete 



fell, fellen, faun ♦ 





fought foughten • 

fought, foughten ♦ 





PaH, Past. 












forgot, forgotten 



forsook,* forsooken 


firoze [fi'oz'] 

froze, frozen [fr^ozn] 



got, gotten 


gi'ed, gid, guv, gived 

gid, gi'en, gived 





grond,* grun* 

grond, grun' 




Heaye * [ai'v] 

hove,* heaved 

hoven, heaved 


help,* [oa'p] helped 

holpen* [oa*pn] helped 

Hew [y:unw] 



Hold [uwt] 







knad,* kned 

knad, kned 











lied, lay 





Lose [I:oa'z] 













plad,* pled 


quoke * 








xode, rid • 

rode, rid 





riz, TUZyZose 

riz, Tuz, rose 





see, seed, sid 

sid, sin 






Part, Pott, 




shSok,* shSokt 



shaven, shoven, shaved 

Sheed [to 

shed or spill] shed, sheeded 

shed, shedden, sheeded 




shorn, sheared 


shone, [shon*] (moon) shone 

shined * 



shotten, shot 

S'riTik = 











sat, sot, 


sat, sitten^ sot, sutten 












spoke, spoken 








sprad, sprod 








squedge * 

squozen, squedge 


sluck ♦ 



stood, stooden 



stole, stolon 

Stick [to kill] 


stucken ♦ 







stunk, stunken 






struck, stricken* 
strucken * 









swep, swepen 




swollen, swelled 









Part. Past, 




Take, tae 

taed, took 

taed, ta'en,* took, 
tooken , 

Tear [taa-f] 

tore, teaied [taaVd] 

tore, teared 

Teaze, toze* (wool. 





thonght, thoughten 

thought^ thoagbten 









trod, trodden 

















waiind [w:au'nd] 

waund - 





writ,* wrote 


Part Pres. Bein\ 





1. I am 

2. Theebist 

3. % or 'er is 

1. Iwu2 

2. Thee wust [wus*t] 

3. A, 'e, or 'er wu« 

Indicative Mood. 

Part past Bin.* 

Ftesent Tense. Plural. 

1. We bin 

2. Yo' bin 

3. A, or they bin 


1. We wun 

2. To' wun. 

3. A, or they wun 




1. Fve bin 

2. Thee'stbin 

3. A, 'e, or 'er^s bin 

1. I shall be 

2. Thee aha't be 

3. A, 'e, or 'erll be 

Perfect Plural, 

1. We'n bin 

2. Yo'n bin 

3. They'nbin 


1. We sha'n be 

2. Yo'nbe 

3. They'n be 


Present Tense. 

1. We binna 

2. Yx)* binna 

3. A, or they binna 


1. We wunna 

2. Yo' wunna 

3. A, or they wunna 


1. I hanna bin 1. We hanna bin 

2. Thee has'na [as*nu'] bin 2. Yo' hanna bin 

3. % or 'er hanna bin 3. They hanna bin. 


1. I shanna or SSnna be 1. We shanna or oSna be 

2. Thee sha'tna or 55tna be 2. Yo' shanna or o5na be 

1. I amma, or anma 

2. Thee bis'na [bis-nu*] 

3. % or 'er inna 

1. I wunna 

2. Thee wus'na [wusnu*] 

3. A, 'e, or 'er wunna 


Ay 'e, or 'er shanna be 
E, or 'er S<$nna be 


i' A, or they shanna be 
They 5Sna be 

1. Am II 

2. Bisty or bist 'ee? 

3. Is a, 'e, or'ert 

1. Wu2lf 

2. Wust'eel [wus-ti'] 

3. Wuza, 'e, or 'eri 


Present Tense. 

1. Bin we f 

2. Bin 'ee, or bin yo' t 

3. Bin a, or they 1 

Preterite. ^ 

1. Wun we ? 

2. Wunyo'1 

3. Wun a, or they I 





1. Havelbinl 

2. Hast 'ee[a8i;i'] bin 1 

3. Has a» 'e, or 'er bin t 

1. ShalJIbet 

2. Shat'eebel 

3. 0«1 a, 'e, or 'er be! 

P^ect. Plural* 

1. Han we bin f 

2. Han jo' bin? 

3. Han a, or they bin 9 


I. Sba'n webe? 

( Sba'n yo' be, or slian 'ee bet 


( 05n yo* be, or 86n 'ee bet 

3. 66n a, or they bet 

( Ammad-I t 
( Amnad-I t 
2. Bis'natheet 
( Innad-'e, or 'er? 


Present Tense. 

1. Binna we ? 

2. Binna yo'? 
I Binnad-a ? 
I Binna they ? 


1. Wunnawe? 

2. Wunnayo'?. 
j Wunnad-a ? 
I Wanna they t 


1. Hanna we bin? 

2. Hanna yo' bin ? 
' I Hannad-a bin ? 

I Hsnnad-'e, or 'er bin? ' ( Hanna they bin? 


1. Shanna we be? 

1. Wunnad-I? 

2. Wus'nathee? 


( Wminad-'e, or 'er ? 

1. Hannad-I bin? 

2. Has 'na thee bin? 
, ( Hannad-A bin ? 

/Shannad-I be? 

2. Sha't na thee be ? 

3. OSnnad-abe? 


Shanna yo' be ? 

dSnnayo' be? 
r Shanna they be?* 
( d5nna they be? 






Innmiirt Mood^ To h»Tc, To A.* Pari pagt, had [ad]. 

Indicative Mood. 

Tense. Plural, 

1. We ban [an*], or we'n 

2. Yo* ban, or yo'n 

3. They han, or a'n, or Uiey'n 


1. Fve, or I ban 

2. Thee'flt 

3. A,* 'e, or ei^s 

1. rd 

2. Thee bad'at [adst] 

3. A'd, Vd, or Vd 

L Fve had [ad] 

2. Thee'st had 

3. Ay 'e, or 'ei^s had 

1. I shall a 

2. Thee aha't a 

3. A, 'e, or Wll a 

1. I hanna [anm'] 

2. Thee has'na [asua'] 

3. A, 'e, or 'er hanna 

1. I hadna [admu*] 

2. Thee hadsna [ad'snu'] 

3. Ay 'e, or 'er hadna 

1. I hanna had 

2. The^ has'na had 

3. Ay 'e, or 'er hanna had 

1. We hadden [ad-n] 

2. Toliadden 

3. Ay or ihey hadden 


1. We'n had 

2. To'nhad 

3. The/nhad 


1. We sha'n a 

2. To'sha'na 

3. A sha'n a, or they sha'n a 


Present Tense. 

1. We hanna 

2. To' hanna 

3. They hanna 


1. We hadna 

2. To' hadna 

3. Ay or th^ hadna 


1. We hanna had 

2. To' hanna liad 

3. Ay or they hanna had 


Singular. Fntiire. Plural, 

1. I shannad-a 1. We shazmad-a 

2. Thee aha'tna a 2. To' ahinnad-a 

3. Ay 'e, or 'er ahaimad-a 3. A, or they shaimad-a 


Present Tense. 

1. Have If [av-i'] 1. Han wel 

2. Hast'ee 1 [asii'] 2. Han 'ee, or han yo' t 

3. Has a, 'e, or 'er) 3. Han a, or theyl 


1. Had If [ad-i*] 1. Haddenwef [ad-n] 

2. Had'st'eef [ad-sti*] 2. Hadden yo'f 

3. Ebd a, 'e, or 'erf 3. Hadden a, or they f 


1. Have I had f 1. Han we had f 

2. Haat 'ee hadf 2. Han yo' had or han 'ee hadf 

3. Has a, 'e, or 'er hadf 3. Han a, or they hadf 


1. Shall I af L Sha'nweaf 

2. Sha't 'ee a, or 56t 'ee af 2. Sha'n yo' a, or sha'n 'ee a f 

r Shall a, 'e, or 'er af r Sha'n % or they a? 

t OSla, 'e, or 'eraf * ( 05n a, or they a f 


Present Tense. 

1. Hannad-If 1. Hannawef 

2. Has'na thee f [as-ntt'dhi*] 2. Hanna yo' f 

3. Hannad-a, 'e, or erf 3. Hannad-a, or theyf 


1. Hadnad-If 1. Hadnawef 

2. Had'anaihtof 2. Hadnayo'f 

3. Hadnad-a, 'e, or 'erf 3. Hadnad-a, or hadna they f 


1. Hannad-Ihadf 1. Hanna we hadf 

2. Has'na thee hadf 2. Hanna yo' hadf 

3. Hannad-a, 'e^ or 'er hadf 3. Hannad>a, or hanna they hadf 



Singular, Future. Plural. 

1. Shannad-IaY 1. Shannaweal 

( OStna thee af i OSnna yo' a, or SSn 'ee a1 

( Sbannad-ay 'e, or 'er a f ^ ( Shannad-a, orahannatliey a 

( dSnnad-a, 'e, or 'er a) ' ( OSnnad-^ or ^nna they a 1 



Indicative Mood, 

Singular. Present Tense. Plural, 

1. I do 1. We dun 

2. Thee does [dus-] 2. Yo' dun 

3. Af 'e, or 'er does [duz*] 3. A, or they don 


1. I did 1. We didden [did-n] 

2. Thee did'st 2. Yo' didden 

3. A, 'e, or 'er did 3. A, or they didden 


Present Teuse. 

1. I dunna 1. We dunna 

2. Thee doesna [dus*na'] 2. Yo' dunna 

3. A, 'e, or 'er dunna 3. A, or they dunna 


1. I didna [didnu'] 1. We didna 

2. Thee didsna [did-snu'] 2. Yo' didna 

3. A, 'e, or 'er didna 3. A, or they didna 


present Tense. 

1. Do II 1. Dunna wel 

2. Dost 'eef [dus'ti'] 2. Dun 'ee, or dunna yo'1 

3. Does a, 'e, or 'erY 3. Dunnad-a^ or donna they) 


1. Did If 1. Didden we i 

2. Did'st 'eel 2. Didden 'ee, or didden yo') 

3. Did a, 'e, or 'er? 3. Didden a, or they? 




Singular, Present Tense. Plural. 

1. Dnimad-If 1. Dunnawe'f 

2. Doesnathee1[dtis*nu'd]ii'] 2. Duimayo'9 

3. Dnnnad-ay 'e, or 'erf 3< Dannad-ay or dunna they! 


1. Didnad-It 1. Didnawef 

2. Didsna thee % 2. Didna yo' % 

3. DidEiad-% 'e, or 'ert 3. Didnadna, or cUdna they 1- 



Present Tensa Plural. 

1. We can 

2. Yo'can 

3. Ay or they can 


1. We conlden [kiid'n] 

2. Yo* conlden 

3. A| or they conlden 


Present Tense. 

1. We canna 

2. Yo' canna 

3. A, or they camja 


1. I can 

2. Thee ca'st [kus-t] 

3. Ay 'e, or 'er can 

1. Iconld[ktid] 

2. Thee con'st [k&st*] 

3. A, 'e, or 'er conld 

L I canna 

2. Thee ca'sna [kasnu*] 

3. A, 'e, or 'er canna 


1. I conldna [ktidnn*] 1. We couldna 

2. Thee conldsna [ktid'snu'] 2. Yo' conldna 

3. Af \ or 'er conldna 3. A, or they conldna 


Present Tense. 

1. Can If [kani*]' 1. Canna wef 

2. Ca'flt 'ee t [kna-ti'] 2. Can 'ee, or can yo' 1 

3. Can a, 'e, or 'erf 3. Cannad-a, or canna they f 


Singular. Pieterite. Plwral, 

1. Could I? 1. Couldenll 

2. Cotfst 'eel [kus-ti'] 2. Coulden yo't 

3. Could a, 'e, or 'erf 3. Coulden a, or they 1 


Prwent Teiue. 

1. Cannad-If 1. Cannawel 

2. Ca'sna thee f [kasnu'dhi'] 2. Cannayo't 

3. Cannad-a, 'e, or 'ert 3. Cannad-a^ or canna they! 


1. Couldnad-If 1. Couldnawef 

2. Couldsna thee 1 2. Coulduayo't 

3. Couldnad-a, 'e, or 'eri 3. Couldnad-a, or couldna they t 

DARE [daaV]. 


Part. Past. Dar'd [daaVd]. 
Indicative Mood, 
Singvlar Present Tenae. PlwrdL 

1. I dar * 1. We dar'n, or darden 

2. Thee darst 2. Yo' dar^n, or darden 

3. A, 'e, or 'er dar ^ 3. A, or they dar^n, or^darden 


1. I darst 1. We dais'en [daaT^anJ 

2. Thee darst 2. To' dais'en 

3. A, 'e, or 'er darst 3. A, or they dars'en 


Present Tense. 

1. I dama* 1. We dama, or dar'dna 

2. Thee dars'na 2. Yo' dama, or dai^dna 

3. A, 'e, or 'er dama 3. A, or they dama, or dai^dna 


1. I dars'na 1. We dars'na 

2. Thee dars'na 2. Yo' dars'na 

3. A, 'e, or 'er dars'na 3. A, or they dars'na 



Singular, Present Teoie. Plural. 

1. Dar I f [daaTT] 1. Daren, oi darden we ! 

2. Darst 'eel 2. Daien, or darden yo' t 

3. Dar a» 'e, or 'art 3. Daren, or darden a, or they I 


1. Darst II 1. Dars'en we! 

2. Darst 'ee I 2. Dars'en yo' t 

3. Daist a^ 'e, or 'ert 3. Dars'en a, or they t 


Present Tense. 
1. Damad-If 1. Dama, or dar^dna we! 

2.IWi«t'ee1 g^jDanm.ordar'diiayot 

( Damad-'ee, or dar'dnad-'eet 
3. Damad-a, 'e, or 'er t 3. Dama, or dar'dna they f 


1. Dan'nad-It 1. Dais'na wel 

2. Dars'nat 'eel 2. Dais'na yo'l 

3. Dais'nad-a, 'e, or 'erl 3. Dais'nad-at dais'na they I 

^ Db. Morbis says — * The third person dare (O.E. dar) is strictly 
collect.' See Hidcrical English Aceidenee, p. 184. 



Singular, Present Tense. Plural. 

1. I shall 1. We sha'n 

2. Thee sha't [shaet*] 2. Yo' sha'n 

3. A, 'e, or 'er shall 3. They sha'n 


1. I should [shnd-] 1. We shonlden [shad'n] 

2. Thee shonld'st [shud«st-] 2. To' shonlden 

3. A, 'e, or 'er should 3. A, or they shonlden 



Singtdar. PrMent Tenae. Plural. 

1. I sbaima 1. We ahaima 

2. Thee aha'tna [shaet'na*] 2. Yo' shaima 

3. A, 'e, or 'er ahaima 3. A, or they shaima 


1. I shouMna [ehudiiu'] 1. We Bhouldna 

2. Thee shouldsna [shud'sna'] 2. To' ahouldna 

3. A, 'e, or 'er shouldna 3. A, or they ahouldna 


Present ToDfle. 

h ShaUI? 1. Sha'nwef 

2. Sha't 'eo f [shaeti'] 2. Sha'n 'ee, or sha'n yo' f 

3. Shall a/e, or 'eri 3. Sha'n a,. or they t 


1. Should II 1. Shoidden we! 

2. Shonld'st 'ee t [shud'sti'] 2. Shonlden yo' t 

3. Should a, 'e, or 'eri 3. Shoulden a, or they t 

Present Tenae. 

1. Shannad-II 1. Shannawef 

2. Shatna theel 2. Shaima yo', or shan 'eet 

3. Shannad-a, 'e, or 'ert 3. Shannad-a, or shaima theyl 


1. Shouldnad-I) 1. Shouldna wet 

2. Shouldsna thee 1 2. Shouldna yo' t 

3. Shoul^nad-a, 'e, or 'er 1 3. Shouldnad-a, or shouldna 





1. m, or I 5^ 

2. Thee't 


'ETl, or 'erTl 
E 551, or 'er 551 

1. I55d 

2. Thee55d8t 

3. TB;or'er55d 

1. I55ii]ia 

2. TheeSStna 

3. % or 'er 55ima 

1. I55diia 

2. Thee55d8Da 

3. *£, or 'er 55diia 


2. 65tj»or85t'ee» 
a dSta^'e, or'ert 

1. d5dlt 

2. OSd'st'eel 

3. 05d%'e»or'erl 



Present Teme. Plural. 

1. We'n, or -we 55n 

2. Yo'n, or yo' 55n 

3. They'll, or they 55ii 


1. We 55den [55d'ii] 

2. Yo' 55den 

3. They55deii 


Present Tenae. 

1. We 55mia 

2. Yo' 55iiiia 

3. They 55ima 


1. We55diia 

2. Yo' 55diia 

3. They 55diia 


Present Tenie. 


2. OSn'eef 

3. OSna, or iheyl 

1. d5denwe9 

2. 65denyo'1 

3. 05den a, or they t 



Present Tense. 


2. d5tDathee? 

3. OSnnad-a, 'e, or 'ert 

2. OSimayo'f 

3. 05imad-a, or SSima they 1 


SingyJUw. Fnleiite. PlwraL 

1. 05dnad-It 1. 05d]iawet 

2. OSdana thee, or feet 2. Oodna yo' % 

3. OSdnad-o, 'e, 'er! 3. Oodnad^ or SSdna they f 



Sin0ular. Present and Past Tenses-^ Plural. 

1. I met 1. We met'n 

2. 2. Yo' met'n 

3. A| 'e, or 'er met 3. A, or they met'n 

Past Tense.* 

1. I may 1. We may 

2. 2. Yo'may 

3. A, 'e, or 'er may 3. A, or tbey may 


1. I metna 1. We metna 

2. 2. To' metna 

3. Af 'e, or 'er metna 3. A, or they metna 


1. Met It 1. Met'n wet 

2. 2. Met'n yo't 

3. Met a, 'e, or 'er t 3. Met'n a, or they t 


1. Metnad-It 1. Metna wet 

2. 2. Metna yo't 

3. Metnad-a, 'e, or 'eri 3. Metnad-a, or metna they t 

^ 'Missis, met [= may] I gi58 wham to-nightt' * Well, yo' mefn 
[= may] gS6 after milkin', on'y yo' mns'n be sharp back to ptLt the 
men's snpper.' 

' May for migTU is of general usage — ^people considerably higher 
in rank than the peasantry employ it. ' I may have known what 
was. going to happen.' ' I may a done it, if I'd on'y thought.' 


MUST (Common Usage). 


Smguktr. PharaL 

1. I mun* 1. We mun 

2. 2. Yo' mun 

3. A, 'e, or 'er mun 3. A, oi they mun 


1. I munna 1. We munna 

2. 2. Yo* munna 

3. A, 'e, or *er munna 3. A, or they munna 


1. Muni! L Munwef 

2. . 2. Mun 'ee, or mun yo'l 

3. Mun a, 'e, or 'er? 3. Mun a, or they f 


L Munnad-I1 1. Mxmnawe? 

2. 2, Munna yo' I , 

3. Munnad-a, 'e, or 'ert 3. Munnad-a, or munna they t 

MUST (Befined Usage). 


SvnguLar. Plural. 

1. I mus' 1. We mus'n 

2. Thee mus' 2. Yo' mus'n 

3. Ay 'e, or 'er mus' 3. A, or they mus'n 


1. I musna 1. We musna 

2. Thee musna 2. Yo' musna 


3. A, 'e, or 'er musna 3. A, or they musna 




Singular. Plural. 

1. Mua'II 1. Mua'nwel 

2. Must 'ee 1 2. Mus'n yo' 1 

3. Mus' a, 'e, or *er1 3. Mua'n a, or they 1 


1. Musnad-II 1. Muanawel 

2. Musnatheet 2. Mosnayo't 

3. Musnad-a, 'e, or 'erl 3. Musnad-a, or miisna theyl 


[WoRTHEN, Cherbury,] 


Part. Pres. Bein'. 


1. Ibini 

2. Theebist- 

3. 'E is 

1. I WU2 

2. Thee wust 

3. TEwnz 

1. I a bin 

2. Thee'st bin 

3. 'E'sbin 

1. I 881 

2. Thee 88t 

1. I binna 

2. Thee bis'na 

3. 'Einna 

Part. Past, Bin.* 
Indicative Mood. 
Present Tense. Plural. 

1. WebinV 

2. Yo' bin 

3. They bin 


1. We wim 

2. Yo'wun 

3. They wun 


1. We'n bin 

2. To'nbin 

3. They'n bin 


1. We 881, or 88n 

2. Yo' 881, or 88n 

3. They 881, or 88n 


Present Tense. 

1. We binna 

2. Yo' binna 

3. They binna 


Preterite. Plural. 

1. We woima 

2. Yo' 'wuima 

3. They wuima 


1. We hazum bin 

2. Yo' hanna bin 

3. They hanna bin 

[ShaU or wiU.] 

1. I ahanna, or oSnna be 1. We shanna, or S5nna be 

2. Thee ahatna, or SStna be 2. Yo* shanna^ or 86nna be 

3. '£ ahanna, or 'e SStna be 3. They shanna, or 88nna be^ 


1. I wanna 

2. Thee wnstna 

3. 'Ewmina 

1. I hanna bin 

2. Thee hastna bin 

3. '£ hanna bin 


Present Tense. 

1. Bin we t 

2. Binyo'1 

3. Bin they? 


1. Wunwel 

2. Wnnyo'1 

3. Wuntheyf 


1. Han we bin ? 

2. Han yo' bin? 

3. Han they bin? 


1. Shan I be, or 551 1 bel 1. Shan we be I 

2. Shat thee be, or 551 thee be? 2. Shan yo' be, or 551 yo' be? 

3. 051 'e be? 3. 051 they be, or 55n they be? 

1. Bin I? 

2. Biat'ee? 

3. la'e? 

1. Wuzl? 

2. Wnat'ee? 

3. Wnz'e? 

1. Han I bin? 

2. Hast 'ee bin? 

3. Has'ebinll 

1. Ammad-I? 

2. Biatnathee? 

3. Innad-'e? 


Present Tense. 

1. Binnawe? 

2. Binnayo'? 

3. Binnathey? 




1. Wunnad-II 

2. Wustnatheel 

3. Wmmad-'e 1 

1. Hannad-I bin 

2. Hasf na thee bin t 

3. Hannad-'e bin 1 

Preterite. Plurcd. > 

1. Wmma wef 

2. Wunnayo't 

3. Wunnatheyt 


1. Hanna we bin! 

2. Hanna JO* bin? 

3. Hanna they bin! 


1. Shannad-Iy or 8Snnad-I be? 1. Shanna we, or SSnna we bet 

2. Shatna thee, or ootna thee bel 2. Shanna yo', or 85nna yo' be t 

3. Shannad-'e, or 88dnad-'e bet 3. Shanna they, or 88nna they 


^ The form be instead of bin obtains about Clun. 


▲ffirmativb form. 

Part. Past, Bin.* 
Indicative Mood. 
Present Teiue. PlturaL 

1. We bin, or we be 

2. Yo' bin, or yo* be 

3. They bin, or they be 


1. I WU2 1. We wun, or wuz 

2. Thou wuflt 2, Yo' wun, or wu« 

3. 'E wuz, or wun, or were 3. They wun, or wuz 


1. I a bin 1. We a bin 

2. Yo' a bin 2. Yo' a bin 

3. 'E a bin 3. They a bin 

Futoie (wlD). 

1. Oi'U^be, orlSSlbe 1. We'U be, or we 851 be 

2. Yo'U be, or Thou «&t be 2. YoTl be, or yo' 831 be 

3. 'E'll be, or 'eSSl be 3. The/U be, or they 881 be 

Part. Pres. Bein'. 


1. I be,^ or I am 

2. Yo' be, or thou bist 

3. 'E be, or 'e bin. 


Sianqular. Fiitore (ahalQ. JHurtd^ 

1. I shall be 1. We shan l)e 

2. Thou 8ha% or aha'st be 2. To' ahan be 

3. 'E shik' be 3. They ahan be 


Present Tense. 

1. I binna, or I anma 1. We binna 

2. To' binna, or thou bistna 2« To' binna 

3b *£ iima 3. They inna, or binna 

1. I wanna l.-Wewnnna 

2nd and 3id pen. the same. 
1. I hanna bin L We hanna bin 

2nd and 3rd penk the same. 

1. I 85nna, or shanna be, 1. We SSnna or ahanna be 

2nd and 3rd pen. the same. 


Present Tense. 

1. Se ly or bin It 1. Bin we, <» be wef 

2. Biat 'eet 2. Bin yo', or be yo't 

3. Be 'e, or bin 'e? 3. Bin they, or be they t 


1. Wuz II. 1. Wun we, or wuz wet 

2. Wust 'eel 2. Wun yo', or wuz yo't 

3. Wdz 'e, or wun 'el 3. Wun they, or wuz they t 

^ Perfect 

1. A I bint 1. A we bint 

2. Astow,* or aat 'ee bin I 2. A yo' bini 

3. A 'e bint 3. A they bint 

Futote (irill). 

1. OSn, or 881 Ibel 1. OSn, or 881 we bel 

2. O80t 'ee bet 2. Oon, or 881 yo' bet 

3. OSn, or 881 'e bet 3. d8n, or 881 they bet 


Singular. Future (shall). Hurff^ 

1. 'ShaU I bel 1. Shan we bel 

2. Sha't 'ee, or sba'st 'ee bet 2. Shan yo' be? 

3. ShaU 'e be! 3. Shan they bet 


Present Tense. 

1. Binnalt^ 1. Binnawel 

2. Bxnna yo', or bistna theef 2. Binna yo' % 

3. Binna 'et 3. Binna theyt 

1. Hannalbint 1. Hannavebint 

2nd and 3zd pers. the same. 

Future (will not). 

1. OSnalbef 1. dSnnawebe? 

2. OSstna thee, or SSst'n 'ee be ? 2. OSnna yo' be % 

3. OSnna'ebel 3. OSnnatheybef 

Future (shall not). 

1. Shanna I bel] 1. Shanna we bel 

2. Sha'tna thee bel 2. Shanna yo' bel 

3. Shanna 'e bet 3. Shanna they be? 

^ The root be was conjugated throughout the present of the indi- 
cative as late as Milton's time — ' I he^ * Thou beesiy^ &c. Bin = 0.K 
ben = he + n^ plural sufi&z. See D& Mobbib's Historical English 
Accidence^ p. 182. 

* 0% 'U [au^l], an exceptional pronunciation of I» 

' See p. IL on the Vegation of Verbs. 



Part. Prea. Bein'. PaH. Past, Bin^ 

Singular. Present Tense^ Plural. 

1. I bin 1. We bin 

2. Thee bist 2. Yo' bin 

3. 'E, or 'er is, or bin 3. A, or they bin 






1. I -wuz 

2. Thee wust 

3. A, 'e, or 'er "wuz 

1. Fve bin 

2. Thee'st bin 

3. *E8, or 'el's bin 

1. I shall, or wall be 

Preterite. Plural. 

1. We wnn 

2. Yo* wun 

3. A, or they wun 


1. We'n bin 

2. Yo'nbin 

3. They'nbin 


1. "We sha'n, or wull be 

2. Thee 8ha%or shan, or wull be 2. Yo'n, or yo'll be 

3. E'U, or 'e wull, or 'er'll, or 'er 3. They'n, or they'll, or they 

wull be wull be 



affirmative form. 

Part. Prea. Bein'. Part. Past, Bin.* 

Indicative Mood. 


1. I'm 

2. Thou art, or thou'rt* 

3. 'E'8 

1. I were 

2. Thou, or thee were 

3. 'Ewere 

Present Tense. . Plural, 

1. We'n,i or we bin 

2. Yo'n, or yo' bin 

3. They'n, or they bin 


1. We wun 

2. Yo*, or ye ^ wun 

3. They wun 


1. I amna, or ai^na 

2. Thou artna, or th'artna 

3. 'Einna 


1. We amna, or binna 

2. Y'amna, or yo* binna 

3. They amna, or binna 



Siiujular. Preterite. Plural. 

1. I wer'iia, or wumia 1. We wer'na, or wunua 

2. Thou, or thee wer'na/ wu una 2. Yo*, or ye wer'na, or wunna 

3. 'E wer'na, or wunna 3. They wer'na, or wunna 

^ The * n ' of * We'n,' &c. in this tense = am = ar-on — old 
Northern English f onus, of Scandinavian origin. * They'» ' is less 
often used than they bin. 

Ex, — * The peens [pains] '11 tek 'er . . . an' 'er'll croy [cry] out, 
fur the peens a'/t loike to goo through 'er — an* that's w'en the witch 
'as gotten 'is grip on 'er' — so said an Edgmond woman [1870]. 

* Ye — ^pronounced as French me^ te, le, &c. — is often used in the 
affirmative ; but always in the interrogative. 

Ex, — * Fo' wunna gooin' to tek it off 'im, wun yet* * Ay, ah 
were.' * Eh ! thou'rt a bad 'un, thou art.' 

* One authority gives in addition Thee hist, with its negative 
Thee bidtna — stating that these forms are superseding the older 
* Thou art,' &c. 

Wuz obtains in the preterite throughout, as a — would be — ' reBned 
usage ; ' so also the negative wiizna. See p. li on the Vegation of 



affirmative form. 

Part, Pres. Havin'. Part, Past, Had [ad]. 

Indicative Mood. 

Singular. Present Tense. Plural. 

1. I've, or I have [av] 1. We'n, or we han 

2. Thou, or thee hast [as't] 2. Yo'n, or yo' han 

3. 'E's 3. They'n, or they han 


1. I had 1. We hadden 

2. Thou, or thee hadst 2. Yo' hadden 

3. 'Ehad 3. They hadden 




1. I hanna 

2. Thou, or thee hasna 

3. "£ hanna 


Present Tense. Plural* 

1. We hanna 

2. Yo' hanna 

3. They hanna 


1. I hadna 1. We hadna 

2. Thou, or thee hadana [1] 2. Yo' hadna 

3. '£ hadna 3. They hadna 


1. I do 

2. 1 

3. 'Edoes 

1. I did 

2. 1 

3. 'E did 


affirmativb form. 

Indicative Mood, 

Present Tense. Plural, 

1. We dun 

2. Yo', or ye dun 

3. They dun 


1. We didden 

2. Yo', or ye didden 

3. Thoy didden 


Present Tense. 

1. I dunna 1. We dunna 

2. Thou or thee, dunna or doesna 2. Yo', or ye dunna 

3. '£dnnna 3. They dunna 


1. I didna 1. We didna 

2. Thou, or thee didna 2. Yo', or ye didna 

3. '£ didna 3. They didna 








1. I con, or can 

2. Thou, or thee con^ 

3. '£ con, or can 

1. I could [ah cud] 

2. 1 

3. 'E could 

1. I conna, or canna 

2. Thou, or thee conna 

3. 'E conna, or canna 

1 . I couldna 

2. 1 

3. 'E couldna 

Present Tense. Plural, 

1. We con, or can 

2. Yo', or ye con, or can 

3. They con, or can 


1. We coulden 

2. Yo', or ye coulden 

3. They coulden 


Present Tense. 

1. We conna, or canna 

2. Yo*, or ye conna or canna 

3. They conna, or canna 


1. We couldna 

2. Yo*, or ye couldna 

3. They couldna 

^ Ex, — * Dosta think thou con do it t ' ' Ay, to be shu-er ah con.' 
' If Turn conna do it, it inna loikely as a chap loike thay [thee] con,^ 


1. I shall 

.2. ? 

3. *E shall 



affirmative form. 

Present Tense. Plural, 
1. We shan 
' 2. Yo' shan 
3. They shan 


Singular. Preterite. Plural. 

1. I should [sh-h'd] 1. We shoulden [shudn] 

2. ? 2. Yo', or ye shoulden 

3. *E should 3. They shouldea 



1. Shanna 1. We shanna 

2. Thou, or thee shanna 2. Yo', or ye shanna 

3. '£ shanna 3. They shanna 

Preterita <• 

1. I shouldna [shud'nu'] 1. We shouldna 

2. 1 2. Yo*, or ye shouldna 

3. '£ shouldna 3. They shouldna 



affirmative form. 

Singular, Present Tense. Plural. 

1. I will, or rU 1. We win 

2. Thou, or thee will p], or 2. Yo' win 

thouTl, or thoeM 

3. *£ will, or 'ell 3. They win 


1. I would [wud, or wuo'd] 1. We woulden 

2. 1 2. Yo*, or ye woulden 

3. He would 3. They woulden 


Present Tense. 

1. I winna, or wunna 1. We winna, or wunna 

2. Thou or thee winna, or wunna 2. Yo*, or ye winna or wunna 

3. He winna, or wunna 3. They winna, or wunna 


Singular. Preterite. Plural, 

1. I wouldna 1. We wouldna 

2. Thou, or thee wouldna 2. Yo', or ye wouldna 

3. '£ wouldna . 3. They wouldna 

Ex, — *Win ye goo to Noopert fur me, Johnny 1* 'Shan ye 
soon a done them lateral' *They wunna mind annythin' as I say 
to 'em/ 

^ , [Newport.] 

affirmative form. 

Singular. Plural, 

1. I niun 1. We mun 

2. Thou, or thee mun* 2. Yo*, or ye mun 

3. 'E mun 3. They mun 


1. I munna 1. We munna 

2. Thou, or thee munna 2. Yo*, or ye munna 

3. '£ munna 3. They munna 

* Ex, — * Moother, I arnna gooin' to skyule never no more.* * Eh, 
my lad, but tha mun / ' 'I shanna. The mester says we munna 
goo to the Mee Fear (= May Fair — but this is very broad), so I 
shanna goo anigh 'im no more.' 

May is used for might, both among the poor and among persons 
of some education. 

Ex, — 'Well, she may have given the girl leave to stop over 
Sunday.* See p. Ixiii, note (2). 




[Colliery, Oakengates.^ 

Singular^ Present Tense. Plural, 

1. I are 1. We are 

2. Thoo bist 2. Yo' be 

3. 'E are [or is 1] 3. They be 

*I saw a letter not long ago [1878] from a Shropshire carpenter 
(Colliery district) about the death of his wife, a young woman. He 
said, " The night befour she died, her said to me, Jim, I are very bad, 
my Lad, I are only waiting the Lord's time." ' — A. J. M. 

Preiient Tenae. 


Singular. Singular. 

1. Fm 1. I amma 

2. lliee'st 2. Thee beestna 

3. 'E's, or 'er's 3. '£, or 'er inna 

In the Future Tense the auxiliary will = wull, and will not 
= wunna. In all particulars save the foregoing this usage accords 
with that of Pulverbaich. 



affirmative form. 

Part, Pres. Rin'. Part, pa^, Bin.* 


Singular. Present Tense. Plural. 

1. I be, or bin, or are 1. We be, or bin, or 'm = am* 

2. Thee beest, or bin^ 2. Yo' be, or bin, or bun^ 

3. 'E be, or bin, or are 3. They be, or bin 



Singular. Plural. 

1. I binna, or bunna 1. We binna, or bunna 

2. Thee beestna, or binna 2. Yo' binna, or bunna.' 

3. '£ baint 3. They binna, or bunna, or 


^ The 2nd pers. shig. in use at Oswestry is not heard at 
Whittinoton, 2i miles E, from that town. 

^ A little boy on being asked in school why God was called ' Oar 
Father/ answered * Because we'm His*u.* 

' A woman said to a boy one day, * Bun yo* in yore senses ? I 
think yo* hunna,^ 

' It inna ' is very common, so is * Be it ?' as an interrogative. 
Sometimes these two go together thus : — ' It inna, be itf* The 
interrogative * Bin *eeV is not uncommon. Wunna = was not> and 
will not, is used in the Past and Future Tenses respectively. 

Yo'm [yoa'm] ^ you am = you are, is a vulgar form ; Shrews- 
bury ; Wbm. Qy. com. * Yo*m a bad un ! ' Cf. we*m in the fore- 
going verb. 

Con = can ; very general. 

Cannot ^ cosna [kus*nu'], 2nd pers. sivg.y Shrewsbury; 
[k:au8*nu*J, Colliery ; Ellesmere. 

Dare not = doma [d:auT'nu*], Wellington. 

Will = 5ol [Sol-] ; general throughout Mid. and JSoutJi Slir. 

WiU not = 6onna [oon'u'], ibid. (We) o6n=: O.E. wolen. 

Will = wull [will], Bridgnorth ; Wem ; Ellesmere ; Oswestry I 

Will not = wunna [wun'u*], ibid. ; Oswestry. 

Will = win [win], = O.E. wUen^ pi., Newport ; Whitchurch. 
' I conna keep the cows from gettin' o'er the fence, they win 
do it.' 

Will not = winna * [winni*], />?., ibid> 

Must = maun* [m:aun*], Whitchurch; Ellesmere. 

Uust not = maunna* [m:aun*u'], ibid. 

Must = mun, mnst act = munna ; Com. 


To go [goo], Com. Prea. Part, going [gwi'i'n], Shrkwsbubt; 
PuLVBRBATCH. [gwa'yn], Church Strktton. [gwaa-yn], Bishop's 
Cabtlb ; Clun ; Cobve Dalb ; Ludlow. [gooi'D], I^bwport. 
[g56-i'ii], Ellbsmere. 

A-going — according to these yarious pronunciations is sometimes 
heard. See A (3) {Glossary). 

The Past Part is [gwiin corr. gwoen*] ; commonly. 

Lnkka = look you 1 see that 1 Colliert ; used inteijectionally 
to express surprise, or to call attention to anything being done. 

Shewn * = shew, Com. * I'll shetm yo'.' 

Sist = seest, 2nd pers, sing,. Colliery. 

Sithee = dost thee see 1 Colliery. 


The subjoined classified list of adverbs comprises most of those 
in common use. 

In the folk-speech Adverbs of Manner are often expressed by 
adjectiveSy as ' yo'n do it easy.^ ' That thrustle does sing sweet,^ and 
so forth. The usage of dropping the adverbial -ly obtained, according 
to Dr. Morris, amongst the Elizabethan writers — * grievous sick/ 
^miserable poor.' See Historical English Accidence, p. 196. 

The adverb like is frequently employed as a redundant form — 
* 'er couldna walk like,* ' that's whad a toud me like.* 

Adverbs of Negation are commonly reduplicated to express force 
or determination, as — * I'll never g86 nigh that 'ouse, never no more.* 

Adverbs of Place. — Abroad,* agate,* along,* anigh, arone^ide, 
aside, asiden,* atliin, a-wham,* endways-on,* miles-end-ways,* pretty 

Adverbs of Time. — Afore,* agen,* at-after,* arly,* awilde, by 
now, by-tiroes, by-whiles, edge-o'neet, edge-o'-night,* justly,* just 
now,* nex'-to-nex*,* now just^* now-a-days, sence,* to-morrow day, 
once [wun'st], Com.; [won'st], Nbwpobt ; Ellesmebe; twice [twei'z], 
Com.; [twei'st, coiT. twahyst], Newport. 

Adverbs of Manner or Quality. — Above-a-bit, aneend, anind, 
athatn, athatns, athisn, athisns,atwo,* backsi'fore, behappen,* belike,* 
caterwiff,* coUywest, happen, inchmeal,* in lieu,* intum, lather and 


lother = rather, lief,* lieve,* liever,* mayhappen, mebbe, moat in 
generally, most like =3 very likely, on,* scatter-comer,* skewways, 
top-o'er-tail,* top-side-bottomest, npsi'down.* 

Adverbs of Meaaure, Quality, Degree, ftc. — Aumust, better,* 
despert, full,* leastways,* mighty,* ne*er-a, and never-a * = not one, 
nod, oncoramon,* ondeniable,* onhuman,* onmerciful,* that,^ than,' 
verra [vae-rV] (Newport), welly.* 

1 That = so. « 'E inna that owd.' 
* Than = tilL See Coqunctions. 


The following is a list of the prepositions most commonly 
employed, though a few of rarer usage are included in it ; — afore,* 
agon,* all-along-on,* along-on,* anunst,* anungst, as, at,^ at-after,* 
athout, athwart, a-top,* atter, atween,* atwixt,* betwix,* by,* 
frommet * = from ward, i* = in,^ o' =^ of and ow, o'er, o*er anunst, 
oflf = from, on * = of, oerts * and toerts = in comparison to, rigbt- 
fore-nungst, sence,* to* = of, toert = toward. 

^ at = to and of. * 'Ark at the dog V * 'Er thought nuthin at 
it.' The former usage is noted in the Olossary, the latter was 
brought under notice after that was in type. Cf. with this the Fr. 
penser d, 

s in = to in the idiomatic phrase, belongs in = belon^^s, or 
pertains to, *That tub helungs € the brew-bus.' 

» to = of after the verb know. * I know to a book.' 


This class of words exhibits few divergences from literary 
English, but the following are of frequent use — agen,* athout^ = 
unless, as* = that, 'cause = because, nor* = than, onless* = 
except, still on = nevertheless, notwithstanding ; till * and tin = 
than, than^ = tilL 

1 Than = till, Wem. ' I ran than I thought I'd a dropt.' See 
Adverbs of degree. 

' * Yo'n never scrat a grey yed athout yo' tak'n better car* o' 
yoreselC' Recorded as a preposition only in the body of the Glossary. 



Interjections and words of interjeotional character — expletiyes 
and alight forms of oath — are constantly used, and these last often 
without a suspicion of ' swearing ' being attached to them ; of all 
classes of exclamation the commonest and most characteristic 
are — Aye, Bygum, By jings,^ By Jove, By leddy, Chow-wow, 
Consam it» Danger,* Danker, Daze my 'ounds,* Dear 'eart, Dear 
'eart alive. Dear Sirs, Dear Sores,* Delp, Eh,* Eh gonies,* Gad, *eart 
alive, Hoosack,* Lukka, My gSS'niss, My 'eart alive. My Sons,* Nan,* 
No danger,* Sam it, Sores alive. 

^ By jing^ ♦ = By St. Gingonlph. 

* Eh is the indispensable interjection used by all ranks in the 
Newport district, it = O.E. cy. 


The * affixed to a word refers it to the body of the Glossary for 
farther exemplification. 

There is great diversity in the weights and measures throughout 
the county. The (London) Standard, Oct. 15th, 1878, says: — 
'When the Act to consolidate the law relating to weights and 
measures comes into operation in January next it will be found that 
in the county of Salop some extraordinary discrepancies still exist. 
It may hardly be credited, but is nevertheless a fact, that wheat 
alone is sold by no less than six different weights ; barley by nine 
weights and measures different from each other ; oats by four j peas, 
three ; and beans by two. The growers of grain on one side of the 
county do not actually know the prices their fellow-agriculturists are 
receiving on the other side, and when the quotations for imp^ixd 
quarters are given in the reports of Birmingham or Gloucester 
markets they are read [by numbers of farmers] in Shropshire as if 
written in an unknown tongue.' 

The following ITotes, and the Tablet shewing the usage of eleven 
lepresentative markets, will serve to illustrate some of the 'dis- 
crepancies ' aUuded to in the Standard, 

Score * = 20 lbs. is the denomination of weight which obtains 
most commonly ; grain, bran, guigeons, pulse, butcher's meat in the 
carcase, bacon-pigs, &c., are all calculated by the score. Of. score, a 
deflxiite numeral (Orammar Outlines). See N. ^ Q, (5th S. x. 283). 

The Stone is not much used, but reference to the subjoined 
Tables will show how and where. 


A pack* (of flour) = 20 stones, each stone =14 lbs. ; Markkt 
Drayton, Cheshire. Border, 

Strike,* Bushel, Measure, are synonymous terms, but strike is 
giving place as a general usage to bualiel, whilst measure is employed 
chiefly in the northern borders of the county. The quantities sold 
under these respective denominations are not, however, uniformly 

A [local] bushel of grain is commonly = 38 qts. 

„ „ „ at Bishop's Castle = 38 — 40 qts. 

„ „ „ at Ludlow = 40 qts. 

„ „ „ at Wellington = 39 qts. 

„ „ „ at Newport = 38 and 39 qts. 

A quarter is the 16th part of a bushel ; Shrewsbury. Qy. com. 

A pot [basket] = 5 pecks ; Bridgnorth. 
„ „ =5 „ CoRVB Dale. 
» i> = ^ pecks, sometimes 6 ; Ludlow. 

Two pots = one bag ; ibid, 

A kype * [basket] is often used as a measure for potatoes, applef, 
&c. ; Shrewsbury. When filled level with the top it equals a half- 
strike heaped. 

Hoop * is a name formerly given to a peck measure, but now 
nearly obsolete ; Shrewsbury. 


[In use Nov. 1878,] 
Home Produce.— WHEAT. 

Muuurf. Weight, 

Boshd or strike, 38 quarts = 75 Iba 

Per bag of 3 bushels or 
strikes = 225 lbs. + 5 lbs. for bag 

Per sack = 11 'score' + 10 lbs. = 

or 230 lbs. 

Per bag of 3 bushels of 75 >CHtrB0H Strbttov 

lbs. each = 225 lbs. + 5 lbs. for bag 

= 230 lbs. 


Per bushel 

Per bushel or strike 

Per bushel 

Per sack 

Per bushel of 39 quarts, or 


WHEAT— [eonftnuecTI. 

= 76 lbs. 
= 75 lbs. 
= 72 lbs. \ 

= ll*score'-«-llb. = 22l[^^"^*^*'= 

Bishop's Castle 


Per bag of 3 bushels 

= 76 lbs. 

= 11 'score' + 4 lbs. for 
bag = 224 lbs. 

Per bushel, strike, or 
measure = 76 lbs. 


= 11 * score* + 6lbs. +5 
lbs. for bag = 230 lbs. J 

= 76 lbs. 

= 76 lbs. 

I Wellington 


Per bag of 3 ditto 

Per bushel or measure 
Per measure 

'Mabkbt Dkaytos 


Per sack of 3 measures 

Per bushel 

= 226 lbs. +6 lbs. for bag 1 Ellbsmebb 
= 230 lbs. ; 

^ 76 lbs. OSWXSTBT 

Per bushel of 38 and of 40 


Per 4 bushels to a sack 

Per 4 bushels of 40 quarts 

Per sack 

Per bushel of 38 and 32 
quarts [malting] 
Per bag {grinding] 

Per bushel of 39 quarts 

Per baff of 3 bushels of 39 

quails each 
Per bag [grinding] 


= 38 quarts 

= 270 lbs. with bag 
= 14 'score ' = 280 lbs. 

} Sheewsbuet 

I CuuBOH Stbetton 
Bishop's Castle 

10 'score' = 200 lbs. 
(including bag) 



10 'score' + 4 lbs. for 1 ^■^''o*'^ 
bag = 204 lbs. 

Per bushel, strike, or 


Per bag of 4 bushels of 38 

quarto each 

Per measure 

= 70 lbs. 

14 'score' = 280 lbs. 
(including bag) 

70 lbs., sometimes 66 lbs. Whitchubch 

'Mabket Dbatton 


r — [continued]. 




Per measure of 38^ quarts 
cr per sack of 4 measures 

Per bushel of 38 quarts 

I Ellxsmebe 



Per sack 


= 11 'score' + 10 lbs. (in-) 

eluding bag) = 230 ( g^^.^^^^ 

Per sack of 9 half -strikes ) 

Per sack = 13 'score' + 10 lbs. Cuuboh Strktton 

Per sack of 4 birge bushels = ll^re' + 10 lbs. =j Bishop's Castlb 

Per bag 
Per sack 

Per bag of 4 bushels 
Per bushel, strike, or 

Idem Ludlow 

= 8 'score' = 160 lbs. gross Bbidonobth 

= 11 'score' + 10 lbs. (in- 
cluding sack) = 230 WBLLiifOTozf 
lbs. ) 

= 10 'score' + 4 lbs. fori v »«,»«»-. 
bag = 204 lbs. ' Newpobt 




Per sack of 4 ditto 

Per sack 

Per measure 



Per bag 

Per bag of 3 bushels 

Per sack 

Per bag 

Per bag of 3 bushels 

Per bag 

= 50 lbs. 

=: 225 lbs. (including bag) 

= 10 'score ' = 200 lbs. 
= 50 lbs. 




'Mabket Dbaytoh 




= 12'score'=240 lbs. (in- ) a„^^^„^„^^ 

Cludmg bag) { SHBEWSBUBt 

Idem Chuboh Stbettox 

= 12 'score' = 240 lbs. ) •» > /^ 

gross (seldom grown) } »'*««"» Caotie 

Idem Ludlow 

= ^^'J^' '^ " •****«* { BaiMNORTH 

gross ) 

= 12 'score' + 10 lbs. = 

250 lbs. 

} Wellinotow 

= 12'8Core' + 4lbs.forbagl *r-«»^»« 
= 244 lbs. ) NiwPOBT 

= 235 lbs. (including bag) Mabkit Dbatton 




Per sack 
Per bushel 

Per sack 
Per bushel 

BSAirS — [conftflueeT]. 

= 12 'score' = 240 lbs. 

= 60 lbs. 





Per bag of 3 bushels 
Per bag 
Per sack 

Per sack 

Per bag of 3 bushels 

Per bag 
Per sack 

Per bag 
Per — ? 

Per imperial bushel of 32 

Per bushel or strike 


Per sack of 6 bushels 

Per bushel 

Per sack of 5 bushels 

Per bushel or strike 

230^1b^(includingbag) } Shbkwsbubt 

= 4 'score* =80 lbs. ) 

> Church Stbettov 
= 12 * score ' = 240 lbs. ) 

= 12 * score ' =: 240 lbs. Bishop's Castlk 

Idem Ludlow 

= 200 lbs. (induding bag) Wsllingtov 

= 225 lbs. (mcluding bag) Mabket Dbatton 

= 12 'score * + 5 lbs. for bag Ellesmsbb 
= 00 lbs. Oswbstbt 


j Ooxxoir 


56 lbs. (without bag) 
280 lbs. 
66 lbs. 

280 lbs. 
56 lbs. 


Chuboh Stbetto5 
Bishop's Castlk 


Bbidonobth ' 

Per sack of 4 bushels of 56 
lbs. each 

Per sack = 


j Wellinotov 

Per pack* 


224 lbs. 

16 stones of 14 lbs. each Nbwpobt 

Idem ) 

= 20 stones = 280 lbs. ) 

Mabket Dbattor 

i'er nek of 5 bushels 

Per bushel 


Per sack of 6 bushels 
Per sack 



= 14 •score' = 280 lbs. 
= 66 lbs. 

= 280 lbs. 
= 280 lbs. 








1 cwt = 112 lbs. (with- c 
out bag) Shbhwsbubt 

Per sack [hran\ 

Per bushel 

Per sack 


Per sack [dnrn] 
Per bag 



Per \ffurgeon8 and sharp$} 

Per bag [6ra»] 

Per sack 


= 112 lbs. 
= 168 lbs. 


= 66 lbs. 

U cwt. = 168 lbs. (with- 
out bag) 

= 1 cwt. = 112 lbs. 



short cwt. = 100 lbs. 
•score' = 20 lbs. 

Ohuboh Stbxtton 
I Bishop's Castlb 



Mabkbt Dbattoh 

= 6 


6 'score' 
'score ' = 20 lbs. 



Per bushel or strike, which 
from 'getting up time' 

After that time 

Per bag of 2 bushels 

Per heaped bushel at ' get- 
ting up time ' 
In the spring time 

Per bag of 2 bushels 

Per bag at 'getting up 

In the spring 


90 lbs. 

= 96 lbs. 
= 90 lbs. 

= 180 lbs. 

90 lbs. 
80 lbs. 


• Chttboh Stbbttok 

> Bishop's Cabtli 


Per bushel 
Per bag of 9 pecks 
Per bag 

Per pot 

Per measure 

Per bag of 2 measures 

Per measure 

Per strike which from 
'fi^etting up time' till 

After that time 

Per strike 




= 80 lbs. 

= 180 lbs. 

= 10 score =200; lbs. (in-) 
eluding bag) / 

= 90 lbs. 

= 90 lbs. 

= 80 lbs. 

= 96 lbs. 
= 90 lbs. 

= 90 or 95 lbs. 





Market Dbatton 


Per heaped bushel or 
strike, or parts thereof 

Per heaped imperial 
busheL or by quarter, 
or pecK 

Per pot 

= 90 lbs. 

Per bushel for dder 

Per pot 

Per pot [choice fruit] 

= 80 lbs. 
= 20 lbs. 

Per pot of 6 pecks 

= 631bs. 

Per peck of 8 quarts, 
generally heaped 

Per pot 

= 90 lbs. 

Per measure 

= 80 lbs. 


= 84 lbs. 


= 90 lbs. 


= 96 lbs. 

I Shbewsbubt 


Chuboh Stbetton 

Bishop's Castle 





Mabket Dbatton 

Same as apples, excepting that 'summer fruit' is sold per 'measure' 
90 lbs., and ' winter fruit ' per ' measure ' = 80 lbs. ; Ellesxebe. 


Per quart* 


Per heaped bushel, or 

strike, or parts thereof 



Per quart 

Per pot of 2 pecks 

Per pot 



Idem * 



Per measure of 38 quarts 

Per measure 




= 90 lbs. 

= 90 lbs. 

= 90 lbs. 

= 90 lbs. 

= 95 lbs. 


> Church Stbettox 

Bishop's Castlb 





Market Dratton 




' Apples are sold retail in Oswestry market —per hundred— the method of 
counting^ them is a simple and expeditious one. The seller takes three apples 
in each hand, and throws the six into the buyer's basket —repeating this process 
20 times, until the ' six score the hundred' is completed. 

* Dameone were sold in Shrewsbury market in 1877, for the extraordinarily 
high price of Is. 2d. per quart ; in 1845, a year of great scarcity, they fetched 
IsL per quart 



= 120 lbs. 





Per 'kng'cwt. 

= 121 lbs. 

Market Dratton 





Of. to the lb. Market, 

16, 18 Shrewsbury 

16, 18» 20 Church Strbtton 

16 Bishop's Castle 

16 Ludlow 

17 Bridgnorth 

18, 22 Wellington 

18 Newport 

20, 22 Market Drayton 

24 [dish] • Whitchurch 

Idem Ellbsxerr 

16,20 Oswestry 




Oz. to ik$ lb. Market. 

16 GoxMOV 


So many for Is. or 6d. . Common 


The weight of ' beasts' and pigs is estimated to the batcher by 
the score — beef so many * score* per side or quarter, pigs so many 
* score ' the whole carcase. Calves and sheep so many lbs. per quarter. 
But the batcher sells by the lb. Weight by the stone is recognized, 
but rarely employed. 

A stone of beef =12 lbs.; Ludlow. 

„ =14 lbs.; Brioonobth. 
= 8 lbs. ; Ellbsmerb. 


Acre statute, usual acreage. 

Acre of Hops, about half a statute acre, being as much land as is 
required for 1000 hop plants; Ludlow. 

Bood = rod, IB a measure of 8 yds. lineal, employed for hedging, 
ditching, draining, &c.; Com. 

The rood is also employed as the basis of denomination for 
Square Measure — a ' digging rood,' as for cottage gardens, potatoe 
ground, &c., ia 64 square yards, i. e. 8 x 8 ; ConL Ct N. ^ d 
[5th S. X. 284]. 

Perch [paer^'k], fencing or ditching, 8 yds. Lineal; Cleb Hillb. 
„ „ „ 7 „ „ Ludlow. 

„ walling 16| ft. Ludlow. 


Lugg, a term in wood measurement =149 sq. yds. of coppice 
wood; Ludlow. 

A Cord of Wood* measures 8 ft. long, 3 ft 1 inch wide, and 
5 ft. 1 inch high ; Com. 


10 CiordB of Wood to one Charcoal-fire. 

A laek of oharcoal = 14 bushels. 

PaggotSy 120 per hundred = 6 ' gcore ' ; Clun ; Ludlow. 

Coal, a ton = 20 cwt of 112 lbs. each at some pits. 
„ „ idem „ 120 lbs. (called 'long weight*) at 


Hay, a ton = 20 cwt. of 112 lbs. each ; Qy. com. 

Hand-breadth* = 3 inches — sometimes used for Hand — a rather 
loose expression, signifying approximately rather than exactly; 

Swath * of Hay-grass = 39 inches ; Ludlow. 

Shock of com = 6 sheaves ; Worthen, Minsterley, 

Idem =12 „ Ludlow. 

Thrave* of com = 24 „ Com. 

Boltin* of (thatching) straw = 14 lb&; Worthen, Mineterley. 
Qy. com. 

Battin* „ „ = 2 sheaves; Ellesmere. 

Thrava „ „ = 24 • boltin ' = 336 lbs. ; 

WoRTHBN, Miruterley. Qy. com. 

Idem idem =12 'battin'; Elli»mere. 

Idem idem = 24 sheaves; Market Drayton. 

Baker's Dozen = 13 ; Com. 

Cider hogshead =100 galls.; Ludlow; Bridgnorth. 



The following ia liiercUim et verbatim what Bettj Andrews — a 
Church Pulverbatch woman — said when relating the account of how 
her little boy had fallen into the hrook at Cruck Meole, where she 
was then living [1873]. But no written characters of any kind — 
no ' want of stops ' — can convey an idea of the story as poured f(»ih 
by good Betty's voluble tongue — it took away one's breath to listen 
to it : — 

** I 'eard a scrike ma'am an' I run an theer I sid Frank ad pecked 
i' the bruck an' douked under an' wuz drowndin' an' I jumped after 
'im an' got out on 'im an' lugged 'im on to the bonk aU sludge an' I 
got 'im wham afore our Sam comen in — a good job it wuz for Sam 
as 'e wunna theer an' as Frank wunna drownded for if 'e 'ad bin I 
should 'a' tore our Sam all to winder-rags an' then 'e'd a bin djed an' 
Frank drownded an' I should a bin 'anged. I toud Sam wen 'e t(Sok 
the 'ouse as I didna like it. — ' Bless the wench,' 'e sed, ' whad'n'ee 
want 1 Theer's a tidy 'ouse an' a good garden an' a run for the pig.' 
* Aye,' I sed, * an' a good bruck for the childern to peck in,' so if Frank 
'ad bin drownded I should a bin the djeth uv our Sam. I wuz that 
frittened ma'am that I didna spake for a nour after I got wham an' 
Sam sed as 'e adna sid me quiet so lung sence we wun married an' 
that wuz eighteen 'ear." 


' " Ei* eeVd u skr'ei'k mum un ei r'un* un dhoeV ei sid* Frang'k 
ud pek't i dhu br'uk* un dou'kt un'dur un wuz dr'ou'ndin un ei 
jum'pt af'tur' im un got' ou*t on im un lug-d im on* tu dhu bong-k 
aul slej' un ei got' im wum* u'foa'r* our ' Sam* kum'un in* u 


good* job it WTLB* fva^ Sam* nz ee* wumi' dheeV un uz Fr'ang'k 
wun-a' dr'ou'ndid fur' if* ee ad' bin ei shud u toaV our' Sam* aul* tu 
win'dor'-r'ag'z uu dhen* ee-d u bin jedmn Frang'k dr'ou'ndid un ei* 
afaud n bin ang'd. £i' tou'd Sam* wen ee took* dhu ous* ut ei* 
didnu leik it * Bles' dhu wen'sh,' ee sed', * wod'ni waan*t 1 — dhee'r'z 
n tei'di oas- un u good* gaa*r'din un u r'un* fur* dbu pig*/ * Ay, ei 
sedy 'nn u good br'uk* fui^ dhu chil'dur'n tu pek' in*,' soa* if Fr'ang'k 
ad* bin dr'ou'ndid ei shud u bin dhu jeth*u our* Sam' — ei wuz dhat* 
fir'it'nd mum dhut ei did'nu spai'k fur* u nou'r' af'tur' ei got* wum* 
un Sam* sed* uz ee ad* nu aid* mi kwei'h't* soa* lung* sen's wee wun 
mar**id un dhat* wuz •eit*tee*n ee'r'." 


" A'y*-:ee*uVd-u'-8kr'a'y'k-mu'm u'n-a'y-r'un* u*n-dh:ee*u'r^ a'y-si'd' 

Fr'a'ng-k-u'd-pek't-i'-dhu'-br'uk' u'n-duwkt-un*duY u'n-wu'z-dr'uwn 

di'n u*ii-a'y-jum*pt a'f*tu'r'-i*m u'n got* uw*t-:on-i*m u'n-lug-d-i'm on 

tu'-dhu' b:ong'k :aul*-elaej*u'n-a'y-got-i'm-woem' u'f:oa'uY-uwu'r'-Sa'm' 

kum'tt'n-i'n* — u' g:oo*d-job i't-wuz'-fu'r'-Sa'm* u'z-ee-wun'u'-dhtee'u'r* 

u'n-u'z-Fr'a'ng'k wun*u'-dr'uw*ndi'd fu*r-i*f*-ee^'d*-bi'n a'y-shu'd-u'- 

txMiTiV uwu'r'-Sa'm* »ul*tu'-win'du'r^-r'a'g'z u'n-dhen':ee*d-u'-bi'n- 

jaie*d* ii'n-Fr'a*ng*k-dr'uw'ndi'd u'n-a'y-shu*d-u'-brn-a'ng*d. A'y-tuwd- 

Sam* wen-ee-t5ok*-dhu'-uw8S* u'z-a'y-didnu'-la'yk-i't — * Bles'-dhu'- 

wen*8b9' ee-sed*, *wod*ni'-waan't1 — dhiee'u'r'z-u'-ta'ydi'-uwss' u'n-u' 

g:oo*d-g*Aa*r'di*n u'n-u'-r'un* fuY-dhu'-pig*/ 'A'y, a'y-sed*, * u'n-u' 

g:oo*d-br'uk' fuY-dhu'-chil-du'i'n tu'-pek*-in', sioa-i'f-Fr'a'ng'k a'd-bin- 

dr'uw-n-di'd a'y-shu'd-u'-bin dhu'-jae'th* u'-uwu'r'-Sa'm* — a'y-wu'z- 

dha't*-frit*nd-mu'm dhu't-a'y-didnu'-spai'k fuY-u'-nuwu'r'-a'f'tu'r' a'y- 

got'-woem* u'n-Sa'm-sed* u'z ee-a'd'nu' si'd*-mi'-kwa'yh't sioarlung' 

aen-s-wee-wun-ma'i'-i'd u'n-dha't'-wu'z -a'yt-tee-n reeh'r*." 

The same Betty Andrews was telling how she had washed the 
pig's entrails at the ' prill ' [stream] — and here in order to understand 
her story, the Glossary must be anticipated, by explaining that the 
pig's puddings are called respectively, the ' Roger^ the ' Nancy,* and 
the ' chitterlings ' — said Betty, ' I wuz weshin' the bally at the prill 
jest by the stile w'en Dick comen up — awilde I wuz talkin to 'im 
my Roger went, I run down the prill after it, an' afore I could get 


back the Nancy wuz gwun — an' I thought the very Owd Nick wu2 
i' the puddins.' 

' £i* wuz weshin dhu bal'i at dhu pT^il jes't bei' dha stei'l wen 
Dik' knm'un up — ^uwei'ld ei wuz tau'kin tu im' mi Boj*ui^ weni;, ei 
r'un dou'n dhu pr'il* aftur* it un ufoa'i^ ei kud get hak- dhu Nan'si 
wuz gwun' un ei thaut* uz dhu yer'i ou'd Nik* wuz i dhu pudinz.* 

wen-Dik* kumni'n-up — ^u'wa'yid-a'y-wu'z-tau'ki'n-tu'-im' m'i-Roj-uY- 
wen't, a'y-r'un-duwTi-dhu'-pr'il* a'fluY-i't u'n-u'froan'r'-a'y-ku'd- 
g(yet-ba'k' dhu'-Na'n'si'-wu'z-gwoen* u'n-a'y-thaut'-u'z-dhu'-vaeVi' 
uwd-Nik' wu'z-i'-dhu'-pudi*nz." 

Another anecdote of Betty Andrews — as related by herself — ^will 

conclude these ' Specimens/ which being the genuine utterances of a 

good representative spokeswoman of the peasant class, in a pretty 

' central part of the County, may be taken as typical of the Shropshire 


Betty was going in a Market-train from Hanwood to Shrewsbury, 
and while talking with her usual rapidity, was thus addressed by a man 
who was her fellow-trayeller : — * Wy Missis, I should think as yo* 
mun a 'ad yore tongue lied [oiled] this momin' afore yo' started.' 
' No, indeed. Sir,' said Betty, ' I hanna, fur if it 'ad a bin Hed it oM 
never a stopped. No danger I ' 


* Wi Mis'is, ei shud thing'k uz yoa mun u ad* yoa*r' tung'g ei'ld 
dhis maur'*nin ufoaT* yoa staa*r'tid.' 'Noa indee'd Sur,' sed Betd, 
'ei an*u fur' if it ad* u bin ei'ld it 8od nevur' u stop't. Noa* 
'dei'iyur* ! ' 


* Wi'-Mis'i's, a'ywahu'd-thing-k u'z-y:oa mun-u'a'd' yioa'u'r'-tung-g 
a'y'ld-dhi8-maur'*ni'n u'f:oa*u'r'-y:oa-Rt:aaT*ti'd.' *N:oa indee*d-Su'r,' 
sedBe*ti', 'a'y*.a'n'u'fu'r-if-i'tra'd'.u'.bin-a'y'ld i'WSd-naevu'r-u'^top't. 
N:oa 'da'yiyu'r' ! ' 


Ash, John, Neio and Complete Dictionary of the English Language, 
2 Yolfl. London: 1775. 

Bailbt, N., UnivereaJ Etymological English Dictionary, London : 
1727; id. 1782. 

Blount, Thomas, Glossographia : * a Dictionary interpreting the Hard 
Words . . . now nsed in our refined English. Tongue.' London : 

BoswoBTH, Rbv. D&, Compendious Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, London : 

BuBauT, O. F., Glossaire Etymdlogique^ Auz zii® et xiii* si^cles. 
Berlin: 1870. 

Chambaud, Louis M., Dietiannaire fran^ois-anglois, corrig^ et 
augment^ par lui et par M. J. B. Eobinet. Paris : 1776. 

GoLRBiDeis, Herbert, Dictionary of the Oldest Words in the English 
Language^ a.d. 1250—1300. London : 1872. 

Dietionarium EtymoJogicvm Latinvm, See Qneroo below. 

Halltwell, James Orchard, F.RS., Archaic and Provincial 
Dictionary. Bvo. 3rd ed. 1855, and 8th ed. 1874. 

HoTTEN, John Camden, Slatig Dictionary, London : 1864. 

jAMneoN, John, D.D., Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish 
Language. Edinburgh: 1818. 

Meadows, F. C, New Italian and English Dictionary, London : 


Pick, Db. Edward, French Etymologteal Dictionary. London : 1869 

Promptorium Parvulorum, DictionarinB Anglo-Latiniis Princeps, circa 
A.D. 1440. Albbbt Wat, M.A. London: Camden Society, 1865. 

QuEBCO, Thomas, db Saora, Dictionarium Etymologicvm Lattnvm. 
ito. London : Imprinted by Felix Kingston for Andrew Crooke, 
1648. This dictionary is useful for the old English words in its 

BiCHARDS, W., LLD., Welsh Pocket Dictionary, London and 

Stratman, Dr. Francis Henrt, Old English Dictionary^ xiii., ziv., 
and XV. cent. Erefeld : 1867. 

Wat, Albert, M.A. See Promptorium Parvulorum. 

Wedgwood, Hbnslbioh, English Etymology, London : 1872. 

Worcester, Joseph E., LL.D., English Dictionary, ito. London 
and Boston (U.S.) : 1859. 

Wright, Thomas, F.S. A., Obsolete and Provincial English, London : 


Thb f shows that the work to which it is prefixed is either 
Salopian or near akin to the Salopian Dialect. See Introduction^ 
pp. xvi, xvii 

t Alexander and Dindimus. See Skeat. 

t AUsaunder, K, See ihid. 

t AuDELATy John, 27^ Poems of, A specimen of the Shropshire 
Dialect^ xv. cent. ed. J. O. HalliwelL Sm. 800. London : 
Percy Society, 1844. 

Bible Word Book. See Eastwood and Wright (W. AMis). 

t BoTELER, Sir Thomas, Register of. ' This Kegister emhraces ahout 
eight years of the reign of Henry YIIL, goes through that of 
Edward YI., takes in the whole of Queen Mary's, and four years 
of Queen Elizaheth's. . • . The Hegister was written in a clear, 
bold hand. It contained numerous entries of christenings and 
burials, commencing 26th November, 1538, and ending 20th 
September, 1562. It is believed that this valuable and interesting 
Kegister was destroyed in the calamitous fire that consumed the 
mansion of Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, at Wynnstay, in the 
year 1859.' The Rev. Charles Henry Hartshome made extracts 
from the Begister for private reference in 1840, but unfortunately 
' in many instances modernized the spelling.' See below. Harts- 

BuBKS, RoBBRT, Works of. Olobe edition. London : 1873. 

t Byegonee : a Reprint from the columns of the Osweetry Advertizer, 
containing a good many notes on the Shropshire dialect. 1872 — 


CHAUCiBBy Gboffbet, Canterbury Tales (Text of Thomas Tyrwhitt). 
London : Boutledge & Sons. 

Man of Lawee Tale. See Skeat. 

Piioresies Tale. See ibid. 

Prologue^ ^c. See Morris. 

t Chuechtard, Thomas, Poems of (temp. Eliz., 1587). Ed. 1776, 
lexirinted from ed. 1587 for Thos. Evans in the Strand. 

Earlb, JoHir, M.A., Philology of the English Tongue. Oxford : 1871. 

Eastwood, J., M.A., and Wright, W. Aldis, M.A., Bible Word 
Book : a Glossary of Old English Bible Words. London and 
Cambridge : 1866. 

English Dialbot Socibtt, Works of the 

t Farquhar, Gborgb, The Beeruiting Officer : a Comedy. Second 
Edition. Corrected. London : Printed for Bernard Lintoth at 
the Cross Keys next Nando's Coffee House near Temple Bar 

GAiRDMEBy Jambs (of the Public Eecord Office). See Boston Letters. 

Gerarde, John, Herball. London, 1633, Adam Joice Norton and 
Eichard Whitakers. 

t GrOUOH, EiCHARD, Hisiory of Myddle. 1700 — 1701. (Facsimile 
reprint.) Shrewsbury : Adnitt and Naunton, 1875. 

Grose, Franois, Esq., F.A.S., Provincial Dictionary^ with a Collec- 
tion of Local Proverbs and Popular Superstitions. London : 1787. 
See Tegge. 

t Hartshorne, Rev. Charles Henry, Salopia Antiquay &c. ; with a 
Glossary of Words used in the county of Salop. Svo., pp. xxii. 
and 640. London : J. W. Parker, 1841. The Glossary occupies 
pp. 299—622. 

t Extracts from the Regbter of Sir Thomas Butler [Boteler], 

Vicar of Much Wenlock. Made for private reference, a.d. 1840. 
Tenby : R Mason, printer, 1861. 

Havdok the Dane. See Skeat. 


HoLMB, Eakdlb, Academy of Armory, Folio. Printed for the 
Author, Chester, 1688. 

HooKBB, Sir William Jackson, British Flora, 5th ed. London : 

^ Inventcrye. Edm** Waring of Lea, Esq., deceased; taken and 
apprized in May 1** Caroli [1625]. At his howse called Onldbury 
in the Pariah of Bishop's Castle. — Proceedings of the Society of 
Antiquaries of London, Second Series, Vol. vi, No. iv., pp. 363 

Joseph of Arimaihie, See Skeat 

Lancelot of the Laik, See Skeat. 

t Langiand, William, Piers the Plowman (1377 a.d.). See Skeat; 
also Wright. 

Latimeb, Bishop Hugh, Seven Sermons before Edward VL (1549), 
and the Sermon on the Ploughers (18th Jan., 1549). London : 
Arbor's Eeprints, 1868—69. 

Milton, John, Poetical Works of London : W. Smith, 1840. 

Morris, Eby. Dr. R., Chaucer's The Prologue, The Knightes Tale, 
The Nonnes Prestes Tale. 6th edition. Clarendon Press : 1875. 

Specimens of Early Eivglish (a.d. 1298 — 1393) [Morris and 


Historical Outlines of English Accidence, 5th edition. 

London: 1876. 

Historical English Grammar. 3rd edition. London : 1877. 

Kares, Robkrt, M.A, F.RS. (Ven. Archdeacon), Glossary, ito. 
London: 1822. 

Naiural History. See Wood. 

OuPHANT, T. L. KiNOTON, M.A, Sourccs of Standard English. 

London: 1873. 
Owl and Nightingale. See StratmaniL 
t Palemey William of. See Skeat 

Paston Letters (a.d. 1422 — 1509). ed. Oairdner. 3 vols. London : 
Arbor's Reprints, 1872—74—75. 


Pbogb, Samuel, Esq., F.S.A., Supplement to the Provincial Glossary 
of Francis Grose, Esq. London : 1814. See Orose. 

Pierce the Ploughman's Crede, See Skeat ; aL*o Wright. 

t Piers the Plowman, Ibid. 

Proceedings of the Society of Antigtiaries. See Inventorye above. 

Ramsat, Allan, I7te Gentle Shepherd (1725). ed. J. R Edin- 
bui^h: 1875. 

Rat, Rbv. John, F.R.S., Collection of English Proverbs, and a 
Collection of English Words, &c. 4th edition. London: 1768. 

Roister Doister. See TTdall. 

t Sdlopia Antiqua. See Hartflhorne. 

t Salopian Shreds and Patches (uniform with Notes and Queries) ; 
reprinted from Eddowe^ Shrewsbury Journal. Contains a number 
of notes on the Shropshire dialect. 1874 — 78. 

Shakbspearb, William, Works of Globe Edition. London : 1864 

Skkat, Rbv. Walter W., M.A., Edited by — 

t Alexander and Dindimus (a.d. 1340—50, circa). E. E. T. S. 

Chaucer. The Prioresses Tale and the Man of Lawes 

Tale, &C. [Six-text ed.] Clarendon Press : 1874 and 1878. 

Havdok the Dane (a.d. 1280, circa). E. E. T. S. 

Joseph of Arimathie (a.d. 1350, circa). E. E. T. S. 

t JST. Alisaunder {a.d. 1340, circa). See below, William of 


Lanedot of the Laik (a.d. 1490—1500, circa). E. E. T. S. 

Pierce the Ploughman's Crede (a.d. 1394, circa) ; to which 

is appended God Spede the Plough (a.d. 1500, circa). £. E. T. S. 
t Piers the Plowman, Text A. (a.d. 1362), and ditto,Text B. 

(a.d. 1377). E. K T. S. 

Specimens of Early English (a.d. 1298—1393). See Korrit. 

Specimens of English Literature (a.d. 1394— -1579). Claren- 

don Press: 1871. 


SuAT, Rev. Wautsr W., M.A., Edited by — 

t William of Paleme (a.d. 1350, eirea) ; to which is 

appended K. Aliaaunder, See above. £. E. T. S. 

Speed, John, Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain, London : 
Printed for Thomas Basset at the George in Fleet Street, and 
Bichaid Chiswel at the Rose and Crown in St. Paul's Churchyard. 
MDCLXXVI. The Maps of this work, pt L, are of older date 
than the 'Tables of Towns,' &c.; they are of the year 1610. 

Spenser, Edmund, Complete Works of Globe Edition. London : 

Stratmanh, Dr. Frakcib Hbnrt, Owl and Nightingale (xiii. cent.). 
Krefeld: 1868. 

Trench, Archbishop, The Stiidy of Words, 4th edition. London : 

English Past and Present. London : 1865. 

Select Glossary of English Words used Formerly in senses 

different from their Present. 2nd edition. London : 1859. 

TJdall, Nicholas, Roister Doister (before a.d. 1553). London : 
Arber^s Reprints, 1869. 

Wood, Rev. J. G., M.A., F.L.S., Illustrated Natural History, 
3 vols. London: 1863. 

Wrioht, Thomas, M.A., F.R.S., Early Vocabularies (x. — xv. cent) 
2 vols. Privately printed for Joseph Mater, Esq., F.S.A., &c., 
1857 and 1873. 

— — t Vision and Creed of Piers Ploughman. 2 vols. London : 

Wright, W. Aldib. See Eastwood. 


adj., adjective. 
adv.y adverb. 
A.S., Anglo-Saxon. 
BuR.y Burguy*8 Olossaire. 
Cf., confer = compare. 
Chamb., Chambaud's Fren^^h 

Col., Coleridge's Dictionary, 
conj.y conjunction. 
con\f correct = (Analytic Glossic). 
Dan., Danish. 
Diet. Etynou Lat, Dietionarium 

Etymologicvni Latinvm, 
Du., Dutch. 

£. D. S.y English Dialect Society. 
E. R T. S., Early English Text 

emph,f emphatic. 
expLf expletive. 
Fr., French. 
Germ., German. 
Hal., Halliwell's Dictionary, 
IceL, Icelandic. 
ifiterj.f interjection. 
M. E., Middle English. 
M. T., Miners* term. 
N., Norse. 

N. & Q., Notes and Queries, 
ohs., obsolete. 
obsols,, obsolescent. 
O.Du., Old Dutch. 
O.E., Old English. 

O.Fr., Old Flench. 
O.H., Germ., Old High German. 
O.K, Old Norse. 
part, adj,f participial adjective. 
part, past, participle past. 
pec,, peculiar [use]. 
phr,, phrase. 

Pick, Pick's French Dictionary, 
Piers PI,, Piers the Plowman, 
pi,, plural. 
P, PI, Cr,, Pierce the PlaughnuaCs 

prep,, preposition. 
pret,, preterite. 
Prompt. Parv., Promptorium 

pron,, pronoun. 
sb,, substantive. 
sL, slang. 
«Z.1 slangish. 

STRAT.,,Stratman'8 DieHonary, 
unemph,, unemphatic. 
V, a,, verb active. 
var, pr., variety of pronunciation. 
V, n., verb neuter. 
W., Welsh. 

Way, Notes in Protnpt, Parv, 
Wbdo., Wedgwood's English 

Wr , Wright's Provincial Diet, 
Wr. vocabs., Wright's Early 






A [u' and aa], {l)pr(m, 3rd pers. sing, and plur. he, they. See Oram- 
mar Oatlines, Ptonouna, ' A woz all of a dither. * * Whad wrrn a doin* 
theer?' Mr. OHphant, in his Sources of Standard English^ p. 192, 
Bays that 'The Mandlyng Synne' [Bobert of Bnmne, 1303] should 
be oompared with another poem due to the same slure [ButUnd], 
and written fiye hundred and sixty years later ; I mean Mr. 
Tennyson's ' Northern Farmer.' Some of the old forms are there 
repeated, especially the a, which stands first in the following rimes : 

' He ys wur^y to be shent, 
For a do> a^ens ^ys comaundment' — p. 84. 

And in a note, he adds : ' The he had become ha and then a ; this is 
one of the then new forms we have rejected. Mrs. Quickly used it.' 
See Hen, F., II. iii. The Shropshire a for they represents, according 
to Mr. Oliphant, the old AS. hi. They is a Scandinayian innovation. 

(2) [uHT more emphatically [*aa]. See Grammar Outlines, verb 
Have. < We mun a mis oven fettled afore we putten another batch in.' 

' ... he sayd it was Harry Gray that thei talkyd of; and my Lord 
sayd, ''I was besy with m this fewe days to a maryd hym to 
a jantyUwoman jn NorfoULO that schall haye iiijc. marc to hyr 
manage."' — PoiUm LeUera, A.D. 1464, yol. i. p. 302. 

(3) {j^9 prepositional prefix to nouns, adjectiyes, and yerbal nouns 
in '%ng. It is equiyalent to at, in, on, or on the; and represents the 
AS. it, at, or on, used in comx>o8ition for in, on, upon, 

AASOH'S-BOD [aeVunz r'od'l, sb, Solidago Virgadreaf common 
Gk)lden rod. — WkiTCUUJiOH, TiUtock, 

ABERB [u'bee-nr'], v. a. to bear ; endure ; tolerate. — Ellbbkbrb. 
' The missis toud me I wu2 to sarye them pigs an' I oonna-d-odere it,' 
AS. aberan, to bear, suffer. 


ABIDE [u'beid'], v, a. to brook ; to suffer ; to pat up with. — ^Wex. 
Qy. com. ' I caona-d-aMVie them under-'onded ways.' 

' . . . would write also to my Lord of Oxford, but that he is so 
yexed in spirit *' in thys trouble seson," that at times he cannot abide 
the signing and sealing of a letter.' — Paston Letters, ▲.D. 1450, vol. L, 
p. 168. 

' I cannot abide swaggerers.' — 2 Hen, IV. , U. iy. 118. 

loeL bi^, to wait ; endure ; suffer. Cf . A.S. dbidan, from Udan^ to 

ABOVE-A-BIT, adv, to an excessive degree. Com. "£ fund as 
'e'd got all the work to do 'isself, so 'e off wuth 'is smock an' went into 
it ahove-a-biV 

ABBOAD [u'br'aud'l o^t;., pec, away; in some other direction. 
— PTTLyEKBATOH. * That peckled 'en's al*ays about the door 65th 'er 
chickens ; I wish 'er'd tak' 'em abroad awilae.' 

ABBOH [ai'br'unl, adj., oha, auburn. — Pulvbrbatch. "Er wuz a 
sweet pretty babby, 65th nice abron ar, but too cute to liye.' 

' A lustie courtier, whose curled head 
With abrofi locks was fairly famished.' 

Hall., Sat. VL 111, S. 6, in Wb. 

ABujndATIOV [u'bun'dai''sh*n], sb., var, pr, abundance. Com. 

ABXrSEFTJL [u'beus'ful], adj,, var. pr. abusive. — Pulverbatch ; 

ACHEBN [ach'ur'n], sb, an acorn. — Cleb Hilub; Wbm ; Ellesmerb. 
* We bin gwe'in after acherne,* Olans, an achame, Yocab. Harl. MS. 
1002. Acchame, okecome, Ort. Y. In the curious inventory of the 
effects of Sir Simon Burley, who was beheaded 1388, are enumerated 
' deux pairs des pater nosters de aumbre blanc, Tun countrefiait de 
Atchemes, I'autre rounde.' — ^MS. in the possession of Sir Thomas 
FhUlipps. — ^Way, in Prompt. Parv,, p. 6. A,S. cecem, 

ACHEBHIHO [ach'ur'nin], part, gathering acorns. — Cleb Hili^; 
Weh ; Ellesmebe. ' The childem bin gwun achemin.* 

ACKEB [ak-ur'], v. n, to tremble with passion, to chatter. — ^Pulver- 
batch; Wem. "Is tith far ackered togither' = his teeth fedrly 
chattered. W. achreth, a trembling. 

ACXEBH [ak-ur'n], *&., var. pr. an acorn. — Shbewbbubt ; Pulvbb- 

' . . . hakemea & ^e hasel-notes, 
& o)>er frut to ]>Q fiille : {'at in forest growen.' 

William of Paleme, 1. 1811. 

Aoecmef or archarde, frute of the oke. — GlaiiB, Prompt, Parv, 
Gf. Achem. 

ACKEBHnrO [ak'ur'nin], part, gathering acorns. — Shrewsbubt ; 
PuiiVEBBATOH. * Bin 'ee gwein cickernin' f ' 

ACKEB8PIBE [ak-ur'speir'], v. n. to sprout, to germinate abnormally. 
Said of potatoes. — Ellesmebe; Wem. <I doubt the tittoes 11 
ackerttpire wuth this wet.' Potatoes are acker apired, when after a dry 


season heavy rain sets in, and £he snper-abundant moisture causes 
them to put forth new tubers, instead of increasing them in size, 
thus spoiung the jprowth. Of. ackerspier in Ra.t*8 ' r^orth Country 
Words/ B. 15, E. D. S. 

ACQXJAIHTAHCE [u'kweintuns], sh,, pec. a ' fiancee.'— Much 

Wenlock. * Molly, do you know that Miss F is going to be 

married ? ' ' Well, sir, 1 thought I sid 'er 5dth an (icquainiance.* 

ASE [aid*], sh, a reach in the Severn. This term is ' applied by 
navigators of the Severn to reaches where there are eddies in the 
river, as Sweney [aic] Ade, Preen's Ade, &c.' See The Severn 
Valley, by J. Bandatl, 1862, pp. 69-70. Ade may be perhaps A.S. ed, 
which as a prefix means anew, again, as the Latin re, and A.S. ea, 
running water, a river. 

ADLABD [adiund], same as Adlant below. — Newport. 

ADLANT [ad'lunt], sb, the border of land left at the ends of the 
furrows for turning the plough on. The headland. Com. To ' turn 
on a mighty narrow adlant* is a proverbial 8a3dng expressive of a 
very narrow escape, as from peril of death or from calamity. ' To 
plough the adlanU afore the huts ' is to begin a matter at the wrong 
end. Thus a man who asked the father's permission to propose to 
his daughter was said to have made a mistake, * ploughed the (uJUanU 
afore the buts I ' 

A-DOlfE [u'dun*], v. a. leave off ; have done. Com. ' A-done now 
Ven I spake.' Qt A (2). 

APEASD [u'fee'ur'd], adj, afraid. Com. 'To needna be afeard 
o* gwei'n through the leasow, they'n mogged the cow as 'iled poor 
owd Betty Mauus.' A.S. AfJeran^ to terrSy. 

' For be he lowed man or elles lered. 
He not how sone that he shal ben afered* 

Chauceb, G. 21, L 12218. 

* And, bro)>er, be >ou nou3t aferd ' ; by thenk in thyn herte, 
|k)U2 )>ou conne nomt ^e Crede * kare l^ou no more.' 

P. PL Cr., 1. 130. 

' I have not scaped drowning to be afeard now of your foiur legs.' 

Tempest, 11. ii. 63. 

A-ferdeTor trobelid, K. II. P.). Territus, perterritiM (turhaius, per- 
turhaius, K. P.). Forby, in enumerating among the provincialisms 
of Norfolk the word afeard, noticed that formerly it was not, as at 
present, synonymous with afraid. 

* This wif was not afered ne affrayed;* — Chaucer. 

The Harl. MS. indeed, renders both aferde and afrayed by territus, 
but the reading of the King's MS. agreeing with the printed editions, 
seems preferable. Aferde or trobelid, iurbatus perturhatus, — Prompt. 
Parv, and Notes, 

AFOBE [u'foa'ur']. (l)2?rc/?. before; in front of. Com. *Theerwuz 
the chib right afore ^e 'orse an' nobody nigh, er dunna know whad 
fear is.' A,S. at-fore, before. 

B 2 


' They him saluted, standing far aforeJ 

Sfensek, Faery Q., B. I. canto x. 49. 

(2) adv. before ; in time past Com. ' 'Ks bin theer a/ore I know, 
80 dunna tell me.' 

* Ste. ... He shall taste of my bottle : if he have never drank 

wine a/ore, it will go near to remoye his fit.' 

Temped, U. iL 78. 

AFTEBCLAP [af'turldap*'], sb. an unpleasant outcome of some affidr 
supposed to have been set at rest. — Pulvebbatch. — Qy. com. *It's 
al'ays best be earful an' sen' some one as knows thar business an' 
then theer's no a/terdaps.* 

* For the assaults of the devil be craftie to make us put our trust in 
such armour, bee will feine himself e to flie ; but then we be most in 
jeopardie. For he can give us an afterclap when we least weene, that 
IS, suddenly retume unawares to us, and then he giveth us an afkr^ 
dap that overthroweth us, this armour deceyveth us.' — LcUimef^M 
Sermons, in Wb. 

AETEBIKOS [af-tur'inz], sb. the last milk drawn from a cow; 

— PULVEBBATCH. Of. DrippilLgB. 

AFTEE-MATH raf*tur'math*1, sb, a second growth of grass after 
the hay crop. — ^Newpobt ; l!LLES3fEBE. A.8. ce/ter, after ; and A.S. 
base, maii, cognate with Lat. metore, to mow. Ct Edgrow, also 

AOATE [u'gait*], adv. this term expresses doing or beginning to do 
a thing ; and is generally used with the verb ' get,' but not always. 
— ^Wem ; Whitchtjech; Cheahire Border, * Whad hau yo bin agate 
on P ' * Yo can get agate o' that job, as soon as yo'n a mind.' 

' I pray you, Memory, set him agate agEun.' 

0. P., V. 180, inWa. 

Afih has the word, which he calls local, * On the way; in a state 
of motion.' A gate = on gate, on the way. 

AOE [aij'ly V. n. to grow old in appearance. Com. 'The maister's 
beginniir to age oncommon fast, an' 'e inna whad yo' met'n call so 
owd, about fif^, or fifty sa'one.' O.Fr. aage; Mod.^r. age. 

AGEH [u'gen*], (1) prep, against. Com. *'E fat 'im a girder as 
sent 'im o'er, right agen the bonk.' 

' He gripen sone a bulder ston. 
And let it fleye, ful good won, 
Agen pe dore, )?at it to-rof.' 

Havdoh the Dane, 1. 1792. 

(2^ Opposite to. Oom. ' Oud it up a^en the light an' then we shan 
be aole to see w'eer the faut is.' 

' On his nth shuldre sw[i|']e brith, 
Brithter l^an gold a^eyn Jto lith.* 

Havdok the Dane, 1. 2141. 

(3) Contiguous to. Com. ' Lave that bouk agen the pump Veer I 

ptit it.' 

(4) Averse to ; opposed to. Com. * *£ wuz agen the weddin' altogether.' 


S\) By ; towards. Com. ' If I start now I shall get theer agen the 

(6) oJv. conj. by the time that ; when. Com. ' Mind an' '&ye the 
OTen whot ctgen I come wham.' 

(7) (idv. at a future time. Com. ' I hanna got it now, but III gie it 
yo' agen' A.S. <igen; commonly, ongedn; against. 

AOO,EAO,EEO,EOO [ag*], Pulverbatch. [fag- or feg*], Clee Hills. 
[®^]> Wem ; v. o. to incite, to provoke. ' Joe's as qiuet a fellow as 
ever wuz aid ; 'e didna want to fight, on*y they agged 'im on.' 

AOWIHE [n'gwei-n corr. u'gwa'yn], part, a-going. — Church 
Stretton. * Bin yo agwine f ' 

AID [aid*], sb. a gutter cut across the ' buts ' of ploughed lands to 
carry off the water from the *reans.' — Church Stretton; Cleb 

ATDLE [aid'l], acy., ohs.y^var. pr. unproductive, rotten ; addled; said 
of eggs. — ^Pulverbatch; Worthbn. 'I've 'ad despert poor luck 
56th my 'en's this time. I set three 66th. duck eggs an' two 65th 
thar own ; an' three parts on 'em wun aidU.* 

AIDLED [ai'dld], part, adj.^ var, pr, same as ' aidle.' — Clun. See 
Kez* to nez*. A.S. ddl^ diseased, corrupted, putrid. 

AI0LE8 [aig'lzl (1) ah, ph, ohgA spangles; tinsel ornaments of 
a showman's dress. — Pulverbatch. *Han 'ee sin Bessey Pugh 
sence 'er's comen back throm Lunnun ; 'er's got a bonnet as shines 
aU o'er like aiglea on a showman.' 

(2) 9h. pl,f ohs. scintillations which appear on the surface of iron pots 
when removed from the fire. They are supposed to be Lamillse of 
Salts of Iron, caused by the decomposition of the pots by the gases 
from the fire. — ^Worthen. 'Mina Veer yo' purn that marmint 
aw'ilde the tUglea bin on it.' 

(3) 8h. pi, icicles. — Wem ; Elleshere. ' It must a bin freezin 'ard 
i' the neet, theer's aigles o' ice 'angin' from the aisins.' Cf. agglct 
acitf, Prompt. Farv,, and (iglet in Wedo. Fr. aguillette, 

AILZE [ail'z], ah,^ oba.l form of 'Alice.' — Pulverbatch. 

AIHT [ain't], sb,, var. pr. aunt. — ^Worthen. Cf. Ifaint 

AISIH [aizinly sb. the eaves of a house. Com. 'Them Jack- 

3 nailers bin buildin' under the aisin a^n, I see.' The singular and 
ural forms of this word are used mdiscriminately for 'eaves;' 
though in some districts aisina has a distinct meaning as shewn below. 
Cf. Suiners. 

AISIHS, eb. pi. the drops of water which fall from the eaves 
or ' aiain.' — Shrewsbury, Uffington ; Newport, Shiffnal. * Mother, 
'ere's our Turn standin' under the aiaina o' purpose to get wet.' 
* Oud yore dack, I amma, for theer's none spottm\ 

AI8IH-SPASB0W [aizin spa'r'u'l, ab. Pania domeaticvSy the common 
HouaMparrow.— Shrewsbury; Pulverbatch; Wem. 

AI8IB& [ais'tai^, (1) ab,^ obaola, the biick-work forming the back of 


old-fashioned fire-places, against wMch the polished fire-irons generally 
hang : sometimes it is * spattled ' or else picked out with white lines on 
a black ground. See Spattled (2). — Fulverbatch ; Ellesmere. 
* Wy look 'ow yo'n coUowed yore face ! as if yo'd newly comen 
down the chimloy and kissed the aisterJ Cf. Backaister. *As 
black as the aister,* is a phrase employed to express any sooty, grimy 
appearance. Lambardd in his Perambulation of Kent, ed. 1596, p. 
562, says that this word was in his time nearly obsolete in Kent, 
but that it was retained in * Shropshyre and other parts.' See for this, 
aider in HaL, ed. 1855. O.Fr. astrct aiatre^ foyer; chemin^e. Mot 
d'origine inconnue. — ^BuB. 

(2) sb, var, pr. Easter. — ^Pulverbatch ; Ludlow. 

AITCH [aich*], sb, a paroxysm of suffering, as in cases of inter- 
mittent disoider ; a turn of illness. Qy. com. ' They tell'n me as 
poor owd Matty Eoberts is mighty bad.' * Aye 'er's uset to these 
aitcheB every spring an' fall.' Fainting-aitchea are attacks of faint- 
ness. Hot and cold aitches, alternations of heat and ^liiH in feverish 

* " Now swete," seide alisaundrine ' ** seie me in what wise 
\>&t \>n,t hache j^e haldes ' & how it ]>e takes ? " 
** I-wisse," seide william * ** i wol it nou^t layne, 
sum-time it hentis me wip hete * as hot as am fiire, 
but quicliche so kene a cold ' comes )>er-after." ' 

Wvlliam of Palerne, 1. 905. 

A.S. Gec«, ache ; pain ; ec«, cece, an impleasant feeling ; an ache. 

AITHEB [ai'dhur*], pron. either. — Ludlow; Newport. Qy. com. 
A. 8. c^\>erf either. 

* Chese on aither hand, 
Whether the lever ware 
Sink or stille stande.' 

Sir Trietremy p. 154, in Hal. 

AITBEDAF [a'ytr'i'dan-'], Pulverbatch ; Clee Hills, sb. a mad-cap 
frolic ; a foolish prank. ' I warrand yo' bin off now on some wild 
aitredan or other. 

ALD ['.aul'd and :aud], v. a. to hold. — Corvb Dale. 

' Ouratus resident thai schul be. 
And aid houshold oponly.' 

JOHJT AuDELAys PoemSy p. 33. 

ALE [ail-1, ale. Com. [ai-h'l], Ludlow, Burford. [eel- ; yi'-u'l], New- 
port. iYa/Q'l]fCoB.TEl)AijR; Bridgnorth, [yu*l-], Oorvb Dale. 

ALE-HOOF [ail-oof''],«ft. NepSta GlecJiomatgtoimd ivy. — CorveDalb; 
Bridgnorth. * Ground luy,' sa3rs Gerarde, ' is commended against 
the humming noyse and ringing sound of the eares being put into 
them ; ' as ' a remedie against the Sciatica or ache in the huckle bone,' 
and for ' any griefe whatsoeuer iii the eyes.' After relating these and 
other 'vertues'of this *herbe,'he goes on to say: *The women of 
our Northeme parts, especially about Wales and Oheshire, do tunne 
the herbe ale-hoof into their ale ; but the reason thereof I know not : 
notwithstanding without all oontrouersie it is most singular against 


the griefes aforesaid : being tunned yp in ale and dmnke, it also 
pu^eth the head from rheumaticke humors flowing from the brain.' 
—Herhall, Bk. IL, p. 856. 

ALE-POSSET [ail*po8'i't], sh. milk curdled by pouring < old beer ' 
into it when at boiling point. The whey strained from the curd, 
spiced, sweetened, and taken ' piping hot,' is considered a specific in 
cases of cold. — Pulverbatch. Qy. com. ' Jack, you had better take 
care of that cold, I'll make you an ale-posset to mght' * Thank yo'. 
Missis, that'll tak' car o' me, nod the ooud.' W. poset, curdled milk. 

ALE-SCOEE [ail'skoa'ur'], sb. a debt at the ale-house. — Shrbwsburt ; 
PuLTERBATCH; Ellesmere. Qv. com. * Tum's a cHyer workman 
an* gets good money, but agen *e'a paid *is ale-ecore every wik theer 
inna much lef to tak' wham.* 

* JtuJc Cade, There shall be no money ; all shall eat and drink on 
my wore.'— 2 K, Henry F/., IV. ii 80. 

' Score a pint of bastard in the half-moon.' 

1 K. Henry /F., XL iv. 29. 

^coordinff to Wedgwood, score was originally a notch, then irom the 
custom of Keeping count by cutting notches on a stick, account, 
reckoning, number, the specific number of twenty as being the 
number of notches it was convenient to make on a single stick; 
when that number was complete the piece on which they were made 
was cut off [Ft, taillSe'] and called a tally. 

'Jack Cade, And whereas, before, our forefsithers had no other 
books but the icore and the ially^ tiiou hast caused printing to be 
used.'— 2 K, Henry VI,, IV. v. 38. 

A.S. seeran, to shear ; to cut ; pp. gescoren, shorn. 

ALHALOHTJU) fu'lal-untid], eh,, ohs. the time of the < Festival of 
All-Saints,' AU-nallows. — ^Worthin. 

' Men shulle fpide but fewe roo-bukkys whan that they be passed 
two )eer that thei ne have mewed hure heedys by alhalwentyd*^ 
MS. Bodl. 546, in Hal. 

' Set trees at alhallontide and command them to prosper ; set them 
after Candlemas and entreat them to grow.' — Bay's Frcverhs, p. 40. 

ALL-ALOVO [aul-u'lung-'], phr. from the first.— Ludlow. "E'b 
bin oomin' oM alung* 

ALL-ALOBTO-OH, prep, owing to ; in consequence of. Com. ' James 
France ticed the poor chap ; it wuz all alung on 'im as 'e wuz i' the 

* Bot if it is along on me 
Of l^at ^ vnauanced be, 
Or elles it be long on ^ov. 
The so^ schal be proued nov.' 
Jobs Gk>WER (a.d. 1393), Confemo Amawtis, Bk.^V. 
Specim. Early Eng,^ xx. L 55. 

A.S. gdang, along of, owing to. Cf. Along ofl 

ALL AS IS IS THIS, phr. it comes to this. — Clun; Herefd. 
Border. * Now Turn, all as is ie this ; if yo' dunna stop a-wham an' be 
tidy I man lave yo' ! so now yo' knowen.' 


ALL AS OHE, phr, all the same. Com. * It's aU as one to me.' 
ALL-A-TOCK, phr. all awry. — ^Wellington. 

ALLELTTIA [ali'loo'^yu'l, sh. Genista tindoria^ djer's green-wood. 
— ^PuLYEBBATCH. See Cuckoo*s meat. 

ALL OF A POP, phr. swampy. 'That theer end o' the yoid's 
aUofa pop wnth hu^ neef s ram.' — ^Wem. 

ALL OF A QVOB, phr, this expression, often used when speaking of 
bogey land, is sometimes also employed to denote that peculiar condition 
in the body of a calf or sheep which has been struck, x,e. died of a kind 
of apoplectic fit, where the extrayasated blood can be felt under the 
skin by pressure of the hand on the parts affected. See Ctuob. 

ALL OHE, phr, same as All as one. Com. The phrase ' it is all 
one to me * is seen in its earliest shape, almets an, in the Legend o/8i, 
Margaret (A.D. 1200, drca), p. 6, X E. T. S. : Sources of Standard 
English, p. 116. 

ALL OH* EHD, phr, in confusion; disorder. — ^Ludlow. 'Them 
things bin all on end agen, I see.' 

ALOVG- [ulung'], adv. to send anything ' along ' is to send it home, 
or to some place named. — Ohtjboh Stsettok. Qy. com. * Shall I 
send the mutton alung now, ma*am ? ' 

ALOVO OV, same as All along on. Com. 

' Her, You, mistress, all this coil is long of jotjl* 

Mid, Night's Dream, HI. ii. 339. 

AXAISTER [u'mais'tur'], v, a., ohsoU, to teacL — Clun, Herefd. 
Border, An old man near Leintwardine, speaking of his schoolmaster, 
said, ' ^E used to amaitter me. Sir.' The term is now [1876] rarely 

^ For he may mode amaistrye • . . .* 

Piers PI., Text B. 11, 1. 147. 
' . • . . oesse shal we neuere 
Til mede be \>i wedded wyf ' |>orw wittis of ts alle. 
For we haue Mede amaistried ' with owre mery speche.' 

Idem. 1. 152. 

AHSH-CLERK, «&., obs. a parish clerk. Pegge, under 'clerk,' 
Anecdotes of the English Language, p. 318, says, ' Called amen-<ilerk in 
some places, and in Essex church-derk,' It may be inferred that the 
term ' amen-clerk ' was used in one j>lace, at any rate in Shropshire, 
from the following entry in the Parish Begister of Hopton Castie : — 
' Anno Domi, 1636. 

' Bichardus Beb Amendericus sepultus ma^ prime* 

AHPLE [am'pl], adj,, pec. complete, perfect. — WvK. * It wuz all in 
ample order agen they oomen back.' Cf. Imple. 

AHPOT [am'pu't], eh. a hiomper. — Shbbwsbubt ; Pulvierbatoh ; 
WoBTHEN ; Ellbsmebe. Qy. com. * Poor Dick 66d think it a poor 
Chris'mas if 'e didna *\kre is ampot; 1 al'ays start it toert New 
y's tit' = towards New-year's-tide. 

AH* [cui*]» cot\f. and. Com. A.S. and. 



' . . . . gode lawefi. 
He dede-maken, an ful wel holden.' — Havdok the Dane, 1. 29. 

AHCIENT [ain'shimt], adj. precocious, wise-like ; said of children. 
Com. * Patty wuz a mighty nice little wench, 'er went about things 
so stiddy an' ancient,^ Oi such children it is frequently observed that 
they are ' too cmcient to live.' 

lunger afore VU be about agen. 
occurs in Archhp. Mlfrv^e Vocabulary, x cent., and Mr. Wright says 
that ' the word ancUow continued in use in the English language till the 
fifteenth century.' See Wr. Yocabs., voL i p. 44. Ander is probably 
a corruption of this old form. A.S. ande, andeo, an ancle. 

AHBIBOHS [Bn'di'iiiiz\,,job8ol8, ornamental iron 'uprights' placed 
at each end of the open hearth in old houses, serving as rests for the 
two iron bars, which meeting at an obtuse angle in the centre of the 
hearth, support the logs of the wood fire. — Cltjn. Andirone, or, as 
they are qmte as often called, andoga, may still [1875] be seen in use, 
though there are but few examples of them remaining. 

* 1447, item a pare of andirons,* — Pariah Accounts of Ludlow. * One 
paire of landirons headed with brass.' — Inventory . . . Owlbury 
Manor House, Bishop's Castle, 1625. 

* . . . . her andirofis — 
I had forgot them — ^were two winking Cupids 
Of silver, each on one foot standing, nicely 
Depending on their brands.' — Cymodine, U. iv. 88. 

O.Fr. landier, Landiron shews the Fr. article prefixed. In the 
Fr. landier^ the I also stands for le, Cf. Cobbits. 

AHSOGS [andok's], sb. pi,, obsola. same as Andirons. — Clun. For 
some interesting remarks on andirons and an dogs, see Hal. 

AirEEVB [u'neen'd], same as Anind.— Newport. 

AHEW [u'noo-], same as Anew. — ^Pulvbrbatch. Qy. com. 

' On kneis he faucht, feUe Inglismen he slew ; 
Till hym thar socht may feohtaris than anew.* 

Hekby the Mdtstkel (a.d. 1461, circa), Wattace, Bk. I. 
Specim. Eng. Lit., vi. 1. 324. 

AHIOH [u'nei-], adv. near. — ^Newport ; Wem. * The doctor never 
come anigh.' _ 

AHIND [u'nind*], adv. on end ; upright. — Pulverbatch. * The 
mar aived [heaved] 'er two for^ fit i' the ar an' stud anind bout uprit, — 
'er wuz that frangy.' 

AVOTHEE OVESS 80ST [u'nudhnir'gis'sor't], phr. a different sort ; 
generaUv taken in the sense of * better.' — PcriiyERBATCH. ' Ah I the 
poor oud Missis wuz OTMther gis-sort o' body to 'er daughter-law, 'er'd 
al'ays summat to 'elp out a poor family, but this 'as nuthin to spar 
flunmi 'er finery.' Ynri^ht says in his Prov. Did. * another guess ' was 
a word in common use m the latter half of the seventeenth century. 

' H*as been a student in the Temple this three years, another ghesB 
fellow than this, I assure you.' — Durfey. Madam Fickle, 1682.. 


AVOW [u'nou*], adj. plural form of ' enough/ — Shrewsbury ; 
PuLVEBBATCH. * Han yo' done anow o* tatoes? Yo' know*n as 
theer's the jiner an' 'ie lad for dinner.' 

' He kest the bor doun hawes anowe, 
And com himself doun bi a bowe.' 

Sevyn Sages, 921, in Hau 

* Servile letters anow.* 

Milton, a.d. 1644. Areopagitica, p. 40. 

A.S. gendh, sufficient. According to Mr. Oliphant, gendh gave place 
to innoh about A.D. 1120. Forty years later, about 1160, the com- 
bination 'oh' began to change to that of 'ou,' and innoh became 
inou. See Sources of Standard English, pp. 71, 80. Cf. Anew. 

AXTT-TUHP [an-ti'tump**], sb. an ant-hill. — Clee Hills. ' 'E raved 
an' tore like a bull at a anty-tump.' 

AHIIUST, AHTTHGST [u'nun-at]. Com. [u'nungst], Oswestbt. 
|)rep. opposite to ; against. Generally used in combination with the 
word * right.' ' If yo'n follow the rack alung that green leazow, yo'n 
see a stile right anunsi yo\ an' theer's a fut-road taks yo' straight to 

' And right anenst him a dog snarling-er.' 

Ben Jonson (a.d. 1610), Alchymist, Act U. 

Anunsi seems to be merely a variety oi anenst, which, though recorded 
by AjBh as ' obsolete,' still obtains in several dialects. A. 8. anemn = 
anefen, which see in Strat. Cf. Bight forenungst. 

AWILE [anvei'l], sb., var. pr. an anvil. — Church Strbtton. A.S. 
anfllt, an anvil. 

APPASN [ap'ur'n], sb. an apron. Com. 'Poor owd Anna wuz a 
tidy 56man, yo' never sid'n 'er 66th a dirty cap or appam.* 

'. . . . And therewith to wepe 
She made, and with her napron feir and wnite ywash 
She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she outlash.' 

Chaucer, Beryn, Prd. 31, in Wedo. 

O.Fr. naperon, grande nappe. — Eoquefort. O.Fr. nape, nappe; de 
mappa, avec cnemgement de m en n. — Bur. Mammla, bearm-claS 
' vel rsBgl. Archhp. ^I/ri4i*s Vocabulary, x cent, in Wr. Yocabs., vol. i. 
p. 26. 

Barmeclothe or naprun, Limas. The MeduUa explains limas to be 
'vesUs que protenditur ab umbilico usque ad pedes, qua utuntur servi cod ei 
femine. Anglice, barm cloth.' — Prompt. Parv. and Notes. 

AFPABHTLE [apmr'ntl], sb., obs.'i an apron-fuL — Pulverbatch. 
•Weer'n'ee bin hdsin', Peggy P Yo]n got a good bum.' 'I' the 
paas^ns piece ; theer wuz pretty pickin', I've got whad yo' sin, an' a 
good appamtle o* short ears, as Jack's took wham.' Cf. Hantle. 

APPLE-FOOT [ap-l-fut'l, sb. an apple pasty or * tum-over.' — ^Pulver- 
batch ; Wem. The plural form of the term is * applefit,' but it is a 
stroke of rustic wit to caU them ' crab-toes,' more especiaUy when 
sugar has been sparingly used, and the apples in them are sour. 
They are often given to ' the men ' for their ' oait.' ' Now, Dick, bin 
yo* gwein to get any bayye ? ' * W a'n 'ee got ? ' * Appi^ /lU' ' I 


think it^s 'bout time to lave off them crab'toeSf now theer's a war 
Ihcar] fix>8t o* the groun'.* 

AFSICOCK [ai'pr'i'kok*], sb,, ohs.1 an apricot. — Pulverbatoh. 

* Feed him with apricocks and dewberries.' 

Mida. Nigkfa Dream, HI. i. 169. 

'Apricot/ says Mr. Wedgwood, was 'formeriy apricocks agreeing 
witn Lat. prcecoqiM or prcecocia. They were considered by the fiomans 
a kind of peach, and were supposed to take their name from their 
ripening earlier than the ordinary peach.' 

AB. [aaV], (1) «ft. air. Com. * 'Ow bin 'ee, ma'am 1 ' said old A 
' Better, thank you, since I came into this sweet Shropshire air/ ' Vm 
mighty glad to 'ear yo' say so, ma'am, it's right good owd £ftshioned 
ar, this is.' John Speed (a,D. 1676), in his SfiropsJiyre Described^ 
says, 'Wholsom is the air, delectable and good, yeilding the spring 
and the autumn, seed-time and harvest, in a temperate condition, 
and affordeth health to the inhabitants in all seasons of the year. 
— Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain^ Bk. I. ch. xxxviL p. 71. 

(2) ab, a hare. Com. Of. Tare (1). 
ASOTTE [aar'-geu], ah, same as 'argy' (2). — Wbm. 

ASGTJPT [aar'geufie'], v. n. to aigue. Com. 'It's no use yo' to 
argufy, for yo'n never mak me believe to the contrairy.' 

ABOT [aaVgi*], (1) v, n, to aigne; to discuss persistently. Com. 
' It dunna si'nify talkin' ; I 'ate to 'ear folks argy throm momin' till 
night about nuthin*.' 

(2) »b. an argument ; a contentious discussion pertinaciously carried 
on. Com. ' We 'ad'n a fine argy 'bout it, 'im an' me.' 

(3) [aar^'gi'], tib. an embankment made to protect low-lying 
meadows on Severn side from the river floods.— Shbewsbubt. Mr. 
Hartshome says, ' an embankment between Melverley and Uany- 
mynech,' made to resist the overflowings of the Severn, was known as 
*uie argy.* — Salopia Antigua, p. 306. A place near Kinnersley — a 
raised bemk with a plantation of poplars and other trees — Shaving a 
small brook — the ' strine ' on one side, and a ditch on the other — \b 
called by the people of that neighbourhood ' the argy* W. argae, a 
stoppage ; a dam. 

ABLT [aa-rli'], adv. early. — Shrewsburt; Wem. Qy. com. 

' Quhen that the brjrcht and fi'esch illumynare 
Uprisith arly in his fyre chare.' 

Lancelot of the Laih, Prol., L 4. 

A.S. irUc, early. Cf. Yarly. 

ABH [aaVnl, v. a. to earn. — Shrewsbury; Wem. Qy. com. 
* Whad bin'ee comen wham so arly fur ? To' hanna arned yore 
money I'm sartin.' 

' Fore he wyU drynke more on a dey 
Than thou cane lyghtly ame in twey.' 

MS. Aahmole, 61, f. 23, in Hal. 


ABITESS [aa Vui'sl ; same as Earnest, q. v. Wek. ' Arneste or 
hanselle or emeet, Strena; Prompt, Farv. W. erne$. Of. HanseL 

ABHIHS [aa-r'ninz], sb. pi. earnings. Com* 

ABPIT [aa'r'pit], adj,, ohsols. quick ; ready ; precocious. — Pulvbr- 
BATCH ; Craven Arms ; Church Stretton ; Ci«ee Hills. * 'Er wuz 
sich a mighty arpit little wench, I never thought 'er'd live ; it's sildom 
as they dun, w'en a bin so cute.* Arpit = M.E. orped, Orpud, Audax ; 
Prompt, Parv. Qi, Ancient. 

ABBAHD [ar^'und], sh, a message ; a commission ; an errand. Com. 
* W'eer*8 Bill ? ' * Gwun a narrand for 'is Gran' mother.' 

' One of the four and twenty qualities of a knave is to stay long at 
his arrand.* — HowdVa English Proverh$, p. 2, ed. 1660, in Hal. AS. 
(krende, a message; commission. Bee N in Grammar Outlines 

ABAABTB [aT^nmts], (1) sb, plural form of 'arrand' with per- 
mutation of dtot. Com. ' I like little Sally, 'er^s so nimble on 'er 
arrants — dunna let the grass grow under 'er fit.' 

(2) ah. pi, the miscellaneous contents of a market-basket after beins 
at 'the shops.' Com. Tve a good tuthree arratUa to tak' wheon ? 
that basket as I've soud the fowl out on.' 

ABRAWIG faar'ni'wi'g], sb, an earwig. — Clun, Herefd. border. ' I 
conna bar them nasty arrat£^«.' Arwvgyll, worme. Aurecdle, This 

. insect is called in Norfolk erriwig^le. — Forbt. Li the Suffolk dialect 
arriwiggle. — ^Moore. A.S. e&rwigga, vermis auricularia.— Prompt, 
Parv. and Notes. C£ Erriwig. 

.AimnffAW raar''i'mun], sb. Triton cresfafuSf Crested Newt. — 
Colliert. The primeval drink of immortality is called ' soma ' by 
the Hindus, and * haoma ' by the Zend branch of the Aryans. The 
names are identical, but the plants which produce the juices so called 
are different ; the haoma plant grows like the vine, but its leaves are 
like those of the jessamine ; the Indian soma is now extracted from 
the AadSpiaa Adda. The Iranians, or West Aryans, describe two 
kinds of haoma, the white and the yellow. The latter grows on 
mountains, and W£U9 known to Plutarch. The Parsees of India send 
one of their priests from time to time to Kirm&n to procure supplies 
of the plant for sacred uses. The white haoma is a fabulous plant 
which grows in heaven, in the Youni Kasha lake, in which lake ten 
fish keep incessant watch upon a lizard, sent by the evil power, 
Agramamyus (Ahriman), for the destruction of the haoma. This 
hostile lizard is the serpent or dragon of India. — Kbi^ly's Indo^ 
European Tradition and Folk^lorCf pp. 137-8. 

ABRIVAVCE [u'r'ei-vuns], «6., obsA arrival of company. — ^Pulvkr- 
BATCH. * I spec' they'n be wantin* yo', Betty, to 'elp 'em a bit at the 
owd Maister's, I sid an arrivance theer as I wuz gwein to 'unt some 

* For every minute is expectan 

,IL i. 

Of more arrivance.* — Othetto, H. i. 42. 

ABrSHOBS-LIP [aa-r'shaur'n lip-'], sb. a deft lip ; a ' hare-lip.'— 
Wsh; Ellbsmsre. SeeAr(2). 


AB-SHOTTEH-LIP faai'shot-n-lip''], 'the same. — ^Pulverbatch ; 
Clttn. See Bk. XL, PoUdore, &c,, ' SuperstitioiLS conceming Animala' 

AKTI8HB0W [aai'trshi^oa*'], eh. Corsira vulgaris, the Bhrew-mouse. 
— ^Bbidokobth. Of. NuBsrow. See Bk. XL, Folklore^ &o.» 'Super- 
fltitions oonceniing Animals.' 

AS [u'z], (I) rd. pron. who, which, that. Com. * I'm sartin it 
wnz 'im cm I aid oomin' out o' the '* George." ' 

(2) 7>rep. on, upon. Com. * 'E toud me they wun gweXn theer as 
nex' Saturday, r^y for the Wakes.' 

(3) conj, that Com. ' They sen cm the crannaherries hin despert 
Bcaae this time.' Used also in combination with haw, < I 'eard the 
Maister tellin' the Missis as *aw 'e wuz gwein to Stretton far i' the 

(4) V, a, has. Com. 'I sid Jack ^ein t6ert the tatoe-slang ; <u a 
t^k the shareyil 56th 'im dun 'ee think P ' As ia this case is merely 
an inslbEmce of the general usage in Shropshire of ' dropping the H,' 
but is noteworthy as being the form used by Shropsnire'-s poet-* 
the blind monk of Haughmond — ^in the fifteenth century : 

< That hol6 cherche as bound me to, 
Qrawnt me grace that fore to do.' 

John Audelay's Poems, p. 57. 

ASOAL [az'gul], same as Askal, q. v. Much Wexlogk. 

ASHEH-PLAITT [ashni'n plant*'], sb, an ash sapling cut to serve as 
a light walking-stick or ' cane.' — Pitlyebbatoh. * Whad a despert 
srode lad that Tum Rowley is, 'e wants a good ashen-plant about 'is 
'ide oftener than 'is porritch.' 

< His ashen spear that quivered as it flew.' — Dbyden. 

ASIDE [u'seid'], adv. beside. Com. * Mighty bad ! mighty bad^ 
poor young 66man, 'er's got the pipus [typhus] faiver — the fluency 
f influenza] an' 'afe a dozen plaints aside.' So said Sally * Eaizwil ' 
iKearstodt] of Longden, 1860 circa. 

ASIDEV [u'sei'dn], adv. on one side. Com. ' To' hanna ptit yore 
shawl on straight, the cornels bin all asiden.* 

'All <mding as hogs fighting.' — Bay's Proverbs, p. 51. 

A8KAL [os'kn'll, sb. Lophinvs punctatns, the smooth newt. — • 
Shbewbbttby ; Pulvebbatch. *I carried up a barrel, ma'am, out 
o' the cellar into the foud, an' as I turned it the one end uwermost 
theer wuz a askal, an' I wuz that frittened, but I 'adna squedge it, 
ma'am, so it 'adna 'urt me, an' that made me think as askah wuz 
more innioenter than I 'ad s'posed.' So said Betty Andrews of Cruck 
Meole (June, 1872). See below, Asker. 

ASKEB [as'kui'], same as Askal. — Xewpobt ; Wem ; Ellesmebb. 

' Snakes and nederes thar he faud 
And gret blac tades gangand. 
And arskes, and other worm^elle. 
That I can noht on Inglis telle.' 

Homilies in Verse (a.d, 1330 , circa), 
Specim. Early Eng., VHI. h. I. 177. - 


ABSAUT [u'saut*], (1) sh. attack, assault. Com. 'They 'n 'ad 'im 
up for assaut.' 

* Many a cumly Knight * & of^er kid people 
On euery side was sett ' <uaute too make.' 

JT. Aliiaunder, L 263. 

(2) V. a. to attack, assault. Com. ' 'E oMauted me as I was comin' 
throm the com fild.' 

' . • . and also bewar of spendyng of yowr stuff e of qwarellys, 
powdr, and stone, so that if they oMaut yow er we come, that ye have 
fituffe to dyffende yow of over.' — Paston Letters, a.d. 1469, toL ii. p. 381. 

O.Fr. assaillir attaquer; d*oi^ assaille, attaque, assaut, propr. ad» 
taltus. — ^BuB. 

AST [as't], prei. and part, past asked. — Pulverbatch; Clun, 
Here/d, Border, * Is the Maister gwe'in to the far P ' * I hanna <ut 'im.' 

' He sent for me and ast me how I fared. ... a toke me to him 
and <ut how my suster dede, and I answeryd wyll, neyer better.' — 
Paston Letters, a.d. 1454, yol. L p. 302. 

Of. A (1) with a toke. 

hSSOTf [as-tou], hast thou« — Ludlow. 

' sadde sowes for mi sake * suffred astow manye.' 

William ofPaleme, I 4724. 

C£ * ** Canatow semen," he seide . . .' 

Piers PL, Text C. pass. vL L 12. 

AT [at*], prep, to. Com. ' Yo' needna be afeard^ I amma gwein to 
do nuthm ai yo'.' 

* Here's ai ye, what I drink won't fat ye.' 

Davy*s MS. in Wk, 
A.S. cef, at, to, 

AT-APTER [u't af -tur^], adv, and prop, after. — Pulvebbatch. 
< Whad time did John com^ in las' night ? ' 'A good wilde at-after 
yo'd'n gwun to bed.' 

' At after souper goth this noble king 
To seen this hors of bras, . . .' 

Chatjceb, 0. r., 1. 10616. 

ATHATH, ATHATN8 [u'dhatn], Pulvebbatch; Ludlow; Wem. 
Qy. com. [u'dhat-nz], shrewsbuby; Newport, adv, C£ Thatn. 

ATHnr [u'dhin*], prep, and adv, within. — Ellesmebe. Qy. com. 

ATHISIT, ATHISNS [u'dhis-n], Pulvebbatch ; Ludlow. Qy. com. 
fu'dhis'nz], Shbbwsbuby ; Newport, adv, * Yo' bin despert oukit o'er 
that bit o' knittin, — canna yo' put the nild [needle] through the stitch 
cUhisn an' nod be'Ind it atnatn 9 That's 'ow yo' droppen the stitches 
off the mlds.' Gf. Thisn. 

ATHOTJT [u'dhout'], prep, without. — Shbewsbuby ; Pulvebbatch. 
Qy. com. 

ATHWABT [u'thur't], Cobvb Dale, [u'thwur't], Much Wenlock. 

A-TOP [u'top-], prep, on the top ; upon. Com. * Tve bin lookin' 


that cork-screw up an' down, an' fond it a~top o' the cnbbert shilf 
after alL* Of. 

' One heaved a-highy to be hurrd down below.' 

jBT. Richard II L, IV. iv. 86. 
See A (3). 

ATTES [at-tii'], prep, after. — Clun ; Cleb Hilm ; Welusqtos ; 

ATWEEH [u'tween*], prep, between. — Pulvkbbatch ; Ludlow. 

* AUween two theevys naylod to a tre.* 

Lydgat€*8 Minor Poems, p. 263, in Hal. 

ATWIXT [u'twik-st], prep, betwixt, between.— Ludlow. 'The 
poor chap got jammed atwixt the waggons; I doubt it 'U be a bad 
job for 'im. 

* . . . seyng that such money as is spent a ttvix yowe is but wast- 
fiilly expendid and to non use vertuouse.' — Paston LeUera, aj>. 1460 ? 
ToL i. p. 520. 

Cf. ~ 

A-TWO [u'too-], adv. in two; asunder. — ^Newport; Wem. 'The 
jug fell a two jest as I wuz 'angin' it up.' 

' Do a-wei )d Maumetes * pei han trayed |>e ofte ; 
Let broken hem a-two * an bren hem al to pouder.' 

Joseph of Arimathiey 1. 103. 

A.S. on, in ; and twd, two. Cf. A (3). 

ATJF [auf -], ab. a simpleton ; a blockhead. Com. ' 'E took me for 
a nauf, but 'e fond 'is match.' See N, in Orammar Outlines (con- 
sonants). Cf. Oaf in Wbdo. 

AXTKERT, Aujur. See Awkward. 

AULD [anld*], adj. old, used not in the sense of aged, but as a 
fiimiliar school-boy epithet, or as a term of reproach. — ^Ludlow. 
' 'E's a re^lar aiUd bad un.' 0. Northimibrian, aid, old. 

AXTHTT [aun'tiT, (1) adj. quick, ready, bold, venturesome* — 
Shbewbbuby, UffingUm. ' 'E's a auntv little chap is our Tum, theer 
inna much as 'e 56nna-d-'^ye a try nir.' Aunty is connected with 
O.E. aunters, adventures ; deeds of daring caUing for high spirit and 
ready courage. 

' Now fares FMLip )>e free * too fonden his myght. 
And attles to >e Assyriens * aunteres too seeche.' 

K. Alisaunder, 1. 109. 

Ash has auntrith, ventureth, an 'obsolete' word. O.Fr. aventure 
terme de chevalerie, pour designer des combats ; des p^nls extra- 
ordinairea — ^BuR. 

(2) adj. frisky, mettlesome ; said of horses. — Newpobt. 

AinrTT-PEATnrrT [aun-tl' pr'aunti'], adj. high-spirited, proud.— 
Ellbsicebe. ' "E's a aunty-praunty fellow, is younff John, 'E 65nna 
bar to be pQt upon.' Tins is one of those reduplicated words so 
often employed m the .rustic speech as a more emphatic form of 
expression. The real signification, it will be seen, lies m the first half 
of the term, which seems to be a secondary meaning of ' aunty ' (1). 


AITSE [aos'jy same as Oit^ q. v. — Clun; Much Wbnlook; 

ATJTEA. See Hal(er. 

AUVJS [auv*], sh, the handle of an axe, mattock, or pick. Com. 
. ' Dick o6n yo' len' me yore axe ? ' 'I canna, lad ; it's at tiie vilrif a 

for a new auve,^ This term is a corrupted form of ' helve.' A.S. hdf, 

helve; handle. 

ATEN [ai'vn], Pulverbatgh; CorvbDalb; Clbe Hills; Colliebt. 
[av'h'n], Ellesmebb, a&. prognostic; latent promise; that which 
contains in itself the element of some special excellence or nsefcdness. 
A thriving colt would be a good aven of a horse ; a stick growing 

my brummock 56th me, Mr. Jackson 
66d a bin one o' 'is young ash less.' ' Yo'd'n better pray as 'e dunna 
ketch yo'.' Of. Even. 

AVEBXESS [ai'vnli's], adj, shiftless ; without any faculty for con- 
triving. — Pulverbatch; Oswestry. "Er's a poor averdeis wench 
'er is." Of. Svenleas. 

AW [au'], sh, ear of oats. — ^Pulvebbatch ; Clbb Hills. ' Eels are in 
season when oats are in au;.' Proverbial saying heard about Aston 
BotterelL 0£ arista, epica, an aiv^ne of come, an ere, or a glene, in 
Prompt, Parv.f p. 18. 

AWAY TO-00, pJir, away with you ; away he went. — ^Wobthbn. 
* Tak' this an' away to-go.^ A young kitchen-maid, describing the 
depredations of a man-servant on the pastrv shelf, said, ' It wuz Lucas . 
ma'am, 'e comen in out o' the 'all an' took some o' the famcy pies an 
away to-go,^ In M.E. to-go = he went ; Barbour [1375] uses to-ga =s 
dispersed, as a past tense. 

AWEB-OIJT, phr. in full ear.— Pulvbbbatoh. 'The 85at8 i' the 
uwer fild bin awed out, I see.' From Aw, q. v. 

A-WHAM [u'wu'm], cuiv, at home. — Pulvebbatoh ; Ludlow. Qy. 
com. in S. Sh. ' E wuimsL-^'a-wJiam w'en the men gotten theer.' 
A.S. cet, at, and Mm, home. See A (3). 

AWILDE [u'weil-d], (1) adv. whilst. — Shbewsbubt; Pulveb- 
batch; Ellesmebe. 'Now then, be sharp an wesh them tuthree 
things awilde 1 get the batch i' the oven.' 

(2) V, w. to have time; to wait— Shbewsbubt ; Pulybbbatch; 
Wobthen; Ellesmebe. Qy. com. 'Can yo' awilde to draw the 
drink P The men bin gwein to the fild.' This term is more often 
used ne^tively. ' I canna-d-'aun7(2e.' AwUe also obtams, as a refined 
form. *I can't awile,' — ibid. ; OoBVE Dale. 

AWKWABB [au-ki't], Much Wbnlock. [auk-ur't], Com. Fou-ki't], 
Pulvebbatch; Chttbch Stbetton; Clun, adj. often nsea in the 
sense of the French difficile as applied to persons, ' otdeU folks,' 

A^ AXE [ak's], v. a. to ask. Com. 



' For I vol axe if it hir wiUe be 
To be my wyf, and reule hir after me.' 

Chaucer, E. 326 (Six-text ed.) ; Skeat. 

AJllnS [ak'sinz], ah, pi, the banns of marriage. Com. * Did'n 70' 
*ear as Turn Ivans an' Fatty Bowen, 'er as oomes tbrom the tother side 
Sosebry, 'ad'n thar aodns put up i' Church o' Whi'siin Sunday P * To 
he axed up, is to have the concluding banns of marriage published. 
' Te send me woord of the maryage of my Lady Jane ; one maryage 
for an other on, Norse and Bedford were axed in the chyrche on 
Sonday last past.' — Faston Letters, A.D. 1472, toI. iii. p. 46. 

BACHELOBS' BTJTTOH [bach'flur'z but-n], sb. BeHis perennis, the 
' Double Daisy ' of the giurden. Com. When flowrets cluster roimd 
the parent blossom, the name Bachelors' button gives place to that of 

BACK-AISTEB [bak-ais-'tur'], sb. the b^k of the grate immediately 
behind the fire. — ^Newfobt, Shiffnal, ' Yo'n got a face as black as 
the hack-lister.' C£ Aister. 

BACKEH [bak*n], v. a, to put back ; to retard. Com. * Missis, we 
mun hacken dinner ; the Maister's sen' word now jest as 'e 56nna be in 
at the time.' 

BACK-EirD [bak-end-'], sb. the latter end of the year. Com. * We 
flha'n 'ave time to do aJl them little jobs to'erts the hack-end,* 

BACEEBTEB [bak'ur'tur'], adv. further back. Com. < Shift that 
lung table hackerter, nigher the wall's w'eer I want it' 

BACKEBT8 [bak'ur'ts], adv. backwards. Com. 

BACKEBTS BOAD OH, phr. wrong way before. — Newport. 

BACK-FBIKHD [bak-fr'end], eb. a hang-naiL Com. 

BACKSIDE [bakseid*], sb. the yard in the rear of a house. Com. 
'The lan'lord toud me as I should '&ve some 'en-pens ptit at the 
backside ; but I doubt 'is promises bin like pie-crusses, made to be 

'Bobert Hayward sett Balderton Hall and all his lands in 
Balderton, except his antient house and the backside, to one BancUe 
Cooke a CQieshiroman.' — Qotjoh's History of MyddU, p. 185. 

BACKBITOBE [bak-si'foa-W], adv. wrong side before. — Newport. 

BAD [bad*], adj, ilL Com. ' Mother's bad, 'er canna spar me to 
gdd to schooL' 

BADE pbaid'], t;. a. to bathe. — ^Wellington ; Wem. Der. ' bading.' 

BADGE [baj*], (I) v. a., obsols. to cut wheat with a broad hook called 
a hadging^hook, — ^NEWPORT. The same word as Bag, q. v. Cf. Swive 
and Swivera. 

(2) V. n., obsols. to buy up, as of farm or g arden produce, for the 
purpose of selling again. — Fulyerbatgh ; "V^m. 

'Balph, the eldeflt son of Thomas Guest, was a sober, peaceable 
man ; his imployment was buying come in one markett towne and 


selling it in another, which is called hadgetng,^ — Gough's History of 
Myddhy p. 115. 

BAPGEK [haj'ur^], sh,^ ohsols. a huckster ; a middle-man, between the 
wholesale selling farmer and the town-retailer of fiBUin produce. — 
Shbewsbttby; Fulverbatch; B&idgnobth; Gluk. |A despert 
poor markit to-day, the badgers wun very shy o' buyin' an' the 
townsfolks '^d'n it all their own way; the butter went as low as a 
shillin', i' the onder.' 

'27. Item, hit hath be ysid, the Maire of Bristow anon after 
mighelmas, to do calle byfore hym in the yelde hall, or counseill 
hous, all tiie Bakers of Bristowe, there to yndirstand whate stuff 
they haue of whete. And after, whate sise they shall bake, and 
to assist and counseil theym in theire byeng and barganyng with the 
BagerSy such as bryngeth whete to towne, as wele in trowys, as other- 
wyse, by lande and by watir, in kepyng downe of the market* — 
Ordinance of the Office of Mayor of Bristol, temp, Edw. IV., A.D, 
1479, English Gilds. E. E. T. S. 

' Cheer up your drooping spirits, 
And cease now complaming, 
Although You'ye sufPer'd hard, 
Still fr^h hopes there's remaining. 
You see the com is falling, 
In every market town, sir, 
In spite of roguish badgers 
The price it must come down, sir. 
Then thankful be to Proyidence, 
Who heard our wretched cry. 
And send us glorious crops of grain. 
Our wants for to aup^^lj.^— Ola Shropshire Song, 

(2) V. a. to teaze ; to banter. — ^Ludlow. Qy. com. * 'E's al'ays 
badgering some one ; never 'eed im'.* 

BASGIHO-HOOK. See Badge (1). 

BABIHG [bai'din], part prea. bathing. — ^Wellington ; Wbm. See 

BADLY [bad'li*], adj. sickly ; ailing. — Newport. This term is not 
nearly so strong as bad, in the sense of * ill.' 

BAGOEV [bag*in], sh., si A the farm-labourers' luncheon. An im- 

E>rted term which begins to supersede the old word * bait,' q. v.— 

BAGOnr-BILL. See Bag, also Badge. 

BAIOLE [baig'l], sb. an opprobrious epithet applied to a depraved 
woman.~PuLV£BBATOH; Wem. *'Er's a iiasty bdigle, that's whad 

' Sir To, She's a beagle, true-bied, and one that adores me.' 

Twelfth Night, IL iii 195. 


BAISTnrS. See Beestings. 

BAIT [bait-], Shrewsbury ; Wem ; Whitchurch, [baayt-], Pulver- 
BATCH ; Worthen ; Ludlow, [boit*], Oswestry, eh. the farm- 
labourers' luncheon. The bayte time is 10 o'clock, A.M., in ordinary 
seasons, but in harvest-time there is onder^s hayte^ from 4 to 5 o'clock, 
P.M. * Bin yo' aumust ready for yore wider* s bayte ? ' * Aye, as soon 
as I've pGt on this jag o' rakin's ; it oonna 'ardly cover the ripples.' 

Among the accounts of the bailiffs of Shrewsbury is a paper endorsed, 
* The byfl of expens don at the assyssys at Ludlow, St. Jamys Yven, 
a*, h. viij. xix. (24 July, 1527). Here foUoweth the costs don then 
betweyn the town and Mr. Veman.' Among other items is : — * Paid 
at Lebothod (Le Botwood) for Mr. Bayleys haytyng, lid.'— O WEN and 
Bulkbway's History of Shrewsbury ^ voL L p. 307. 
Chaucer uses tiie word bayte in me sense of to feed. 

' On many a sory meel now may she bayte,* 

Chaucer, B. 466 (Six-text ed.), Skeat. 

Icel. beita, to feed ; to make to bite. 

BAIT BAG [baayt-bag-n, sh. the bag in which the farm-labourers 
carry their luncheon to flie field.— Pulvbrbatch. * Axe the waggoner 
Veer 'e pGt 'is bayte-bag ; if 'e piit it i' the cofer for the mice to ate, 
like the last' * Bag and bottle.'— i?oWn Hood, ii. 54, in Hal. See 
BoUle (1). 

BAEX-HUS [baik-us], sh. a building detached from the other 
domestic offices, containing an oven, and used for baking purposes. 
The back kitchen or * brew-'us,' as it is generally called, has an oven, 
and usually serves as the bake- us, — Pulvbrbatch. * Put them bags 
o' bran an' ^^urgeons i* the bake-ua, an' lock it up ; or else the one 
'afe *11 find its way into the stable.' See Prompt, Parv,, p. 21. A.S. 
baso-hus, a bake-house. Cf. Hue. 

BAKESTOmB'. [bak-stwu'n], «&., oUoU, a circular plate of iron about 
an inch thick, naving a loop-handle for the purpose of drawing it out 
of the iron fiume in which it is hung over the fire when wanted to 
bake cakes on. Com. The bakestone, though still occasionally to be 
seen in old houses, really belongs to an age that is past. * Patch the 
bak*stvmn an' PU mak' tuthree barley crumpits, for the Maister nor 
me canna ate that bread. The' loaf as Pve jest fatched out o' the 
buttery is like stir-puddin', — ^more fit to be ete 66th a sp65n than a 
knife.' * Barley crumpets ' were extensively used in Shropshire as a 
substitute for bread m 1817, when, in consequence of the unpre- 
cedented bad harvest of the previous year, sound wheaten flour could 
not be obtained, and good bread was not to be ' gotten for gold.' In 
the month of October, 1816, deep snow lay on the harvest-fields, 
reaching to the band of the sheaves ; much of the grain remained out 
through November, and was not 'gathered into &e barn ' until the 
frosts of December had dried it. Such is the account given by one 
who was herself an eye-witness of the snow-covered corn-fields. The 
same person saw a very different harvesting just ten years afterwards 
[1826], when wheat was carried on Mrs. B^ynolds' farm at Longden 
on Jiuy the eighth, and most of the farmers in that neighbourhood 
had finished tiieir harvest before the end of the same month. 



' To go like a cat on a hot hake stone* 

Bay's FroverhSy p. 222. 

BALD rb:aiild'], adj., pec, unfledged. — Shrewsbury, Uffi^igton, 
' Jack, 1 know to throstle's nist 6dth five hold young un's in it. I 
fund it this momin' on the road to school.* GL Fligg^y. 

BALD-COOT [bauld'koot-'], sh. Fvliea atra, the common coot. — 
Bridqkobth. Une blarye, glossed — a balled cote, occurs in The 
Treatise of Walter de Biblestvorth, dose of xiii. cent, in Wr. yocabe., 
ToL L p. 165. 

' As bald as a coot,* — ^Bay's Proverbs, p. 220. 

BALD-BIB [braulT^rb], sb, that part of the rib of pork which lies 
nearer to the neck than the spare-rib. — Shrewsbury, Uffington; 
MuOH Wenlook. As the spare-rib is spare of flesh, so the bald-rib is 
bare of flesh. Of. Bpare-rib. 

BALE [bail*], v. a. to raise blisters in the fleshy as by a sting, or the 
bite of an insect — Shrewsbxtry ; Pttlyerbatch. * The flen han bin 
on this poor child, — jest look 'ow they'n baled 'im on the back.' G£ 
the foUowing : — 

' Hwone ^ bale is aire hecst 
ponne is >e bote aire necst 
f'or wit west a mon^ his sore 
And for his sore hit is }>e more.' 

Owl and Nightingale, L 687. 

A.S. balu; bealu. O. Icel. ^67, bale; misery; affliction, in Strat. 

BALEISE [bain's], v. a. to beat; to flog; to whip. — Pulverbatoh -^ 

' * ' * As I a childe were 
And baleised . . .' 

Piers PI, Text B., pass. v. L 175. 

BALK [brauk*], (1) sb. a horizontal beam in the roof of a bam. 
— ^PuLYERBATOH. * I card a squake o'er mv yed w'en I wuz throshin,' 
said William Eyans of Castle Pulyerbatch, ' an' w'en I looked up I 
fiid a rot gwe]Ln' alung the balk d6th a waizle oudin' on to the scuft on 
'is neck ; they fellen off the balk, the par on 'em, jest as they wun, on 
to the bam flur, an' theer I killed ^em b5dath 65th my thrashaL' 
This curious incident occurred as described. 

The chimley balk is a great beam in front of an old-&shioned fire- 
place, where the bacon is sometimes hung to dry. Obsols, * That par o' 
chawls mun be shifted throm the chimley balk, they bin gettin quite 

' To climben by the renges and the stalkes 
Unto the tubbes honging in the balkesJ 

Chaucer, C. T,, L 3626. 

• Bcdke in a howse.' — Trabs. Prompt, Parv, IceL bdlkr, a beam ; a 

(2) ib,, ohsoU, var, pr, a bulk or projection of masonir, as the oven^ 
laik, ^ In this case the mouth of the oyen is inside the house, but the 
oven itself, being bmlt outside, projects and forms a balk, — ^Pulver- 
batoh; TgT.T.T8ftV^|tTy,. 


' lago. Here ; stand behind this lulh,^ — CHhdlo, Y. i. 
Cf. Coriolanua, U. i. 225. 

(3) ah. an old hedge bank on which the 'qniok' is planted.— 
Newpobt. IceL bdlkr, a partition. 

(4) A space left imploughed between the foirows, the result of bad 
ploughing. Ck>m. 

* SoUke of a loude eryd.' — Parca. * Crebro. A bailee bitwvne two 
forrowee.' — Parea, 'Vorat furfur, aratrmn Tult yerteri. — MiD. 
Habl. MS. 2261,— Prompt. Parv. and Note$. 

A hcUk in the field is a but that has been skipped in the sowing ; 
such a balk is believed to portend calamity to the owner of the fie&« 
' I see theer's a balk in a fild o' com down by Steppiton, I dunna know 
who it belungs to, but it's no good siffn anyways, theer'll be 4Joth i' 
the 'ouse afore 'arr65st.' Balkyn or ouerskyppyn, omitto. — Prompt Parv. 

(5) V. a. to leave a space unploughed. Com. ' Sich ploughin as 
thiis 66nna do for me, the one 'are o' the groun's balked.* 

* But so wel halt nd man )>e plogh, l^at he ne balke)^ 6^r wile.' 

Oow. con/, am.y L 296, in Steat. 

'BalkvUi or to make a balke in a londe (in erynge of londe).' — 
Poroo.y V. F. in porca., Prompt Parv. 

(6) V. a. to hinder from using ; to cause inconvenience. — Ellesicerb. 
Qy. com. ' Fve cut the end of m^ finger aumust off.' ' Dear 'eart I 
tmifs a bad job ; bein* at the end, it '11 balk you, wunna-d-it P ' 

BALLET [balu't], sb., var. pr, a ballad. Com. 

' But thee, Theocritus, wha matches P 
They're no herd's baHata, Maro's catches.' 

BOBEBT BUBNS, PoCTM, p. 114, 1. 20. 

' 'E toud 'er not to mak a ballet on it,' said of news not to be spread. 
A ' *ole »* the ballet ' is some part of a song or story forgotten. 

BALL-STOmS, (1) 8b. iron-stone lying in balls, found above the 
* top coaL'—OoLLiEBY; M. T. See Coal-Field. 

(2) sb. a kind of limestone. — ^MucH Wenlook. 

BALLT [bali'], {!) sb. the belly; the old pronunciation. Com. 

* A great boUe-fiill of benen * were betere in his wombe, * 
And wip \>e randes of bakun * his baly for to f^len.' 

P. PI. Cr., L 763. 
A.S. bcdig, idem, properly a bag. 

(2) $b. a litter of pigs. Ck>m. * I shall keep that sow on, 'er 
brought ten pigs the first bally an' twelve the next, an' reared 'em 
all.' Ofl Farrow. 

(3) V, n. to erow abdominous. — Pxtlyebbatoh ; Ellesmebb. Qy. 
com. ' 'E use to be as thin as a red yerrin ; but fiedth, 'e bailies well 
sence 'e went to the paas'ns.' 

BALLY-PBOTTD [bal-i'pr^oud], adj. dainty ; fastidious in respect of 
food. ' 'E wuz welly clemmed wen 'e come to me, an' now 'e's got 
baUy'proud,* See aliove. 

BALLT8 [ball's], sb. pL blacksmith's bellows. Qy. if restricted to 


this sense. — ^Wem ; Ellesmere. The form balyws occurs in Tundale, 
p. 34, Hal. Of. Blow-bellys. See Bellys. 

BAJTDS [baandz], ttb, jyl., var. pr. banns of marriage. — Coluert. 
* A pit-girl who presented herself with her "chap" to "put up the 
hands" confounded both parson and clerk by giyine her name as 
Loice-Showd. They could make nothing of it, and had to defer 
publishing the banns until the girVs proper appellation could be 
ascertain^. It proved to be — ^upon making inquiries in an adjoining 
parish — Alice liar wood ! ' This is by no means a solitary instance of 
the ignorance of their rightful names which obtains amongst the pit- 
folk and others of the peasant class. See Bk. IL, FoUdore^ &G., 
' Nicknames * and * Simames.' 

BAHOEB fbang'ur'l, (1) «&. a hard blow. Com. ' I gid 'im sich a 
banger as e 55nna forgot in a *urry.' 

(2) sh, a three 'grained* pikel used for 'gathering scutch.' — 


BAVO-SWAHO [bang-swang-'], adv, without thought ; headlong. — 
Clee Kills. 

BAHK [bangk'l, refined pronunciation of 'bonk/ q. v. A.S. bane, 
a bank ; a hillock. 

BAinCT-FIECES. See Bonky-pieces. 

BAWEBING [ban'ur'in], eh, and part, adj. perambulating the 
parish boundaxies. — Shrewsbuby. See Bk. II., Folklore, &c., 
' Customs connected with Days and Seasons ' {Hdy-Thur^day), 

BAHinJT [bann'ut], sh. Nuxjughins regica, a large kind of walnut. 
Com. Banne-noU'tre occurs in a Metrical Vocabulary (perhaps), xiv. 
cent., and Mr. Wright remarks on it ' This is by much the earliest 
example of the word I have met with.' See \Vr. yocabs., vol. i. 
p. 181. 

BAM'TERTban'tur'], r. a., j^c- to beat down, as in price. — Shrbwb- 
BURY ; Wem ; Ellesmere. Qy. com. * Peggy,' said Richard Price 
of Welshampton, * IVe bin to the Baumur after that pig, but they 
wanten too much money for 'iin. I sed to 'Liza Downes, I dunna 
want to banter yo down in price, if yo thinken yo can get more for 
'im by t^kin* 'im to Ellesmur far' ; t&k 'im, I've toud yo whad I 
mane to give.' Cf. Bate. 

BAR [baaTJ, (1) sh, a bear. Com. * I dunna like that Australian 
bif, yo never knowen w'ether it's lion or bar yo bin atin.* So said 
John Cotton of Hanwood [1873]. A.S. bera, a bear. 

(2) V. a. to bear ; to tolerate. Com. ' I canna bar that, an' whad's 
more, I d6nna ave it.' 

(3) V. a. to deprive of. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch. * Oh I 'er's 
sicn a fav'rit, 'e canna bar 'er anythin' 'er axes fur.' 

* Heaven and fortime bar me happy hours ! 
I>ay> yield me not thy light ; nor night thy rest ! * 

King Richard, IV. iv. 400. 

(4) V. a, to prevent. * 111 bar 'im gwi'in theer.' — Cluk. 

(5) [baar*], v. a. to claim possession or privilege ; to make choice 


of. The term is used by children at play. — ^Ellbsmbbb. 'I say, 
Bill, I bar that bat.' Cf. Barley, infra. 

(6) V, a, to ignore, as of a bad hit. A playground term. — Clun. Qy. 
com. * Oh ! we'll bar that.* 

(7) adj. bare ; naked. Com. 

BA2BIHE [baaVbein], sb. Convolvtdzia ArvensiSf small bind-weed. — 
Shbewsbuby, ffanwood. Cf. Devil's guts and Billy-Clipper. 

BAB-FUT [baaVfut], etdj., var. pr. having the feet uncovered ; bare- 
foot Com. 

* Praunceys bad his brethem 
Bar-fot to wenden.'— P. PL Ct„ 1. 594, ed. Wb. 

BAE-ITTF CTJSTABD [baaVfut kus-tur't], sh., ohsoU,% a 'bystin' 
cuudard not enclosed in a crust. — Ptjlvbbbatch. ' We'n mak a dish 
o' har-fut custart 66ih. that bystin for the men's supper; it'll be a 
trate for 'em.' Cf. Bystin Custard. 

BABOE [baaVj], (1) v. n. to curve outwards ; to bulge, as of the 
sides of" a tub, a wall, &o.— Whitchubch, Whtxall. Ct *Bulk' in 

(2) ab. a term applied to anything large. ' A great barge of a thing.' 

— Whitohubch, Whtxall. 

(3) adj., obsoh. large ; protuberant. * A great barge-bdlied thing.' — 


BABOS [baaVggz], irUerj. a schoolboy's term. Crying harga entitles 
him to a short withdrawal from a game, and exemption from penalties 
that would otherwise have been incurred. — Shbewsbuby. 

BABDT [baaVi'n], part, laying bare the stone ; a quarrying term. 
— ^MiroH Wenlook. Cf. Onbear. 

BABK [baa'r'k], v. a. to kick the skin off a person's shins. Com. 
' 'E rawled 'im about shameful, an' barked 'is shins beside.' 

BARLEY [baa-r'li'j, v. a. same as Bar (5), q. y. Com. 

EY-CHIU) [baa'r'li'-cheild'], sb. a child bom in wedlock, but 

which makes its advent within six months of marriage. The meta- 
phor lies in the allusion to the time which elapses oetween barley 
wwing and barley harvest, — Much Wenlock, Acton BumeU, 

BABLIS [baa-r'liss], v. a. same as Bar (5), q. v. Com. Clbb Hills. 

BABM [baa'r'm], sb. yeast. Com. 

' And sometimes make the drink to bear no barm.^ 

Mide, Nighfa Dream, U. ii. 8. 
A.S. beorma, barm; yeast. 

BABVACLE8 [baaVnu'klzl, (1) spectacles. — I^ewfobt. 
Barniques, spectiEtcles. — Vocao. de Berri in Wedg. 

(2) »b. pL, obsols. an instrument applied to the nose of a savage btdl 
to subdue his violence. Com. The oamades are somewhat uke the 
figure of 8 in form, consisting of two rings connected midwaj by 
short bars, through which a screw passes. The upper rin^ is jomted 
in the centre, while the lower one is correspondingly divided. This 


is put into the bull's nostrils, and held there by the screw which 
serves to tighten the bamadea at pleasure. The upper rinff is attached 
to the point of each horn by means of a chain, thus keeping the 
lower one from dropping and impeding the animal while graadng.' 
' It gies the btiU plenty & do to think on 'is nose w'en the barnacles 
bin on/ said Thomas Cliffe, the 'village blacksmith' of TUstock, 
when describin g the instrument and its uses [Sept. 1874]. C£ 
' Barnacles ' in Wedo. 

BABH-DOOS-S AVAOE, sb., si 1 a clodhopper. — Shrewsbury. 

BABITISH [baaVnish], v, n. to grow stout and well-favoured; to 
' fill out,' as youths do who have ceased to grow in height — "Pulter- 
BATGH ; Much Wenlock ; Wellinoton ; Newpokt. * I spect the 
young squire's lef college : 'e's as tall as a young poplar, an as thin 
as a pikei-stail ; but 'e'li barnUh now for a couple o' ears, an' mak a 
fine feUow. I 'ope VU be as good a maister an' lanlord as the owd 

BABBOW [baar''u'], sb. a child's pinafore. — Shrewsbury, Uffin^on. 
* Oud your barrow, Polly, for some apples.' Cf . Brat. 

BABS-ABS [baa*r'z aaT'z], sb. pi. bear's hairs; threads of filmy 
white, fringmg greater masses of cloud, said to betoken some sort of 
weather ; but the popular mind is not at one, whether it be fair or 
foul.— Church Stretton ; Much Wenlock. 

BASE-CHILD [baisxheild], sb, an illegitimate child. — Worthen ; 
Olun ; BRmGNORTH ; Much Wenlock. 

' 1689 Ezpences at y* sealing a bond to saue the Jifh [Justice] 
Barmely from a bace chUd — 00-01-00.' — Pariah Accounts, Olun. 

Ct Iiove-ohild. 

BASK [bask'], t;. w. to cough asthmatically. — ^Wem. 'That theer 
. poor oud men's very bad, 'e'lL sit afore the filre baskin* an' spittin' all 
day lung.' 

BASS [bass'JL sb. a slaty substance found in coal which will not 
dnerate. Com. Called ' dundick ' in Derbyshire. See Coal-field. 

BASSET-END f bas'i't end'], sb. the end of the workings on the rise 
of the mine. — Colliery, M. T. 

BASTE [baist'], (1) t;. a. to sew slightly ; to tack together the several 
pieces of a gannent with lon^ stitches preparatory to more permanent 
work. Com. "Er^s put mighty slim work i' this gownd, it inna 
much better than basted.* 

* Bene. . . . The body of your discourse is sometime yarded with 
fragments, and the guards are but slightly bcuied on neither.' — Much 
Ado about Nothing, f, i. 288. 

Cf. Bom. of the Bose, 104. 

* Baste couture grossidre, faufilure; vb. bastir, aujourd'hui bdtir, 
attacher de pieces les tines aux autres en les oousant a grands points ; 
de I'ahaL bestan, raccomoder, rapi^cer, du subst. bast.' — ^BuR. ' Bastyn 
clothys subsuo; sutulo.* — Prompt, Parv. O.H. G^rm. besten, baste; 
sew, in Strat. 

(2) V. a. to flog ; to beat. Com. ' Tum, Til baste yore back frir yo 



in another 'afe minute if yo duuna be quiet. Wliad bin 'ee prokin 
the ess out o' the grate atnatn fur P Tye on'y now jest claned up the 

' Dro. 5. • • I think the meat wants that I haye. 
Ant, 8. In good time, sir ; what's that ? 
Dro. 8, BaiiingJ' — Comedy of Errors, U, ii. 69. 

Stmtt mentions Baste the hear as an incident in games ; a form of 
punishment by which ' a boy couching down is laden with the clothes 
of his oompamons, and then buffeted by them.* — Sports and Pastimes, 
p. 387, ed. 1833. 

O.N. heystay to beat ; to thrash. Dan. hoste, to drub ; to belabour, 

BAT [bat'], (1) 8b., ohe,^ a kind of light club like implement used by 
washerwomen for the purpose of beating the clothes. — Much Wbn* 
LOCK. Shakespeare has batlet for the same thing. 

* Touch ... I remember, when I was in love . . . 
The kissing of her batlet and the cow*s dugs 
That her pretty chapt hands had milked.' 

As You Like It, U. iv. 49. 

A.S. bat, a bat ; dub ;— of Celtic origin. Cf. Bat-staff. 

(2) sb, a heavy blow.— Whitchttech. Qy. com. in N. Shr. 
gied 'im sich a bat.' 

* That xal be asayd be this batte ! 
What, thou JhesusP ho 3aff the that?' 

Coventry Mysteries, p. 296, in Hal. 

(3) sb., si? speed. — Shrewsbuky; Whitchubch. Qy. com. Of 
a person running or riding as hard as he can they say, * '£'s g65in at 
a pretty bat.^ 

(4) V. a. to beat with force. — Shbewsbitrt ; Pulverbatch ; Whit- 
OHUBCH. Qt. com. * Folly, afore yo make that door, g66 an' fatch 
a box o' slack to rake the fire ; an' bring the shoyel alung 65th yo to 
bat it down well as it shanna bum through.' 

^5) «. a. to strike lightly; to tap. — Ludlow. Mothers bat their 
children in playful reproof. The expression is a common one. 

' Battede hem on )»e bakkes * to bolden heore hertea' 

Piers PL, Text A, pass. iii. 1. 192, 
Qt Pope's ' Gkiy pats my shoulder, and you yanish quite.' 

^6^ V. a. to wink, or rather to moye the eyelids up and down 
qiucady. Com. ' 'E bats 'is eyes like a louse i' the ess.' Cf. Bate, 
a term in falconry, which describes the similar motion of a hawk's 
wings when trying to get away from * fist ' or * perch.' Fr. battre le$ 

BATCH [bach*], (1) eh. a quantity baked at one time, as of bread or 
pies. Uom. 

* Aehil, How now, thou core of enyy I 
Thou crusty batch of nature, what's tiae news P ' 

Troilus and Cressida, V. i. 6. 

' Bahche ; batche, or bakynge.'— Ptt^ura, Pr<ympt, Parv, A.S. bacan, 
to bake. 


(2) sb, the quantity of com sent to the mill for one grinding, and 
the quantity of flour returned from it. Com. 

* Shrewsbury, April 18, 1796. 
' The Inhabitants of the United Parishes of this Town 
May have their Com Ground at 
Kin^land Windmill 
For Sixpence a Bushel. 
N.B. — No Toll or Gratuity will be taken. A Cart wiU go regularly 
through the Town two or three Times a Week to fetch and deliyer 
the Batches:— Old UandbiU. 

CI GrUt. 

(3) sK a lot or quantity of any tiling ; ' a hatch of papers,* letters, &c. 

BATCH-CAKE [bach-kaik], sh. a small < oven-bottom ' loaf made 
for immediate use. Com. In faim-houses the large loaves are made 
in two P&i^> ft lesser on a greater, like what bakers call a ' cottage 
loaf.' The hatch-cake^ on the contrary, is of one undivided portion. 
' We mun mak' a couple o' hatch-cakes to save outtin' the new bread, 
for theer is but a cantel o* the owd left.' 

BATCH-FLOTJE [bach-flour*], sh. an inferior quality of flour for 
common household bread; produced chiefly from wheat, though 
barley, rye, and even rice are sometimes admitted into its com- 
position. Com. 

BATE [bait], r. a. to remit; to lessen in price. Com. 'Mate's 
desport dear, tenpence a pound, tak' it or lave it; *e 56dna hate a 
half-penny.* Cf. Banter. 

< Laf, Tes, good faith, every dram of it, and I will not hate thee a 
scruple.*— ^//« Well, U. iii, 234. 

* Sic. Sir, the people 

Must have their voices ; neither will they haU 
One jot of ceremony.* — CoriolunuSj TL iL 144, 

BATHED [baidh'd], part, adj., ohsols. sodden ; underdone : said of 
meat.— PuLVERBATCH ; Woethen; CorveDale, * Betty, your fire*8 
bin too slow, the meat isn't enough, it's bathed like sometmn' between 
roasted an* boiled.* 

lTHEB [baadh-ur*], v. a. to tread down. — Glee Hills. 'The 
young turkies bather the mowin* grass sadly.* Cf. Father. 

BATHY [baidh'i*], adj. same as Bathed. — Shrewsbury. Cf. 

BAT-STAFF [bat-stu*f|, ah., ohsA same as Bat (1). — Pulverbatch; 
Bishop's Castle; Clun. * In the Great Chamber . . . twelve bed- 
staves with a battsta/e.* — Inventory . . . Owlbury Manor-House, 
Bishop's Castle, 1625. Cf. * Batte-staffe,' Perttculus fustia batillus in 
Prompt. Parv. with Way's Note, p. 26. See Buck. 

BATTEBrDOCE [bat-ur'dok], ah. Rumex obimi/oliu8f broad-leaved 
Dock. — Ellesmere. * Beware of a breed if it be but a batter-dock * is 
a proverbial saying heard about Welshampton. It implies the need 
of caution in dealing with persons who come of a family characterized 


by 'failings.' Bay, p. 82, has— 'Beware of breed; Cheshire, I e. an 
ill breed.' 

BATTEV [bat'in], sb. a truss of straw, consisting of two sheaves 
secured by bands of straw round the middle. — Ellesmsre. The 
term is used in the singular form only. Twelve baUin make a thraye, 
q.T. Cf. Boutin. 

BAUSOH [baus-n], sb. an over-corpulent person. Com. * Whad a 
great bauson 'e's givun.' 

BAUTEBSD [bau-tilr'd], adj. tangled ; ' unkempt : ' said of hair. — 
Ellesmere. Cf. Shakespeare's * boltered,' signifying * clotted.' 

' For the hlood-holtered Banquo smiles upon me.' 
Machethy IV. i. 123. 

BAUTEET [bauth'r'i'], ic/^.— Wellington. 

BAUTLN [baut-i'n], same as Battin, q. v. — Ludlow. Cf. Boutin. 

BAWKE [baum'l, sK Melissa oJicinaJis, the herb-balm. — ^Pulver- 
BATCH. * I doubt that family's mighty bad off, the poor ooman said 
'er'd 'ad nuthin but a drop o' hawme tay all the wik.' ' Bamme, herbe 
or tre, Balsamus Melissa,^ — Prompt, Farv, 

BAT fbai'], sb. a compartment of a bam used as a storehouse for 
threshed straw, or grain in the straw before it is threshed. Com. 

By Nature made to till, that by the yearly birth 
The large-hayed bam doth fill.* — Drayton m Wedq. 

C£ I>n2ice-liole. 

BAYLT [bai'li'], Shrewsbury; Whitchurch, [baayli'], Pulver- 
BATCH ; liUBLOW, sb. the head of the working staff on a farm; a 
bailiff. His duties are very multifarious : he gives directions to the 
men under him; where &ere is not a shepherd he manages Ihe 
flocks, he shears the sheep, measures hedges, sows broadcast, leads 
the field in harvest, &c. &c, 'Aye, Bayly 'ere, an' Bayly theer, 
as if I coidd be i' twenty places at once. 1 dunna know who'd be 

' Seth sekelar men schul have non soulys in kepvng ; 
And pytton here personache to ferme to a baylej 

John Audelay's Poems, p. 33. 

* . . . Abraham Puller, of Edgboulton . . . was a long time Bayly to 
my kdy Corbett, of Acton Beyner, alias Acton Reynold.* — GtouoHS 
History of Myddle, p. 73. 

* Ther nas haillif, ne herde, ne other hyne, 
That he knew his sleighte and his covj'ue.' 

Chaucer, The Prologue^ 1. 603, ed. Morris. 

Hie hallivus, a bayl^. Nominale, xv. cent, in Wr. vocabs., voL i. p. 211. 

BAZ [baz'l, V. a. to beat ; to thrash. — Wem. * Young chap, I'll 
baz yore back if yo binna sharp.' Cf. Baste (2), also Best. 

BE [bi'*], an intensitive prefix, as 2«-fanglo, &e-spattle, &c. Com. 
BEAX [bi'-u'm], sb., var. pr, a beam of wood. — Pulverbatch; 


CoRVB Dale; Wem. — Qv. com. 'The 'onse is despertlow, an' a 
great hedm across the kitchen as yo' mef n knock yore yed agen.' 

BEAH-HAULM [bi'h'n aum*']. See Hanlm. The general pro- 
nunciation of bean is that of the fractured diphthong as noted aboye, 
though it may be heard occasionally as hane. 

BEAB [baer''], ^5. the large block of sandstone forming the 
hearth or base of the furnace on which the molten iron rests. ' After 
being subjected to the great heat of the iron it becomes metamor- 
phosed, and represents a hard, solid block of stene mixed with iron 
m one heterogeneous mass, when it is pulled out and called the 
fumace-feear.' — Collibky, Iroii-works, 

BEABD rbi'aa'r'd], (1) sb,, var. pr. the beard. — Pulverbatch. Qy. 
com. * The beara won't pay for the shaving ' is a proverbial saying 
. analogous to the French — * Le jeu ne vaut pas la chandelle,* * P^ggy* 
4 the l^dster's ^d me that owd ^edgerow atween the barley bonks for 
tatoes, if Til nd it ; but I 'ardly tmak the hedrd HI pay for the ehavin'J 
* Well, John, puttin' one thing anunst another, I think it 561 ; theer*s 
some good owd stoTils in it as 56d mak' us firein* for 'afe the winter.' 

(2) V, a. to thicken the lower part of a hedge by putting thorns into 
it.— Pulverbatch. Qy. com. As the top of a hedge is * brushed,' 
60 the lower part is hearded^ by putting the * brushings ' into the thin 
places. ' Pve tined the glat, an' bearded the bottom, so as the pigs 
canna proke through.' 

BEA8 [bi'u'ss], sb. pL beasts, meaning cattle. Com. Cf. Bests. 

BEAST [bi'u'st], sb,, oar, pr. an animal of the bovine species. Com. 

BEAST-LEECH [bi'u'st-leech-], sb. a cow-doctor, a hedge-farrier. — 
Pulverbatch; Church Strettok; Bridgnorth. Qy. com. in 
S. Shr. 

* One Peter Braine, an excellent Beast-Leech,^ — Gough's History of 
Myddle, p, 120. 

' Also that it lyek yow that John Mylsent may be spoken to, to kep 
well my grey horse, and he be alyve, and that he spare no met on 
hym, and that he have konnyng lechys to look to hym.' — Pastan 
LetterSy A.D. 1470, voL ii. p. 413. 

Cf. Cow-leech. 

BED-HILLIH' [bed'il'in], sb. the covering of a bed; usually a 
'home-made' quilt. — ^Wem. 

' I remember the soldiers fetched bedding from Newton, for the use 
of the soldiers there. [Abright HusseyJ They tooke onely one 
coarse bed hilling from my father.' — ^Gough's History of Myddle, p. 8. 

BED-OF-BEEF, sb, the flank ; in the living animal the intestines 
lie on it as on a bed — ^hence its name. — ^Newport. Qy. com. 

BEEF r^eef], sb,, pec. an ox or cow intended for slaughter. — Clun. 
They kill a hee/sLt Clun only once in three months. A butcher explained 
as a reason for this flSTo] that the inhabitants of Clun were ' a very 
oukit sort of folk,' who would probably not buy the meat if provided 
for them at their own doors, though they would willingly * send for 
it all the way from Bishop's Castle ! ' Cf. Fr.' un boeuf, ^oe 


BEESTni'-CnSTABD, sh. < beestings ' flayoured with spice, sweet- 
ened, and baked in a dish lined with paste. C!om. G£ Baxfut- 

BEESTIHOS fbees'tinz], Kbwport ; Ellesmbre. [bais*tinz], Shrews- 
BUBY. [bwaysti'n], Clun. [bi'-sti^nz], Pulverbatch ; BRiDGiroRTH, 
$h, the milk taken from the cow immediately after calving. It is of 
a peculiar richness, and has the property of thickening when cooked, 
as ordinary milk does with the addition of eggs. Ash has beestings, 
which he calls a corrupted spelling of hieMinga, A.S. beost, by stings, 
Ger. biest-milcK See 'beestings' in Wedq. der. ' beestin'-custard,' &c, 

BEESTUr-PTTDDIirO, sb. < beestings' made into a batter with 
flour, to which are added sugar and carraway seeds ; then tied in a 
doth and boiled. — ^Ellesmere. Qy. com. 

BEEIH [beedh-], v, n. to decay ; to wither. — Corvedale. 

SEETHED [beedh'd], (1) part, past, decayed ; withered. — ibid, 
(2) same as Bathed, q. y. — ibid» 

BEETHY [beedh'i'J, (1) adj. dank ; sodden : said of fallen leaves. 
— Craven Arms; Clun. 
(2) adj, sodden ; underdone : said of meat. — ibid. Of. Bathy. 

BEETLE j^beet'l], sb. a heavy, iron-bound wooden mallet, used for 
driving iron wedges into wood for the purpose of splitting it. — 
. Craven Arms; C^itn. 

' There goes the wedge where the beetle drives it.' 

Bay's Proverbs, p. 167. 

' Betylle, malleus,* — Prompt. Parv. A.S. byU, a mallet. Cf. Mall. 

BEFA90LED [bi'fang-ld], same as Fangled, q. v.— Wem. See Be. 

BEOOABED [beg-ur'd], part. adj. impoverished : said of land 
that has been ' let down ' from want of manure and tillage. Com. 

BEOOABLT [beg'ur'li'], adj. poor, as applied to land. * Beggarly 
land ' is land that wiU not yield welL Com. 

BEOOAB'S-HEEDLE, sb. Scandix Pecten, Venus comb.— Well- 

BKrtArirJSfl [bi'apn], ado. perhaps; like enough. Com. ' Be*- 
appen* says Jack Dallow, 'is a saying current about Bridgnorth.' 
See Bk. II., Folkhre, &c., ' Popular and Proverbial Sayings.' Cf. 

BETiTTTR [bi'leik-], same as Behappen. — Shrewsbury; Much 
Wbnlook; Wem. 

'Thys sediciouse man [Isaiah] goeth also forthe, sayinge, . . • 
Thv wyne is myngeled wyth water. Here he medeleth witn vinteners, 
be like ther were bruers in ^ose dayes, as ther be nowe.' — Latimsr, 
Sermon iii. p. 86. 

BELL [bel-], v. n, a shortened form of bellow, applied to cattle. 
Not common. — ^MuoH Wenlock. A.S. bellan, to roar; to bellow. 
CI BeUock (1). 


BELL-HOME, sh.^ ohs, the leader of a string of pack-horses. — 
CoRVB Dale. The hell-horae was so named from its carrying a bell 
attached to its neck, the sound of which serred as a guide to the 
others along the dark, winding roads which they traversed, while 
laden with charcoal or other produce. As late as 1840 or there- 
abouts — perhaps later stills-strings of pack-horses might have been 
seen, presenting a striking and picturesque appearance as they 
threshed their way through rough, stony tracks, their bridles gaily 
decorated, and conducted by men of gipsy-like mien. See * Bell- 
horses, hell-haraeSy what time of day ? * — Bk. 11., Folklore, &c., 
* Games.' 

BELLISE [bel'i'ss], v. a. a corrupted form, of baleise, q. v. — ^Ludlow. 
The term is not common. 

BELLOCK [bel-u'k], (I) v. n, to bellow; to roar. Com. "Ark 
the cow helloch'n* ; *er wants 'er cauve, see 'ow *er elder's pounded, 
poor thing.' See Bell. 

(2) t\ n. to cry vociferously. Com. * We maden *im g56 to school, 
'is faither an' me, an' 'e hellocked all the r5ad as 'e went. 

BELLYS [beli'ss], sh. bellows. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch ; Clun. 

' Jeremiah, blow the fire ; 
PufP, puff, puff; 
Beat, Jack ,* strike. Turn ; 
Blow the hdlys, old man.' 

Children's Doggerel Verse. 

'j par de helwes* is mentioned in a deed relating to the Fastens 
before A.D. 1444. — Paston Letters, vol. iii. p. 419. 
Cf. Ballya. See Blow-bellys. 

BELLT-YEHOEAirCE j^beM' ven-junss], sh. weak beer. Com. 
' Pretty 'arr55st drink, mdeed ! w*y it inna-d-a bit better nor belly' 

BELOWHDEB [bi'lound'ar'l, sb. a noise as of something heavy 
faUing. — Pulverbatch. * Jest after we wenten to bed las* night I 
'eard sich a helovmder ; an' whad should it be but one o' the cheeses 

. 'ad tumbled off the shilf.' 

BELT [bel-t], v, a. to beat; to castigate. — Shrewsbury; Wbm. 
Qy. com. 

BELTEE [bel-tur'], sh. anything of an extraordinary size. — ibid, 
' My 5dns, whad a belter ! ' said a gardener, on digging up an im- 
mense potato. See Belt, so also Banger (1), q. v. from Bang. 

BEHNET [ben*i*t], ah, Pimplnella Saxi/raga, common Burnet- 
saxifrage. — ^Graven Arms, Stokesay, Cf. Old man's plaything. 

BEBTT [bent-], (1) sh, a strong spiked grass-stalk. Com. In various 
parts of Shropshire several species of grass are distinguished as 5«n^, 
not one of which is the * Bent-grass ' of botanical authors ; aci, for 
instance, Alopecurus pratensis, ^foadow Fox-tail-grass ; and Phleum 
praiense. Cars-tail-grass. The peasant children pluck bents, and 


fashion them into coronets and other pretty (|naint devices. They 
employ them also as threads upon whicn to strmg wild strawberries. 
The term is generally used in tne plural form. 

' June is cbrawn in a mantle of dark grass ^en ; upon his head 
a garland of benU, king-cups, and maiden-hair.* — Feacham^ p. 419, 

* Hoc gramen, A' bent.* — English Vocabulary , xv. cent., in Wr. 
Tocabs., vol. i. p. 191. Mr. Wright observes of this, *The word bent 
was applied usually to the long, coarse grass growing on the moors, 
but often in a more general sense to grass of all kinds.' O.H. Gbrm. 
binttZf a bent, in Stbat. Gbrm. binse, rush ; bent-grass. 

(2) sb. the declivity of a hill ; a hollow in a hill. — Corye Dale ; 
Much Wenlock. HayUm^s Bent is an example of this application of 
the term. 

' And downward on an hil under a benie, 
Ther stood the temple of Marz, arraypotente.' 

Chauceb, The Knightes Tale, 1. 1123, ed. Morris. 

BEBE [bee'ui'], (1) sb, Hcn'deum vulgare, white square winter 
barley, four or six rowed. — Corvb Dale. * Hoc esaaticum An" here.' 
— Pictorial Vocabulary y xv. cent, in Wr. vocabs. , voL i. p. 264. 

'In 1124 the new form bcerlic, our barley, replaces the old bere, 
which still lingers in Scotland.' — Sources of Standard English, p. 64. 

A.8. bere, barley. 

(2) sb„ obsol^, a piQow-case.— Bishop's Castle ; Clun. This term is 
now [1876] very rarely heard. Ash has it, ed. 1775. 
^ * The Brushing Chamber, One fayre Presse. In the Seid Presse, 
eight paire of flaxen pillow beares, one course Pillow beare. Inventory 
. . . Owlbury Manor-House, Bishop's Castle, 1625.' 

' For in his male he hadde a pilwebeer, 
Which that, he seide, was oure lady veyL' 

Chauceb, The Prologue, L 694, ed. Morris. 

'iij fyne i>elow beres^ are named in Dame Elizabeth Browne's 
Will, A.D. 1487. — Paston Letters, vol. iii p. 464. 

BEBBIV [baer'i'n], sb. a burying ; a funeral. Com. ' Theer wurz 
a power o' folk at the owd Squire's berrin,' A*S. beorgan, to cover 

BBSHATTEB [bi'smat'ur'], r. a. to daub ; to dirty. — ^Wbm ; Ludlow. 
A corruption of the old form besmotter, 

BE8M0TTEB [bi'smot'ur*], v, a,, ohsols. to smear or daub with mud 
or other sticky dirt. — ^Whttchuboh, Tilstock, The word is now [1877] 
only heard occasionally amongst old people. 

* Of fustyan he werede a gepoun 
Al bysmotered with his habiergeoun.' 

Chaucer, The Prdogue, L 76, ed. Monis. 

Ash gives as ' obsolete ' besmoUrid, besmutted ; bedawbed. Jamieson 
baa besmottridy bespattered ; fouled. A.S. besmitan, to besmut ; defile. 
Do. smodderen^ to dirty ; daub. 


BESMUJiOE [bi'smuj-], v. a, to smear; to soil ; to daub. — Shrews- 
BURY. * WV, Tummy, w*eerever ban yo bin to beamudge yoreself all 
o'er atbatns f * Shakespeare has btsmirch in a similar sense. 

* Our gaypess and our pit are all besmirched 
With rainy marching in the painful field.' 

K. Henry V,, IV. iii. 110. 

BESOM pbee-zum]. Com. [beznim], Ludlow, Bur/ard. [biz'um], 
Clttn, ih, a broom made of but^h twigs. 

* They have need of a heesom that sweep the house with a turf.' 

Ray's Proverbs, p. 78. 
A.S. besem, besm, a besom ; a broom. 

BESPATTLE, BESPOTTLE [bi'spati], Wem. [bi'spot-l], Ludlow, 
V. a. to bespatter. Ct Spattle (1). See Be. 

BESSY-BBHr-TAIL [besi' br'i'n tail-], sh. same as Brand-taU, q. v. 

Clum", Twiichen, 

BESTED [bes-ti*d], (1) part, adj., si A cheated; overreached — what 
is understood by the slang term 'done/ A word often heard in 
markets and fairs. Com. ' I changed sid [seed] 65th owd Medlicott, 
but 'e's bested me ; mine wuz good six-rowed com as 'e 'ad, an' this 
poor, lathy, lean-eared stuff 651 'ardly gie the sid back' 

(2) t5. beaten at any game ; defeated. Ck)m. ' Charlie Grice an' 
me wun '&yin a game at "Jack-stones," but I bested 'im quick: 'e 
inna much of a 'and at it.' Jamieson has *best,* struck; beaten; 
which he refers to 'baist,' to oyercome. IceL beysta, ferire. Of. 
Baste (2). 

BEST-HITS Jl)est-U8], sb. a cow-house.— Clun, Herefd. Border. Cf. 
pronunciation of Beast above. See Hus. 

BESTS, ab. pi hoaat&.'-ibid. CI Beas. 

' Li which that poure folk of that village 
Hadden her bestes and her herbergage.' 

Chaucer, E. 201 (Six-text ed.), Skeat 
O.Fr. beste, Lat bestia. 

BET AND BUBN, v. a., obsola., this phrase designates an agricultural 
process adapted to the improvement of rough grass land. It consists 
of paring on the surface soil witii an implement called a * betting-iron,' 
collecting it into heaps, burning it, and when in a charred state 
digging it a spade's depth into the ground. — Pulverbatch ; Worthkn. 
'Ifs a rough plack, out I'm gwein to bet an^ bum it; the turf ess is 
capital for tatoes.' A field on the 'Huglith Farm' is called the 
Bdtin' LeasoWy from having been treated in the manner above de- 
scribed about the year 1804. Betting and burning is still [1871] prac- 
tised in the neighbourhood of Minsterley. 

A.S. b^n, to improve ; to make better. Cf. ' Beat,' E. D. S., B. vi.y 
also * Denchering,' in Hal. See Betting-iron below. 

BETTER [bet'ur'], adv., pec. more. Com. ' Better than a mile/ 

BETTEBLT [bet-ur'li*], adj. superior. Com. ' Turn Roberts is a 
tidy young chap, 'e's got the ^xden in a betterly condition than 'is 
£uther 'ad.' 


BETTERM08T [betnir'miist], (1) adj. best. Com. 'Betiermosi 
sort of folk.' 

(2) adj. used to express in excess of; more than. Com. 'Well, 
Mary, *ow feure did'n *ee sen* yore naint ? ' * W'y the bettermost 'afe o* 
the way.' 

BETTIVO-IROH [bet-i'n ci'ur'n], fh,, ohsoU, the implement nsed to 
pare off the turf in the process of ' betting and burning,* as related 
aboTO. A description of the * flaying spade,* further on, taken from 
eye testimony and actual measurement, will — on the authority of one 
who knew the betting-iron — ^apply equally well to it. 

BETTT-00-TO-BED-AT-SOOn, sh. Omithdgalum umhdlatnm, 
common Star of Bethlehem. — Ellesmebe. This plant owes its local 
name to the circumstance of its flowers closing about mid-day. Sir 
William Hooker, in his * British Flora,* says, ** Linnaeus imagines that 
the roots of Omithogalum umbellatum are the * DoTes* Dung * which 
was sold so dear at the siege of Samaria, as mentioned in 2 £ing8 tL 
25. They are still much used for food in the Levant. '* Cf. Peep- 

BET-WELL [bet*wi*l], sb. the wicker, bottle-shaped strainer placed 
over the spigot-hole within the maJsh-tub, to prevent the grains 
passing through into the wort— WELLIN0T017; Whitchttbch, WhixalL 
Cf. Pooch (1). 

BETWIZ [bi'twik's], prep, betwixt ; between. — Shbewsburt ; 
PtTLYEBBATCH. ' *£r*s a mighty pretty 'eifer ; yo 66nna see a better 
bdwix this an 'ereford.* Cf. Atwizt. 

' He seith he can no diflerence fynde 
Bitwix a man that is out of his m3mde 
And a man which that is dronkelewe.' 

Chauceb, C. 494 (Six-text ed.), Skeat. 

' And he wold fayne have a resonable end hetwyx us, whcr to he 
wyll helpe, as he seythe. *—P(M<on Letitrs, A.D. 1479, vol. iii. p. 266. 

*Mr. Oliphant says that the 0.£. betweox appears for the first 
time as betwix in the Peterborough Chronicle, drawn up in the Mid- 
land speech of 1120. That about the year 1250 Layamon*s poem was 
turned into the English of the day, and betwyx became beiwixU.^ — 
Sources of Standard English ^ pp. 58 — 153. 

BE2IZLE [bez'l], i;. r?. to drink hard ; to sot. — PtrLVZRBATCH ; Wel- 
uiroTOK. — Qy. com. 

' They that spend their youth in loitering, bezzJing, and harlotting.' 
— ^Milton (a.d. 1641), Animad. upon Eemons. Def, 
See Bezasle in Hal. 

BBZZLEB [bez-lur^], sh. a toper; a Boi.—ihid. "E's a reglac 

' Oh me ! what odds there seemeth *twixt their cheer 
And the swoln bezzle at an alehouse fire.* 

Halts Satires, v. 2 (a.d. 1597), in Hal. 

BIB8TEES, eh. pi., obs. ale-sellers. — Shbewsburt. 

'That the BailifEs should make Serjeants for whom they could 
answer, the Seijeants to account for issues and estreats of coui-ts, and 



Bihtiera* fines eyery quarter.' (Orders issued by the Corporation aad 
selected from Exchequer books.) — Fhillifs' History of 'ShrewBhury, 
p. 161. 
Cf. Texuors. 

BIF [bi'ff'l, sb.f var. pr. beef. Com. * 'E made a great mistake — 
liked Tail [yedC] better nor 6t/,' was said of one who married the niecv 
instead of the aunt. 

BIO-SOBTED [big-sauT'tid], adj. proud; stuck-up. Com. They 
say of such a person, ' 'E's as hig^aorted as ess.' 

BHiBEBBY [bil'br'i*], sb. Vaccinium Myrtillus, whortleberry. — 
Wbllinoton; Wem. 

' There pinch the maids as blue as hiJlmrry* 

Merry Wives of Windsor, V. T. 49. 

* Billberries . . . are termed whortleberries or windberries.* — 
Academy of Armory^ Bk. ii. ch. v. p. 81. 

See * BUberry ' in Wedg. Cf . Wimberry. 

BILE [bei'l], sb, a boil. Com. Mr. Halliwell says bile is 'the 
^nuine word. It is foimd in the early editions of Shakespeare, and 
m most early writers.' 

* Laid to as a cerot with pitch, it resolueth pushes and bilesJ — 
Holland's Pliny, xx. 13 (a.d. 1634). 

Cf. Bwile (2). 

BILL [bil*], ab, a bill<hook ; a sickle-shaped implement, having a 
handle about five feet in length, which admits of its being used with 
both hands. It is employed for rarious agricultural purposes — reap* 
ing peas, 'brushing' hedges, &c., &c. Com. 

* . . . although it Dee but a pickaviU, Atrouse bill, or a clubbe staff/ 
— Gk)U0H'8 History o/Myddle, p. 35. 

'Sc3rkhes and sneads, hedge-bills, and broad hooks.' — Audioneer'i 
Catalogue (Stoddesden), 1870. 

* Fcdcis, wudu-bil, sij>e, rifter.' — Latin and Anglo-Saxon Glosses, xL 
cent., in Wr. vocabs., vol. ii. p. 35. Hoc falcastrum, a bylle. Nominale, 
XT. cent., in Wr. vocabs., vol. i p. 235. 

Cf. • Much Ado,' III. iii. 44. See Bag. 

BILLY-BAT, sb, Pleiotxis communis. Long-eared Bat. — Pulverbatch ; 
Church Strett(^. ' Billy-bat come under my 'at.' Cf. Hat-bat. 

BILLY-BITEB, sb. Paras caeruleus, the Blue Titmouse. — Bridgnorth. 
From the furious way in which the female bird * bites ' the fingers of 
bird-nesting boys comes the appellation Billy-biter, 

BILLT BLACKCAP, sb, Pyrrhula rubicella, the Bullfinch.— Bridg- 
north. Cf. Bud-nope. 

BniLY-BUTTON, same as Bachelor's button, q. v. — ^Ellesmerb. 

BILLY-CLIPPEB, same as Barbine, q. v. — Fulverbatoh. 

BILLY-HOOTEB, sb, Sumium AMco, common Brown OwL — Clun. 
Cf. Oolert. 

BILLY WHITETHBOAT, same as Pegg^ Whitethroat, q. v.— 



BDI [bin*], (1) been ; are. See Orammar Ontliiies verb ' To Be.' 

' And wisking Mary-buds begin 
To ope their golden eyes ; 
With every thing that pretty bin 
My lady sweet, arise. * 

Sang in Cymbdine, U. iii. 
* Blushes that bin 
The burnish of no sin, 
Nor flames of ought too hot within.' 

Crashaw (first half 17th cent.), in Nabes, 

(2) ib. a oom-coffer. — Newport ; Ludlow. 

' The word binna occurs in a deed of the year 1263, in Chron. W. 
Thom» 1912, where it signifies a receptacle for grain.' — Way. 

' Wei oowde he kepe a gemer and a bynneJ 

Chaucer, The Prologue, L 693, ed. Morris. 

A.S. bin, a manger. Cf. Gofer, also Cub (1). 

BJJIilS [beindz'], sb. pi, strata lying upon the coal ; a sure indication 
of coal beneath. — Colliery ; M. T. Binds are locally distinguished 
as ' blue,' ' grey,* &c. See Coal-field. 

BIHO [bingg*], (!) sb. a kind of store-room or small gi-anary within 
a larger one, or within a ' bay ; * which can be locked up, ond into 
whi<£ grain can be put in bulk after it is threshed and before it is 
•bagged up.'— Shrewsbury; Wellington. 

' Tou might have seen them throng out of the town, 
like ants when they do spoil the bing of com.' 

Surrey's Poerns, p. 191, ed. Bell. 

Bynge, Theca, camera. — Prompt Parv, Sw. binge, a heap. See 
• Bing ' in Wedo. Cf. Bin (2). 

(2) eb. a receptacle for flour. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch. Qy. 
com. • In the great Buttery one binge," — Inventory . . . Manor-House, 
Owlbury, Bishop's Castle, 1625. 

In the Indenture of delivery of Berwick Castle, in 1539, occurs, 'in 
the pantre, a large bynge of okyn tymbar with 3 partitions.' — Archceol, 
xi. 440, Way. 

(3) eb. a place railed off from the cow-house in which fodder is 
kept in reaoiness for feeding the beasts. — Newport ; Whitchurch ; 

BIEDS'-EOOS [bur'd'z eg'z], sb. 8ilene inflata, Bladder Campion.— 
Craven Arms, Stohesay. 

BISD'S-ETE [bur'd'z ei], sb. Veronica CTiamcedrys, Germander Speed*' 
well. — Shrewsbury. 

BI8CAKE [bis'kaik], sh., var, pr. a biscuit. Com. 

BISHOPPED [bish'u'pt], (1) part. adj. confirmed. — Pulverbatch; 
Weluxoton ; Ellesmere.— * 'Er wuz bishopped i' Sosebry a wik W 

' And metropoJitanus 
And baptisede nnd buaahoppede.' 

Piera. PI. [C. xviii. 207], p. 559, ed. Wr. (Notes). 

A.S. biseeoped, oonfiimed. 




(2) part, adj, said of milk that has been burnt to the pan in boiling. 

— ^Bishop's Castle. This use of the term may occasionally, but very 
rarely, be heard in an isolated kind of way throughout the county ; it 
seems to be nearly obsolete. A corrupted form, * ^shopped,' has been 
noted, but probably it was an individual instance. In tne neighbour- 
hood of Craven Arms and about Welshampton some of the old 
people say when the milk is burnt, * The bishop's pilt 'is Hit in it.' 

' When a thinge speadeth not well, we borowe speach and saye, The 
hysahope hath blessed it, because that nothinge speadeth well that 
they medyll withall. Tf the podeche be burned to, or the meate over 
rested, we saye. The byaahope hath put his fote in the potte, or The 
hysahope playd the coke, because the byshopes burn who thei lust and 
whosoever displeaseth them.' — TyndcUe, Obedience of a Christen Man^ 
1535, in Wb. 

Jamieson has the following : ' Bishop's Foot ; it is said, The Bishop^* 
fooi has been in the broth, when they are singed.' And observes, ' This 
phrase seems to have had its origin in times of Popery, when the 
clergy had such extensive influence that hardly anythmg could be 
done without their interference.' 

(3^ part. adj,y si. a horse is said to be bishopped when his teeth are 
artificially marked for purposes of deception with regard to his age. 

BISOH. See Besom. * ScopsB, verriculam, a bissom.' — ^Duncan's 
Appendix Etymologiae, A.D. 1595, E. D. S., B. xiii. A.S. bism, a besom. 

BISSON [bis'u'n], adj., ohs.'i blind. — Bridgnorth. *The poor owd 
men's aumust htsson.* * Ay^, 'is eyes han bin bad a good bit.' 

* , . . your bisson conspectuities.'— Coriolanus, IE. i. 70. 

In the Lindisfame or Durham MS. of the Latin Gbsnels we hare 
the word * caeci ' (S. Mat. ix. 28), with the Old Northumorian Gloss, 
above, ' bisena vd blinde,' i. e. btssen or blind men, the a being the 
nom. pL ending. A«S. bisen, blind. 

BIT [bit*], sh. the wide part or blade of an agricultural shovel.— 
Much wenlock. 

BIT-BAT [bit-bat*], same as Billy-bat, q. v. — Shrewsbury ; Wbm. 

BLACK-BESS [blak bos*], sh. any small black beetle is so called. 
Com. Two black-besses that were sent for entomological examination 
proved to be respectively, Amara /amiiiaris and Leistis ftUmbarbis, 
* I ketched two black-besses, ma'am, an' put 'em in a box to sen' to 
y^o, but w'en I went to start the box, I opened it to see wim they all 
right, an' theer I fund as thev 'ad etten one another ; an* I couLdnfii 
get two more nod then, an' I wuz that vexed,' said Betty Andrews 
of Cruck Meole (1872). 

BLACKBI&D, sb. Turdus torquatus, the Ring OuzeL — Bridgnorth. 

BLACKCAP, sb. Parus ater, the Cole Titmouse. — Bridgnorth. 

BLACK-HEADEB TOMTIT, sb. Farm major, the Great Titmouse. 
— Bridonorth. Cf. Tom-noup. 

BLACK-JACKS, sb. pi. the heads of the Ribwort Plantain, Plantago 
lanceolata, — CoLLiERT, LiUeshalL Ci. Fighting-cocks. 


BLACK-MULLOCK [blak mul-uk]/ eb, peat-turf.— Whitchurch, 
WhixoUl Moss ; Ellesmere. Tur/-mullock is the refuse of the peat . 
which has been cut for burning. Of. Mullock. 

BLACK-QTTARTEB [blak'kwau-r'tur'], eh., obs. In the domestic 
economy of a cottage it is called hlack-qxAarter when there is no milk, 
the cow being ' dry for caMne,' or when the store bacon is finished 
before the new flitch is ready K>r eating. — Pulverbatch. 

BLACKSMITH, sb. EmbeHza citrlnella. Yellow Bunting, or Yellow 
Ammer. — Beidonorth. Blacksmith is evidently a play upon the 
name Yellow Hammer ^ as it is often spelt. 

Speaking of this bird, Mr. Yarrell says, * I have yentured to restore 

• to it what I believe to have been its first English name, Yellow 
Ammer, although it appears to have been printed Yellow Ham and 
Yellow Hammer from the days of Drs. William Turner and Merrett 
to the present time. The word ammer is a well-known German term 
for Bunting, in very common use. Thus Bechstein employs the 
names Schnee-ammer, Grau-ammer, Bohr-ammer, Garten -ammer, 
and Gold-ammer for our Snow Bunting, Com Bunting, Reed Bunting, 
Ortolan or Garden Bunting, and Yellow Buntine. Prefixing the letter 
h to the word appears to be unnecessary, ana even erroneous, as 
suggesting a notion which has no reference to any known habit ot 
qiumty in the bird.' — History of British Birds, vol. i. p. 518, 3rd 
ed. 1856. 

BLACKSMITH'S DATJOHTHR, sb, a hanging lock.— Pulverbatch. 
' I mus' put the blacksmith* s daughter on the garden wicket, fur I see 
the straibries bin gwein too fast.' 

BLACK STOHE, sb. a vein of iron-stone lying on both sides of 
'Lightmoor Fault.'— Colliery ; M. T. 

' The Black Stone and Blue Flats are rich and valuable iron-stonen. 
These stones occur in nodules, and produce from 1000 to 1600 tons 
per acre. The famous cold blast iron of the Lilleshall Company is 
made from equal mixtures of Black Stone, Blue Flats, and Penny 
Stone, with a little proportion of others.' — Notes on the Shropshire 
. CoaUField, by T. Parton, F. G. S., 1868. 
Cf. Penny Stone. See Blue Flats. 

BLADE [blaid'], (1) v. a. to trim a hedge by ' feathering ' it to the. top 
— Glee Hills. 

' Bladjm' herbys or take away the bladys.' — Detirso, Prompt. Parv, 

A.S. bl<kdy a leaf; branch; twig. 

(2) sh, that timber in a roof which goes at an angle from the top of 
the ' king post ' to the beam of the ' principal '-^Clun. The llaae is 
known in Cheshire as the back, 

BLASBEBBY [blaibr'i'], sb. same as Bilberry, q. v.— Coluert. 

' Nae bims, or briers, or whins e'er troubled me, 
Gif I cou'd find bUie-berries ripe for thee.* 

ALLA27 Bamsay, The Oentle Shepherd, II. iv. p. 34. 

BLAVKS AVD PBIZES, ab. pi. a dish of beans and bacon. Com. 
The blanks are the beans, the prizes the morsels of bacon which are 

• somewhat sparsely distributed amongst them. To prepare this popular 


dish, the bacon must be cut into ' dice,' fried, and then poured with 
its * liquor' into the ready-boiled beans: all must then be stirred 
together with a seasoning of pepper, and— as the old cookery books 
say — * messed forthe.' 

BLATHEE [blaadh'ur'], (I) sb, noisy, senseless prate; empty 
flattery; humbug. — Wem. * Sich blather ! I hanna-d-a bit of patience 
wuthit' Cf. Bledder (2). 

' But I shall scribble down some blether 
Just clean aff-loof.' — Eobebt Burns, Poema^ p. 77, 1. 33, a 2. 

(2) V. n. to prate senselessly, &c. — ibid, * Theer's never no 'eed to 
be t66k on 'im, 'e blathers an gosters all day lung.' * Balbutio, to 
bladder.' — Dxtncan's Appendix Etymologicp, a.d. 1595, E. D. S., B. ziiL 

BLEDDEB [bledur'], (I) sb. a bladder. — Pulverbatgh; Ludlow. 

' Wi^ a face as fat * as a full bledder 
Blowen bretfull of bre^. . . .'—P. PL Or., L 222. 

'Bleddyr, vesica.* — Prompt. Parv, A.S. blceddre, a bladder. 

(2) sb., si? chatter; prate. — Lxtdlow. 'Shot yore bledder* is 
equivalent to ' Hold your tongue.' Cf. Blather (1). 

BLESSIIfO [bles'inl, sb. a small quantity given over the measure in 
8ellingmilk,&c.— Shrewsbury; Pulverbatgh; Colliert. *They'n 
begun to sell milk at both housen at Churton ; I shall g65 to the poor 
owd Missis, 'er gies capital mizzer an' a good Uessin* into the bargain.' 

BLETHEE [bledhur'], sb. a bladder. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch. 
'Look at them lads makin' a fiit-ball o' that Uether; they'n host it 
jeat now.' 

' An' bid him bum this cursed tether, 
An', for thy pains, thou'se get mv blether* 

Egbert Burns, Poems, p. 33, 1. 18, c. 2. 

BLTITD [bleind*], adj. abortive : said of blossoms. — Shrbwsbuhy ; 
Pulverbatgh. ' I shanna-d-&ve above 'afo a pint o* straibries this 
'ear, the blows bin all blind. ' See Blow. 

BLTITD-BALL [bleindbaul], sb. the fungns Lf/coperdon Bovitta,---' 
Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatgh. See Fnzz-balL 

BLnrD-BXIFF [bleind buff], same as BUnd-ball.— Clun. 

BLIVD-BirZZABD [bleind bozur't], {l)sb. Mdolmtha vul^drts, the 
common Cockchafer. Com. 

(2) sb. LucdnvLs cervits, the Stag Beetle. — Colliery. 

Binrp-MAIT'S.HOLIDAY [blein monz oli'di'], twilight. Com. 
Florio has, ' Feridlo, vacancy firom labour ; rest firom worke ; Hind* 
man^S'holt/day,* in Hal. 

BLIND SIEVE [bleind'siv], sb.y obsols. a sieve — ^in appearance like a 
tambourine — made of sheepskin, and not perforated. Com. Tho 
blind sieve was formerly much used in granaries for dressing com, 
and is still so employed by cottage-folk for their 'laisina' By a 

Seouliar eddying motion given to it — which it requires an ' expert ' to 
0— the chaff and lighter parts of the grain are brought to the 
soriaoe, in the nuddle of the sieve, and can be eaailj zvmovad. Th» 


grain is deansed yery effectually by this simple process. Of. Bieing 

BLIHD-WOBM [bleind'wur'm], sb, Anguia fragilU^ the Slow-worm. 
Com. Cf. Ether. 

* Newts, and Uind-wormB, do no wrong.' 

Mids, Nighfs Dream, II. iL 11. 

'Hee 9cuitda, a blynde-worme.'-=-^oTOtna/^, xv. cent., in Wr. 
Tocabs., YoL i. p. 223. 

BLIHK [bUngk*], (1) t7. n. to glimmer; to bum in a faint, fitful 
manner. — ^Pvlyebbatch. * The fire wuz mighty doggit this momin', 
it kep' blink, blink, blinkin\ 1 thought I should never a got the men's 

' For me, I swear by sun an' moon. 
An' every star that blinks aboon, 
Te've cost me twenty pair o' shoon 
Just gaun to see you.' 

KoBEBT Burns, Poems, p. 34, L 8. 

O.Dutchy blinken (micare, splendere), to blink; gleam. Dan. blinke^ 
to blink; shine. — Stbat. 

(2) sb. a glimmer ; a spark of fire. — Pxtlveebatch ; Clun' ; Ludlow. 
' I raked the fire las' mght, thinkin' to be up yarly, an' it burnt out ; 
theer wunna-d-a blink left.' 

BLINKED [blingkt'l, part, adj., obsols, said of butter-milk that from 
exposure to the suns rays has acquired a peculiar, bitter, ill flavour. 
— ^PuLVEBBATCH. * W'y this butter-milk is as bitter as siit — I toud 
yo' as it 56d be blinked if it wunna covered o'er, the sun wuz shinin' 
right into the steen.' Jamieson has * to blink,' to become a little 
Bour ; a term used with respect to milk and beer. He suggests a 
'gloss' on this by way of query — giving the derivation. Germ. 
lUnken, coruscare—' as struck with lightning, which, we know, has 
the effect of making liquids sour ; or as denoting that of sunshine, or 
of the heat of the weather.' 

BLOB [blob*], (1) sb, a blister ; a watery pustule. Com. ' Dick's got 
a baa leg ; it come jest a litUe blob, an' sprad all o'er 'is leg like S. 
Anthonys fire.' 

(2) sb, a bubble. Com. 'That fresh drink dunna-d-'afe work, 
on y jest a blob 'ere an' theer.' ' By-gum, Missis, be*appen it inna- 
d-aUe ! ' 

(3) sb. a drop. — ^Pulvsbbatoh. Qy. com. ' The swat stood on 'is 
foryed i' blobs as big as pase.' 

' Thou^ both his eyes should drop out like hlobbes or droppes of 
water. '—Z. Boyd, in Wbdo. 

(4) V. a. to let out a secret. Com. ' I'll tell yo' a saicrit, Mary, if 
yo n mind nod to blob.* C£ ' Blabbe, wxeyare of cownselle,' in Prompt. 
Parv., p. 37. 

BLOBBEB [blobnir'l (1) sb. saucy, idle chatter. Com. ' Oud 
yore blobber.* Cf. * Blaberyn, or speke wythe-owte resone,' in Prompt. 
Parv., p. 37. 

(2) V. n. to cry without tears in a broken, noisy way, as children do 


who have not mucli cause of complaint* Com. 'Whad bin 'ee 
hiobherin' fur, Turn ? nobody's 'urtin' yo'.' See * Blobure ' (blobyr), 
with Way's notes, in Prompt. Parv.^ p. 40. 

BLOCEING-AZE [blok'inak's], nb,, ohs. an axe employed for 
squaiins^ timber, having a handle so curved horizontally, right and 
left, as to save the knuckles of the workman. — Much Wenlock. 

BLOCKY, BEOCKT [blok-i*], Wem. [br'oki*], Pulvbrbatch, short 
and stout. * Yore new waggoner's despert Inxky^ 'e'll want a lungish 
pitchin' pikel.' 

BLOOD-STICK [blud'stik*'], ah, a kind of club used by farriers to 
drive in the * flues ' when bleeding an animal. Qy. com. See Flues. 

BLOOD-WOBT [blud-wur't], «6. Enjthrc^ Centaurium, common 
Centaury.— PaLVBRBATCU, Banwood, Cf. Sanctuary. 

BLOODY-BTITCHEBS [bludi* buch-nr'z], sh. Orchis Mascula, early 
purple Orchis. Com. This is the * dead men's fingers* of Shakespeare. 
See Hamlet, IV. vii. 172. 

BLOODY-WABBIOB [blud-i* waa.r'-i'u'r'], aieirantkvs Cheiri fibn- 
guineus, the very dark double Wall-flower. — ^Ellesmere. 

BLOOM [bloo'mj, sb. a mass of iron as it comes out of the puddling 
furnace before it is hammered and sent through the rolls. — Colliery, 
Iron-works, Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033, mentions a rent for ovens 
and furnaces called bloom-smithy-rent, in Hal. 

BLOW [blou], (1) sb. bloom; blossom. — Shrewsbury; Pulveb* 
BATCH. Qy. com. * Theer's a good blow o' the plum-trees this 'ear.' 
' The bread 6dna keep w*ile the corn's i' the blow ' is an expression 
fi'equently heard in the hot weather of blossoming time, when bread 
is apt to become * ropy.' 

(2) V. n. to come into leaf. — Shrewsbuky, UfingUm. * The 'edges 
bin beginnin' to blow ; they'n soon be i' full lef if this weather lasses/ 

' & buskede him out of l^e buschys * ^at were blowed grene, 
& leued ful louely * J^at lent grete schade.' 

William of Paleme, 1, 21. 

BLOW -BELLOWS [bloa-bel-*u*ss], sb. pi. a pair of bellows.— 

' . . . After that cometh suggestion of the divel, this is to say, the 
diveVs belotis, with which he bloweth in man the fire of concupi- 
scence.' — Chaucer, The Porsones Tale (eecunda para, penitentict). 

BLOW-BELL YS [bloa-bel-Tss], iciem.— Pulvbrbatch ; Wem; 
Eli«es)[ERE. * 'As any one sid the blow-belly $ f I canna get this fire 
to tind.' Cf. Ballys. See BeUys. 

BLOWS [bloa'z], sb. pi. affairs ; things to be done. --Pulyerbatch ; 
WoRTHEN. To be * full of blows ' is a phrase equivalent to having 
* many irons in the fire.' ' I canna-d-aw'ue to fettle that 1^ momin , 
I'm full o' blows: 

BLTTE-BACE [bloo-bak*'], sh. Turdus pOdria, the Fieldfare.— Much 

'glossary of archaic and provincial words, etc. 41 

SLUE-BELL, eb, Hycicinthus, non-script ua^ Wild Hyacinth. — Shrews- 
BUBT. Generally used in the plural form Bltu-htlU, 

BLXJE-BOHHET, ah. same as Billy-biter, q. v.— Bridgnorth. 

BLXTE-BOTTLE, ah. CentaurSa Cyanuay Corn Blue-bottle. Com. 

BLUE-CAP, the same as Blue-bonnet. — Bridgnorth. 

BLUE YLh!t%, ah. a vnluable iron-stone.— Colliery ; M. T. 

* This iron-stone, which occurs in nodules of all imaginable shapes, 
is full of the fossil Unio or Anthracoaia, and impressions of the 
Tegetable Lycopodiaceae.* — Notes on the Shropshire Coal- field, by T. 
Pabton, F.G.S., 1868. 
See Black Stone, also Coal-field. 

BLUE FOX-OLOYE, ah. Campanula Trachilium, Nettle-leaved Bell- 
flower. — ^Whitchurch, Tilstock. 

BLUE-HEADS [bloo-edz], ab. pL the flowers of Scabioaa aucciaa, — 
CoBVB Dale. Of. Deyil'a-bit. 

BLUVOE [blunzh'], v. a, to knead or mix up hastily, as of dough or 
dumpling. — Ellesmere ; Wem. ' Now, Jenny, be sharj) an* Uunga 
up a bit o' dumplin' for the lads, or they wunna think it's 'Amp'n 
[Hampton'] Wakes.' 

BOAK-SEO [boa-ur' seg*'], ah, a boar that has been gelt. — Clee Hills. 
Qy. com. 

BOAB-THISTLE [boa-ur' thissl], ah, Carduua lancdolatua, Spear 
Plume-thistle. — Clee Hills. Qy. com. 

BOASOM [boa'zam], ah., var. pr. bosom. Com. 

B0BBBB80ME [bob'ur'sum], adj., aU free; lavish.— NswPOBt. 
' Dunna yo be too hobheraovM wi' yore money.' 

BOBBISH [bob'ish], adj.^ alA pretty well and bright in health and 
spirits. Com. 

BODOE pKvj'], (1) v. a. to patch clumsily; to mend roughly. Com. 
' Theer, I've tore my gownd ! I canna-d-awilde to mend it properly, 
nod now, so I mun hodge it up.' Qt Botch. 

(2) ah. a rough patch ; a clumsy, bungling job of any kind. Com. 
Of. Shakespeare's bodged for * bungled.'— 3 K. Henry VI, L iv. 19. 

BOES [boaz*], ah, j>l. PedicuU humani ; inaecta parva comd infantum, 
— Shrewsbubt ; Pulverbatch ; Ludlow. Cf. Bugs. See Bk. II., 
Folklore, &c., ' Superstitions concerning Insects.' 

B07FLE [bof-1], v, a., var, pr. to confuse; to baffle. Com. 'I 
knowed right well 'e wnz tellin' me a lie, so I cross- waund 'im a bit 
an' soon hoffled 'is story.' 

BOIT. See 

BOSS [boak*], H) v. n. to thrust at, as with a rail or stake. — 
Shbewsburt ; Wem : Whitchxjrch. * *E pooled a stake out o' the 
'c^{^ an' hokid at 'im. Boke is another form of poke ; but a curious 
distinction is made between the h of the one word and the p of the 


other * they are used ' with a difference/ As B is a heavier letter 
than r, so to boke is a heavier action than to poke, A man bokea wil^ 
a rail or other thick piece of wood, and pokes with a light stick. See 
B and P in Grammar OutHnea (consonants), 

(2) V. n. to stare about in a stupid, half-blind way ; to shy, when 
used with reference to a horse. — Wem, Hopton, * 'E went alung the 
r5oad bMn an* startin' at eyerythink, till I thought I c'u'd niyer a 
druv 'im 'ere.* 

BOLTIH [boal'ti'n], same as Battin; refined pronunciation. — 
Shrbwsbubt; Ptjlvekbatch ; Cluw. Bar. *boutin.' 

BOVD [bond*], (1) pret and part, past, bound. — Newport ; W«m ; 

* Three hundred foxes took Sampson for Ire, 
And alle her tayles he togider hond,* 

Chauceb, B. 3222 (Six-text ed.), Skeat 
d Bund (1). 

(2) sb, a straw band for binding sheaves. — ibid, 

< " Oanstow seruen/' he seide * *' other syngen in a churehe, 
Other coke for my cokers * other to the cart picche, 
Howe other mowen ' other make bond to sheues.** * 

Piers PL, Text C. pass. vi. L 14. 

'The Bond is that as ties the Com into Bundles.* — Academy qf 
Armory, Bk. ILL ch, iii. p. 73. 
Cf. Bund (2). 

(3) sb, the load of coal or iron-stone to be drawn up. Com. M. T. 

(4) [bon* or bond*], sb, a band or gang of pit-men working together. 
— ^Colliery ; M. T. * *E works i* the bon*,^ 

BOHBSMEH [bonz'men], sh. pi, men working in a hand, whose 
duty it is to remove the coal after it has been ' holed ' by the ' holers ; ' 
first knocking away the ' sprags,* q. v- Com. M. T. 

BOVK [bongk*], sh, a sloping height ; a steep pitch or incline in a 
road. Com. 'Mr. Gittins o' Churton *ad a prime mar* spiled the 
tother day gwein down Welbi'ch [WetbatcK] bonk; the waggoner must 
a bin a naiS to g66 down a place like that athout scotchin*.* 

' Quhil the reflex of the diurnal bemys 
The beyn bonkis kest fill of variant glemys.' 

Gawin Douglas (a.d. 1513), Prol. of ike XIIBuk 
o/Eneados. Sptcim, Eng, L%t,, xiii. 1. 62. 
Cf. Bonky-pieces. 

BOHME [bongk-r], sh, a girl employed on the ' bank ' as a * bonks- 
man * is.— Colliebt ; M. T. 

BOVKSMAIT [bongks'mun], sh, a man on the * bank ' who disposes 
of the coal as it comes to the surface. — Coluebt; M. T. 

BOHBT-FIECES Tbongk-i' poe'si*z], sh. pi, steep, sloping fields.— 
PuLVEBBATCH. Qy. com. ' I tell yo* a double plough's no chonoe i' 
them bonky-pieces, tiiey*n chuck it out spite o' yore tith.' Cf. Sidelant 

BOJfJfY [boni*], adj. comely; stout — what the Fi*ench understand 


by embonpoint ; quite a distinct sense from the Scottish ' bomiie.' The 
term is not of very frequent use. — Pulverbatch ; Oobye Dalb ; 
Clee Hills. 'Betty Jenkins praises 'er pastures; whad a bonny 
66man 'er's gwun I 'er wuz a poor toiTel the las' time I sid 'er.' 

BOOK [buek'l Whitchurch, Tihtock; — school book, [skruel buek*]. 
Cf, Scotch ' Buik.' 

BOOGIE [b55g'i'], sb. a supernatural being ; a spectre ; a household 
sprite. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatcii ; Worthen. 

' K. Edw. . . . For Warwick was a bu^ that fear'd us all.' 

3 JT. Henry VL V. iL 2. 

W. bwgan, a bugbear. G£ Bugabo. See Bk. 11., Folklore^ * The 
B66gies an' the Saut-box.' 

B008EY [boo'zi'l, ^b. the upper end of the cow-stall where the fodder 
lies. Com. *Booc or Ixws, netystalle.* — Prompt Parv. A.S. 6d«, 
b6»ig, a stall ; manger ; crib. 

BOOSEY-PASTUBE, sb, ground claimed by the off-going tenant at 
Lady Day for the use of his cattle up to the first of May, on which to 
consume nay, turnips, and such produce as is not allowed to be taken 
off the farm. — ^Pulverbatch. Qy. com. 

B008ET-STAKE, ab. the stake to which the cow is fastened in the 
booHy by a ' cow-chain.' — ^Wem. Qy. com. Cf. Stelch (2). 

BOBE-PASSEB [boa-ui^ pas'ur'], sK a gimlet.— Worthbn. ' Persowre 
(or wymbyl), Terbellum.^ — Prompt Parv. Cf. Nail-passer. 

BOBBOW [bo'T'u'], 8b,y var. pr. a barrow. — Corvb Dale. 

BOSH [bosh*!, (1) ab, the rough, bristly part of a boar's head between 
the ears. — Fulverbatch. (^y. com. 
(2) <6. the curly front of a bull's head between the horns. — iUd. 

* Leon , . . The steer, the heifer, and the calf 
Are all call'd neat. 

. . . How now, you wanton calf P 
Art thou my calf? 

Mam, Yes, if you wiU, my lord. 

Leon. Thou want'st a rough pash and the shoots that I haye 
To be full like me.'— TTinfer'a Tale, I. ii. 128. 

BOSS fboss'], (1^ sb, a protuberance of iron in the top part of the 
spindle in whicn the brandarts were placed. Com. See Brandarte. 

(2) ab. a hassock. Com. 

• 1778. for a Boss for the Commimion 0. 8. 0.' — Churchwardens' 
Accounte, Hopton Castle, Salop. 

BOST [host'], (1) V, a., var, pr. to burst. Com. *I doubt we 
sha'n '&ve to bogt that door open, for the kay canna be fund 'igh, low, 
nor level' 

(2) a slight imprecation. Com. ' Post that chap, w'y couldoa-d-'e 
a lef that lather w'eer I p&t it P an' then I should a 'ad if 

B08TEV p)os-nl, part. adj. full to repletion ; burst. — Shrewsbury ; 
Elleshbre. Qy. com. 'I conna tak' no more, Missis, Pm welly 


BOTCH [boch*], v. a, to patch old clotlies, but not necessarily in 
a rough and- clumsy way. — Newport. Cf. Bodge (1). See 'Botch* 
in Wbdo. 

BOTTLE [bot'l], (1) sh. a small wooden barrel or keg for carrying 
drink to the lield. Com. Bottles yary in size: those used by the 
ploughman or labourer hold about three pints, while the harvest- 

• men's IxMle^ contain from two to six quartk * Tell Bill to tak', the 
'ackney mar* an* start off 56th them two bottles an* bayte-bafi;s to the 
turmit fallow — ^it*s aumust the middle o* the day.* * Bag ana bottle.* 
--liobin Hood, ii. 54, in Hal. Cf. Costrel. 

(2) sb. a bundle of hay. — ^Pulvekbatch ; Corve Dale ; Elles- 
ICERE. ' I axed the Maister to let me *&ve a bit of *ay ; *e said 'e 
dama sell, but *e*d gie me a bottle, as the cow wuz nigh cauvin.* 

' Al- though it be nat worth a botel hey.* 

Chaucer, H. 14 (Six-text ed.), Skeat. 

' I have a great desire to a bottle of hay.' 

Mids, Nights Dream, IV. i. 37. . 

' To look for a needle in a bottle of hay ' is a common proverb which 
occurs in Clarke^ s Phraseologia Puerilis, 1655. See HaL 

' A thousand pounds, and a bottle of hay, 
Is all one thing at Doom's-day.* 

Howell's Proverbs, ed. 1660, in Hal. 

* Botelle of hey.* — Fenifasds. * Botelle of have, boiteau de foyn, 
Aske you for the hosteller, he is aboue in the haye lofte makynge 
boUlles (or botels) of hay, boteller.^ — Palso. * In Norfolk it denotes 
the quantity of hay that may serve for one feed.* — ^Forby. — Prompt. 
Parv, and Notes. 

BOTTLE-TIT, sh. Parus emidatus, the Long-tailed Tit-mouse. — 
Ludlow. Cf. Can-bottle. 

BOTTOMLET BAY, «6., var. pr. Botany Bay.— Newport ; Whit- 
church. See * Sosebry * in Place Names. 

BOUGHS [bou'z], to be ' up in the boughs ' is a phrase signifying to 
be put quickly out of temper ; te be easily ofiTended. — Shrewsbury ; 
PULYERBATCH ; CoRYE Dale ; Clee Hills. ' *Er wuz all up t* the 
boughs in a minute.* Cf. — 

' Now in the croppe, now doun in the breres.* 

Chaucer, The Knightes Tale, L 674, ed. Morris. 

BOirOHT OPF TEE PEOS, phr. sU said contemptuously of 
second-hand or * slop-made' clothing. — Shrewsbury; Pulyer-* 
batch ; Wem. * *E bought it off the pegs, it 66nna do 'im much joy.* 

BOUK [bou'k], (1) sb., ohsols. a bucket of what is technically known 
as * bend ware.' — Pulyerbatch. Cf. Quaigh. 

(2) sb. a i>ail with an upright handle, used for Yarious purposes of 
brewing, dairy- work, &c. — Wem ; Whitchxjrch ; Elleshere. 

' He beareth Azure, a Milk-Pail, Argent This is the Badge and 
Cognizance of the Milk-Maids, whom I have heard giYe this sort of 
Yessel seYeral denominations ; of some it is called a Pail, a Cruck, an 


Eshon ; of others a BoukJ* — Academy of Armory ^ Bk. IH., ch. yiii. 
p. 335. 

A.S. 6tic, a bucket. See Bk. 11., The Bovk, ' A Descriptive Poem.' 

(3) eh. a large barrel used for drawing water in sinking purposes. 
Com. M. T. 

(4) eh. the box of a wheel. — PxTLVERBATCH. 

BOUJLJJI [bou'ki'n], sKy obsols. same as Bush (2). — Pulverbatch ; 
Glee Hills. 

BOITSTEB [bou*8tur'], sb., var, pr. a bolster. Com. 

BOUT [bou't], sh. a course in knitting round a stocking. — Pulver- 
batch ; Wellinoton. * 'Ou bin *ee gettin' on 66th that stockin ? ' 
' Tm at the quirk 66thin a bout or two.' 

(2) eb, a turn once up and down a ploughed field. Com. The number 
of boute to a * but' vanes according to the nature of the soil, on stiff 
land fewer than on dry, light groimd. To bout up is to ridge ground 
for turnips. — Glee Hills. 

(3) sb. a turn of illness. Com. ' Pm glad to 'ear poor John's better^ 
'e's 'ad a bad b<mt on it ; 'e's bin o' the oox three months.' On the box 
means dependent on the sick club. 

(4) eb. a ^arty. — Pulverbatch. * They'd'n a big bout at the uwer 
'ouse las' wik.' 

BOTTTHEBS [bou'dhur'z], sh.pL boulders ; paving-stones. — Newport. 

BOUmr Pbou'ti'n], usual pronunciation of *boltin,' q. v. James 
France of Pulverbatch said of an uncomely woman-servant that; 
' 'Er wuz jest like a boutin o' straw 66th one bun' roimd it.' See 
Bund. Cf. Bautin. 

BOW [boa*], sh. a st^el fire-guard encompassing the kitchen fire« 
place. Bings usually encircle the top rod of the bow for the children 
to play with. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch. Qy. com. 

BOWEBY [bou'h'r'i'], sb. a bower; a shady recess. — Shrewsbury; 
Much Westlock, 

BOW-HAITLEB, BOWHATJLIEB [buo'au-lur', buo'au-lyur'], sb., 
obeole, a man who by means of a rope drags a barge along the Severn. 
— Much Wenlock. The firet form of the word obtains between Coal- 
port and Buildwas ; the eecond about Cressage. 

' With regard to the mode of hauling barges, an obvious improve- 
ment would be the opening of a good towing-path along the river, and 
the substitution of horses for men in this slavinh labour. That this 
project is perfectly feasible, even on the most difficult banks, has been 
shown by the laudable and successful experiment of Mr. Beynolds, of 
Ketley, who formed a path for horses near his manufactories at Ccial- 
port, and carried it on through rugged banks, and over some of the 
worst fords, for a distance of two miles, to the Iron Bridge.' — Rev. J. 
Niohtinoale's Deecription of Shropehire, p. 41, ed. 1810. 

BOWL [bou'l], (1) sh. a child's hoop. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch ; 
Ellesmere. ' Now, Tummy, dunna bring yore bowl o' the causey ; 
g66 i' the lane, yo'n '&ve a better run theer.' 


(2) V. a. to trundle ; to wheel, as of a perambulator, &c. — Shbewb- 
buey; Pulvehbatch ; Mtjch Wenlock. An inquiry after an 
inyalid girl was answered by the assurance that she was better, as 
she had been howled out in her chair. 

BOX-BAEBOW [bok*sbaar''u'], sb. a hand-barrow for canying cut 
grass. — Elles^ebe. 

BOZ-HABBY, v. n., si 1 to take things as they are ; to ' rough it.^ — 
Shbewsbuby ; Clee Hills. Qy. com. 

BBABE [br'aid'l, (1) eh. breadth: width.— Pultebbatch. 'The 
brade o' my 'and.' 

' & deliuer l^e londes a-ien * in lengl^e ft in brede,* 

WHUam of Paleme, I 3065. 
A.S. brdde, breadth ; width. 

(2) $b. a breadth or width of any kind of stuff from selyage to 
selvage. — Shbewsbuby ; Pulveebatch ; Wem • Ellesmebe. * *0w 
many bradei han 'ee got'n in yore gownd ? it looks mighty skimity.' 

BBABLINO [br'ad'li'n], part adj, brooding : as a hen over her 
chickens.— Wem; Whitchubch. A.S. brcedan, to spread; to stretch 
out. Cf. Broodle. 

BBAO [br'ag-]^ sb, praise; boast. Com. 'Han 'ee tasted Claims 
drink lately Y They praisen it oncommon.' * Ugh I good beer needs 
no brag.* 

Cf. * Good wine needs no bush.* — See P. PL Cr., 1. 706. 

BBAOOABLE [br'agu'bl], adj. very good ; commendable. — Pulveb- 
batch. "Ow^s Dick hW' 'is plack?' *OhI 'e see it's nuthin* 
braggahh, they bin cummudgin sort o' folks.' 


BBAGGLDT [br'ag'lin], part. adj. swaggering; boasting. — WsL- 
LiKOTON. * Oud Barber wuz bragglirC o'er them byests o' 'isn at 
the for.' 

BBAHDABTS [br'and-ur'ts], sb. pi., oJ)8. four iron arms fixed into 
the * boss ' of a spindle, in a flour-mill, for the purpose of carrying 
the upper mill-stone. Com. What are called * balance-irons ' nav9 
now superseded the old brandarts. See Boss (1). 

BBAITD-IBOH [br'andei-'ur'n], (1) sb. ohs.^l a branding-iron; an 

instrument employed to brand horses or cattle with their owners' 

names, when animals belonging to different persons were turned out 

. on the same hill-common. The brand-iron was made hot to sear the 

animal with the stamp. Com. See Bum-mark. 

(2) ab. a similar instrument to the foregoing, stiU used for branding 
agricultural implements, such as spades, forks, ftc., with the owner's 
name. Com. 

(3) ab.f oba. a frame to keep up the logs on the fire. — Bishop's 

* The kytchynge ... six broches, two brandirons^ one fire forke.' — 
Inventory . . . Owlbury Manor-House, Bishop's Castle, 1625. 

A.S. brandAwn^ a tripod or andiron ; an * iron ' to support ' brands' 
of wood. 


BKAHD-TAIL psr'an'tail], sb. Ruticilla phtenieura, the Redstart. 
— Clttx. The name Brand-tail has like allusion with Redstart to the 
flame-coloured feathers in the bird's tail. Cf. Fire Brand-tail. 

BKA8H [br'ash*], (\) ah, the loppings off trees used for heating brick 
OTens, &c. Com. * I*ve got a famous '55d-pil ; the Maister soud me 
the hrash off two ash trees for ten shillin*, an* it'll las* me a twel'- 
month.' See Cordwood. Cf. Trouse. 

r2) th. a watery rash or eruption on the sldn. — Pttlyebbatgh. 
' Tne child*s got a brash on 'im like as if 'e wuz nettled ; but I spect 
il^s on'y throm 'is tith.' 

BKASS fbr'ass'], {\) sh, copper coin. Com. ' I tell John 'e should 
ax the Maister to pay 'is wages in silver, for agen I've lugged two 
fiye-shillin' papers o' brass all the way to Sosebry ; it swags me down.' 
The brass thus spoken of was the heavy copper money of the reign of 
Qeorge IIL ; * two five shillin' papers * of which would weigh seven 
and a half pounds avoirdupois. The term broM is now (1877) occasion- 
ally heard as slang for money of any kind ; but it is really a respect- 
able old word in the restricted sense of copper — or its equivalent, 
bronze— coin. 

• Wi)>-out pite, piloure • pore men )>ow robbedest, 
And here here bras at ^i bakke ' to caleys to selle.' 

Piers PL, Text B., pass. iii. 1. 195. 
See also St. Matt. x. 9. 

(2) sb. shamelessness ; impudence. Com. ' 'Er's got a &ce as big 
as a warmin'-pon, an' as much brass in it.' 

' Can any face of brcuis hold longer out.' 

Love*s Lahour Lost, Y. ii, 39A. 

BKASST [br'ass'i'], adj. bold ; shameless. Com. ' That's a brassy ^ 
impudent young scoundrel; 'e'll stick at nuthin short o the gallus.' 

BBAT [br'at*], (\) ab. a coarse ' over-all ' made with sleeves, worn by 
dairy-maids wnen milking. — Pxtlyebbatch. Qy. com. 

' And a bratt to walken in by daylight.' 

Chaucer, C. T., 1. 16349. 

A.S. bratt, a cloak. W. brat, a clout ; a rag. GhieL brai, a mantle ; 
apron ; doth, in Wedg. 

(2) sb, a child's pinafore. Com. Cf. Barrow. 

(3) sb. a contemptuous term for a child. Com. 

' Thy braJt hath been cast out, like to itself, 
No father owning it.'— IFtn<er'« TaU, m. ii. 88. 

BEAWH [br'aun-], ab, a boar pig. Com. 

'A brmded pig will make a good brawn to breed on.'— Bat's 
Proverbs, p. 62. 
C£ Boar-seg. See * Brawne of a bore ' in Prompt, Parv., p. 48. 

BRAZIL [br'az'il], ab, iron pyrites ; avlphuret of iron, of which the 
comnonent parte average — sulphur, 52*16; iron, 47 '85. — Com. 
M. T. Brazil is found chiefly in the * yard coal.' William Humphreys 
of Arscott, a collier, described it as * growing ' in large round masses 
of a hundred-weight or more, very hard, but when cut through 


resembling^ broken brass in appearance. He said be bad once mefL 
witb some in the * thin coal ' at Le Botwood, but it was * very rar to 
find it out o' the yard coal.' Brazil is so extremely bard as to have 
given rise to a common proverbial saying, ' As bard as brazil.* It, 
however, decomposes rapidly when laid in heaps and moistened with* 
water. Vitriol is made from it. This mineral — though not known 
in the locality as brazil — occurs in large masses in the Flintshire coal 
measure. One seam is called the ' brassy coal,' from the quantity of 
it mingled with the coal. Cf. * Brasyle * in Prompt. Parv., p. 47. 

BBEAD AVD CHEESE [br*ed'un cbeez], (1) «5. the Yellow Ammer. 
So called from the peculiar intonation — almost articulation— of its 
song. — Bridonorth. See Blacksmith. 

(2) bK the first young leaves of the hawthorn : children eat these, 
and call them bread and cheese. — Shrewsbury ; Ellesmere. 

(3) tb. the seed-vessels of Malva sylvestria^ common Mallow : eaten 
by children as bread and cheese. — Shrewsbttry ; Weu. Cf. Cheeses. 

BBEAK fbr'aik'l v. n. the explanation of this may be given by 
citing Ml*. G. Christopher Davies in the following : — 

* There is a peculiarity of the EUesmere water which I can scarcely 
account for, but which, I am informed, some other sheets of water in 
England also present. To use the local name, it breaks. Every 
summer, for a longer or shorter time, the water becomes full of some 
matter held in suspension. In appearance it is like small bran, 
rendering it impossible sometimes to see more than a foot through the 
water. The mei*e becomes of a greenish hue, and to leeward, where 
it is the worst, it gives rise to a verv disagreeable smell. It is always 
worse in hot weather. To the eye the matter held in suspension seems 
to consist of husk-like pieces of fibre, such as might be stripped off a 
plant. From this I was inclined to think that the Anacharis is chiefly, 
to blame for this appearance, and that in some way tht^ outer coating 
of the plant sloughs off and floats during its decay in the water. This 
is, however, but a supposition. The other meres do not break to 
such an extent, but they are not so full of the Anacharis, and the 
water is probably purer. While the water is broken the fish refuse 
to bite. 

*A correspondent of the Field said the organism causing the 
break was Ectrinella articulata^ a doubtful genus, some authors con- 
sidering it a vegetable, and some an animal organism. It is depicted 
in Sowerby's English Botany, vol xxii. p. 208, tab. 2555.' — Mountain, 
Meadow, and Mere, pp. 16, 17, ed. 1873. 

BBEAKSTXFFF [br^ee-kstuf], sb., var. pr. breakfast.— Colliery. 

BBEAK THE TEAE, pkr. this is a term of servant-life. In the 
rural districts it is customary to 'hire' for the year, and servants 
leaving before the expiration of the twelve-months are said to break 
the year, which it is considered a discreditable thing to do, and loss of 
*a character* may be the penalty. Com. In the N. and N.E. 
borders of Shropshire, Christmas is the * hiring-time,' but throughout 
the county generally, it is on or about the first of May. * Bessy mak's 
a many Mays i' the *ear, an' 'er's send 'er yamest back twize this 
'irin' ; 'er broke 'er *ear from Longd n, an' agen from the Moat : 'er's 
a rollin' stwun an' that never gethers no moss.' 


BSEAE-TTP [br'aik'up], v, n, to clear up : said of the weather. Com. 

* What do you think, James, will it be fine to-day ? ' * I dunna know 
whad to say, ma'am, the weather's caselty ; but W-appen it 'U breaks 
up,* They say, too, the clouds will break-up ; that is, open and dis- 
perse. Compare with this Shakespeare's use of the term, in the sense 
of to bieak open. 

' Lton. Break up the seals and read.' 

Winter's TaJe, HI. ii. 132. 

* OUm, Break up the gates, 111 be your warrantize.' 

1 K. Henry VL, I. iii 13. 

BBEAST [br'est-], v. a. To breast a hedge is to lay thorn-boughs on 
the top of the hedge-bank, to prevent sheep or other animals browsins 
the h^ge, or breaking down tiiie top of the bank. — ^Ellesmebe. C£ 
Beard (2). 

BBEBIT. See Brevit (1). An old woman said of a cat that was 
continually hunting about for food, ^'Er's al'ays ibbidgin' an' 
snibbidgin', an' brebitin* about.' 

BBEE [br'ee-], sb, Tdhanua bovinus; the Gad-fly.— Pulvbrbatch ; 
Clee Hills; Wem. Cf. Breese. 

BBEECH [br'i'ch-], v, a., obsoUA to cut the wool from about the 
roots of the sheep s tails before shearing-time. — Pulvebbatch. * 'E's 
gwun to brich them ship.' Cf. Burl. 

BKEECHINO-WOOL [br'i'ch-in 661], ab,, obsoUA the wool cut off 
as described above. — Ibid, It is used for padding harness. *That 
brichin-ddl mun be weshed an' sprad i' the sun ; the sadler 'II want it 
nex' wik.' Cf. Barlings. 

BBEESE [br'eez*], sh, same as Bree, q. v. — ^Wbm. 

' The breese upon her, like a cow in June.' 

Antony and Cleopatra, III. x. 14. 

'Etc brucus, a breas.' — Nominale, xv. cent., in Wr. vocabs., vol. i. 
p. 223. *Brese.' — Locusta, asilus. *A brese, atelabus, brucuSy vel 
locusta,* — Cath. Anql. * Atelabus, a waspe or a brese.' — Obt. Voc. 

* Brese or long flye, prester,* — ^Falsq. A.S. brimsa, tahajiuB.— Prompt. 
Parv. and Notes, Gt. Briz. 

BEEVIT, BBEBIT, BBIVIT [br'evi't], Pulvebbatch; Cleb Hills; 
Ludlow, [br'eb-i't], Whitchurch. [br'ivi't],SHBEW8BUBY; Cluk; 
Wem; Eloismebe. 

(1) v. w. to search; to pry; to examine inquisitively. * Who's bin 
hrevitin' i' my diuwer P ever see sich a rumpus it's in. 

(2) [br'evi't], Pulvebbatch. [br'ivi't], Shbewsbubt; Clun, 
sb, a minute search. ' I've lost the kay o' the owd beer, an' canna 
find it up nur down ; but Til '&ve another brevit for it.' C£ Hunt. 

BBIABrBOSS [brei*ur' boss*], sb. the gall of the Wild Hose, formed by 
the insect known as Cynips rosde. See Bk. II., Folklore, &c., * Super* 
stitious Cures ' {toothache). Cf. Bnzzy balL 

BBIBIT [br'ibi't], sb. a short visit. — Whitohubce, WhixalL 



' Where's Margaret — ^isn't she at home P ' ' No, or, bat *er*8 on'y 
gwun on a hribit to owd Molly Price's.' 

BBICKLE [br'ik-1], adj\ brittle.— Pulverbatch. Qy. com. « Chaps, 
yo' mun mind *ow yo' 'ondlen that com ; the straw's despert hrickU — 
yo'n lose all the yeds.' Cf. Britchy. 

' Fndle, brickie^ soone broken. Fra^ilis* Brickie glass was quickly 
dashed a simder. Futilis glades ictu dissiluit. Virg.* — Babet, 
Alvearie, A.D. 1580. 

BRlDE-WEED^sb, Lindria vulgaris, yellow Toad-flax. — Shbewsburt. 

BRIEF [br'i'f'J, (1) adj. prevalent; general. Com. 'Han yore 
childem 'ad the maizles ? I 'ear as a bin mighty bri/ about' Bailey 
has brief, common or rife, ed. 1782. 

(2) adj. busy ; bustling. — ^WsM ; Ellesmere. * 'Er wuz that brtf 
about clanin' the 'ouse down w'en I seed 'er, 'er couldna-d-aw'ile to 
spake to me.' 

(3) adv. <}uick. — Clxtk. ' Now then, be brif an' finish that job.' 
Compare with this Shakespeare's use of the term in the following 
citation : — 

-Follow me with speed ; FU to the king : 

A thousand businesses are brief in hand/ 

K, John, TV. iiL 158. 

(4) $b. a writing setting forth the circumstances by which a poor 

gerson has incurred loss, as by fire — the death of a horse, cow, dbc. 
uch a one takes the brif about to collect money for his indemnifica- 
tion.— Worthen. 

BBDQLES [br*im-blz], var. pr., ohs.'i brambles. — Pulver- 
batch. * I mim push tuthree brimbUe i' the glat till it can be tined.' 

BSITCHT [br'ich-r], adj. brittle.— Wem. ' The straw's that britchy 
yo canna 'ardly tie it up into boutins.' A.S. breatan, to break. Gf. 

BBIVrr. See Brevit above. 

BBIZ [br'iz*], corrupted form of Breese, q. v. — Wtat. 

BBOACH [br'oa'ch], (1) sb., obs. the woollen yam wound on the 
spindle as it was spun from the wheel. It was shaped somewhat like 
the 'float' of a flshiiu^-line, high in the middle, and tapering at each 
end, and was about nve inches in length. A piece of paper twisted 
round the spindle made the foundation upon which the broach was 
constructed, and held it firm when taken off. To give it additional 
support when removed firom the spindle for the nurther process of 
winding for twisting, a stick was passed through it. It is probable 
that it owed its name to this stick, which was — in ee — ^the broach 
proper. — Pulverbatch. ' If yo' bin gwSIn to wind that yom, mind 
an' nod scrobble the nose o' the broach, or yo'n 'ftve it in a soor 
mess.' O.F. broche, brocgw. — ^BuB. Brocque meant a great variety 
of pointed things of wood or iron. — ^PlCK. 

(2) V. a., obtoU. to transfix as with a spit — Pulverbatch. ' 'Er 
broaisUd the spit right through the breast o' the turkey.' 


* BroacKd mth the steely point of ClifPord's lance.' 

3 Hmry F/., XL iii. 16. 

O.F. hrocer, hrocher, piquer. — Btjh, 

BSOACHEE [br'oa'chur*], sb. a very lai^e sharp-pointed knife. — 
PtJLVEKBATCH ; Whitc?htjrch. * This is a good broacher for a flitchen.' 
About Whixall (Whitchurch) the term broacher is applied to anything 
Tery large. This has probably arisen from the association of ideas 
between the big knife and the great pieces it is required to cut. 

BROCKT. See Blooky. 

BBOOOIL [br'og-i'l], ah. brawl ; angry squabble. — ^Wem. A person 
on Stanton-on-Hine Heath said, ' Them theer neighbours of ours bin 
aukert folks to live anunst, but we never consam *em, an' so we never 
'ive no broggil wuth 'em.' W. broch, din ; wrath : brochuB^ a fuming ; 
blustering. Of. ItaL imbroglio, perplexity; trouble: imbroglioM^ a 
fomenter of quarrels. E. broil, a contraction of broggil. 

BBOODLE [br'oo'dl], v, a. to brood, as a hen over her chickens. — 
Ptjlverbatch ; Nbwpoet; Wem; Ellesmebb. Cf . Bradling. 

BBOODY [br'oo'di'], adj. A hen when wanting to sit is said to be 
broody. Com. 

B&OOIT [br'ooi'tl sb. a good bite of herbage. — Cleb Hills. *'E'8 
a ploughin' up that meado', an' theer's a good brooit on it for the 
yeows." Fr. brouter, to browse ; to nibble, it is proverbially said by 
the French of an industrious man. ' L'herbe sera bien courte s'il ne 
trouve de quoi brouter.* — Chahb. 

BBOOZLE [br'oo'zl], same as Broodle. — Worthen ; Wem. 

BBOSELET [br'oa*zli'], ab. a clay pipe : so called from the place of 
its manufacture — Broseley (Salop). Com. 

BBOSTEBIHO rbr'os-tur'inj, adj. domineering; overbearing. — 
Whitchubch, yVhixall. *Sich a brosterin* fellow 'e is.' BroHer, 
greatness ; majesty. — Lexicon Cornu-Britannicum. 

BBOTH [br^oth*], sb. broth, always in the plural Com. ' They bin 
good ; lef s han tuthree more.' 

BBOTHE [br'oa'dh], v. a. to thicken broth with oatmeal or flour. — 
Shrewsbitby; Pulvebbatoh; Wortiien; Clun. * The Missis come 
i' the kitchen to get the chaps breakfasts, an 'er took waiter an' bacon 
liquor an' brothed it 66th* flour ; but the chaps they couldna bar it, 
an my brother 'e comen wham,' said a young servant-girL 

BBOTHDr [br'oa'dhin], sb. oatmeal or flour put into broth to give it 
consistency. — ibid. 

BBOITSE Fbr'ous'], sb.y obsoh. the flner trimmings of hedges, such 
as brambles, &c. — ^Mxjoh Wenlock. 

' Amang Uie brouya of the olyve twestis 
Seir smaill fowlys wirkand crafty nestis.' 

Gawin Douolas (a.d. 1513), Prol. of the XII. Buk 
of EneadoB. Specim. Eng. Lit.^ xiu. L 165. 

O.Fr. hroee, menu bois, brousia%Ue$ (derive de broce), — Bxtb^ Cf. 
Bnuhings. See Trouse. 

■ 2 


BROwiS [bi'ou'is], sb. a pottage made by pouring boiling water upon 
slices of oread seasoned with pepper and salt, and adding to it a lump 
of butter and a shred of onion. Com. 

' They thank'd him all with one consent, 

But especially maister Powes, 
Desiring him to bestow no cost, 
But onely beefe and browes,* 

Kin^s Halfe-Pennywwrth of Wit, 1613, in Wb. 

^ Hoc pulmentum, browys.' — Nominale, xv. cent., in Wr. yocabs., 
Tol. i. p. 241. A.S. briWf pottage. 

BBOWH SHEELEES [br'oun sheelur'z], hazel nuts fully ripe 
and ready to drop out of their husks. Com. * I got a pocketle o^ 
nuts o' Sunday, an' they wun atimust all brown $heelers; it looks as if 
Pousbry Wakes wimna fare ofE.' 

BEOW SQUAEE [br'ou- squaa'r'], «6., obs. a three-cornered linen 
kerchief bound about the head of a new-bom baby. — Wob.then. Cf. 

BETJCE [br'uk*], sb., var. pr. a brook. Com. A.S. brde, a spring; 
brook; rivulet. 

BETTH [br*um'], (1) ab. C^tisus Scoparius, common Broom. Com. 
The young shoots of broom yield a fine bitter, and a decoction of them 
is frequently taken as a tome under the generic term of *yarb tay.* 
They are also from the same property occasionally used instead of 

power better o5th some barley 

(2) * It inna wuth Vile sendin' for 'ops for this drop o' fresh drink ; 
get a 'antle o' nice young brum,* 

* In the Corporation Acooimts of Shrewsbury, 1519, it is ordered 
that brewers are not to use hops in their brewings under a penalty of 
vis. yiijd. Hops were in use some time before this, for in 1428 the 
Parliament were petitioned to preyent the use of them, as being a 
wicked weed.* — Phillip's Hisi&ry of Shrewsbury , p. 168. 

Perhaps broom was used at that time for bittering ale. See Bk. U., 
Folklore, &c., ' Superstitions concerning Plants.' 

(4) ab. Oalium verum, yellow Bed-straw. — Cbayen Asms. 

BETJMMOCK [br'um*u'k], ab. a short, strong hook for wood- 
cutting purposes. Com. * Weer's John Roberts gwun ? * * I spect 
'e's gwun up to the uwer groun' to tine ; I sid 'im tak' 'is brummock 
an' mittens an' 'is bayte-bag.' 

' . . . Hee was sent to Shrewsbury goale for fellony, where hee 
hired a silly boy to procure him instruments to breake prison. The 
boy brought to him a bar of iron and a broaken broome hooke, and 
with these he pulled out seyerall stones, and made a hole through 
the stone wall of the dungeon, and soe escaped, but left the tooles 
behinde him.' — Gk)UQH'B History of Middle, p. 80. 

BEXnTD [br'ond'], Pulysbbatoh. [bran*], Wsm, ab. a logot wood. 


' P&t a good hrund o' the fire an' back it 56tlL slack, an* then it 11 las' 
all the onder.' 

* So )>at child wi>-drawe)' is hond. 
Prom ^e far & \>e brond, 
)>at h&p bjfore bue brend 
Brend child fur drede)> ! 
Quo}) Hendyng.' 

Proverbs of Hendyng (A.I>. 1272 — 1307). 
Specim. Early Eng,^ iii. 1. 185. 

* Bronde of fyre. Facula^fax, ticio torris,* — Prompt Parv, * Hie fax 
— cis, a bronde/ — Nominale, xv. cent., in Wr. yocabs., vol. i. p. 229. Of. 
Christmas brund. 

BSirSH [bfush-], (1) ab. stubble : of leguminous crops only. — Cleb 

(2) V, a. to take a crop of peas, beans, or vetches oft a field. — Ibid. 

(3) V. a. to trim hedges. Com. 

' Of. Fr. bro8ser, courir k travers des bois & des brousaiUes : to run 
through woods or bushes ; to brush along.' — Chamb. Also, * Brusche, 
Bruscus,* — Prompt, Parv, 

BKXFSHIHO-HGOK, sb. a sickle-shaped hook with a long handle, 
used for brushing hedges. Com. Cf. Bill. 

BBirSHHTO'S, the trimmings off hedges. Com. 

' BrossailleSf broussailUsy epines, ronces, &c., croissant dans les 
for^ts & en d'autres endroits : briars ; thorns ; brambles ; bushes.' 
— Chahb. * Bruschalle, Sarmenium ; earnenium; arbusium,' — Prompt, 
Parv. Cf. Brouse. 

BBTTSTEH [br'us'tu'n], pari, past, broken.— Wellington. Cf.— 

* & wolden brusten \>e best ' nad he be the luttere.' 

William o/Palerne, 1. 154. 

where brusten has the meaning of hurt severely ; damaged. 

Brusten = A.S. borsten, p.p. of berstan, to burst Berstan became 
bresten in Chaucer. Cf. IceL bres; Swed. brista, to break violently. 

BUCK [buk*], (1) sb, a T shaped end to the plough-beam, having 
notches in it for the purpose of regulating the draught of the plough. 
The * shackle' goes into it to which the horses are yoked. Cf. 
Ck>psil (3). 

'The Buck is the iron which the Horses are tyed unto.' — Academy 
of Armory, Bk. HI. ch. viii. p. 333. 

(2) V, a., obs, to wash heavy, coarse linen, or the home-spun yam 
of which it was commonly made, by the process described under 
Buck-wesh below. — Pulverbatch. *We sha'n '&ve a bumpin' 
weshin' nex' wik; theer's six an' twenty slippin's o' yom to buck, 
beside 'afe as many sheets an' smocks.' 

' ' Do-wel shal wasshen and wryngen it. 

Do-bet shal beten it and bouken it.' 

Piers Ply pass, xiv., L 8939, ed. We. 

Wedgwood says of buck, as applied to washing, that 'the true 


deriTation of the word is seen in Gael, hog, moist, soft, tender, and as 
a Terb, to steep or soak.' 
Der. Bucking (2). Gf. Backing (1). 

BTTCK-BASKEI [buk-bas-'ki't], sb,, obs. a large basket used for 
carrying the linen at the 'buck-wesh/ q.y. — Pxtlyzbbatoh. Qy. 

' Fal They conyeyed me into a buck-haekeL 

Ford, A huck-hcuket ! 

Fal, By the Lord, a btick-hasket 1 rammed me in with foul shirts, 
and smocks, socks, foul stockings, greasy napkins ; that, Master 
Brook, there was the rankest compound of yillanous smell that eyer 
offended nostriL'— Jf«rry Wives of WindsoTy HI. y. 88—92. 

BTTujUJNO [buk'in], (1) «&. a state of profuse perspiration ; a ' sweat- 
ing,* caused by yiolent exertion, said of man or horse. — Pulvee- 
BATCH; Clun; Wem. 'I carried the batch an* the bran throm 
Habberley Mill, but it gid me a htukin\* Bucking^ soaking in per- 
spiration, may perhaps be referred to the same root as Buck (2). Cf. 
Swelter (2). 

(2) «(., obs, synonsrm for ' buck-weshing,' q. y. A shortened form. 
— PuLyERBATOH. ' A bwJcin* an* a soapin'.* 

' Mrs, Page, . • . Look, here is a basket : if he be of any reasonable 
stature he may creep in here : and throw foul linen upon him, as if it 
were going to bucking : or — it is whiting- time— send him by your two 
men to Datchet-mead.' — Merry Wives of Windsor, HE. iii. 140. 

BlTCKIirO-STOHE. See Bnck-wesh. At Grub's Gutter, near 
Hopton Castle, Salop, there is a large stone which still (1875) bears 
the name of the buckifig-sUme, 

BUCK-LEE [buk'le-e*n, sb,, obs, a lye of wood-ashes obtained from 
burning green ' brash * or fern, the latter being esteemed the best. — 
PiTLyEBBATGH. Qy. com. Cf. Ess-ballB. See Bk. U., Folklore, &c., 
' Superstitions concerning Days and Seasons' (Christmas), 

BUCKLES [buk'lzl,, small pointed rods twisted and doubled in 
the centre, used by thatohers. — Ellesmebe. Buckles are employed 
for the top and eayes of a roof ; the intermediate thatohing pegs, 
which are not twisted, are called lugs, Shakespeare has bwckle, to 

' And as the wreteh, whose feyer-weaken'd joints. 
Like strengthless hinges, buckle under life.' 

2 K. Henry IV., I i. 141. 

BUCK-WE8H or WESHIH' [buk-wesh-' or weshTn], sb,, obs, a 
large wash of heayy, coarse linen which took place about eyery three 
months. — PuLyEBBATCH ; Clun. Qy. com. Li the buck-wesh no soap 
was used, but the linen was boiled in the budc-lee described aboye. 
It was then carried to a neighbouring stream or spring, and laid upon 
a smooth stone or a block, — the * stoiu ' of a tree standmg permanently 
by the margin of the water often seryed for the purpose, — there the 
linen was Maten with a * batetaff,' after which operation it was well 
* swilled* in the pure water. Tiiis mode of washing obtained till 
1832—40, if not later. A wash of finer linen was caUid a ' soaping.' 


* Thejr bin '&vin' a busy wik at Wflderley, a big huck-weshin', 9oapin* 
an* snip-sheann'.* 

'Mr$. Ford. . . . You were best meddle with huck-tuaihing,* — 
Merry Wives of Windsor, UL iii. 166. 

Gf. Buck (2). 

BUDGET [buj'i't], sb. a satchel of bass-matting in which workmen 
carry their tools. — Shbewsbuby ; Much Wenlock. 

'O.Fr. boge^ houge, sac (de cnir), bogetief bougette, Talise; d*oi!^ 
I'ancien anglais bogeU, aujourd'hiii budget, que nous avons emprunt^ 
.... La racine de ce mot se retrouye dans le celtique et Pallemand : 
ancien irlandais bole; gaUois b(dg, builg, ahal; Indga, de betgan, 
pelkan.*—BTJR, Of. FraiL 

BIFD-HOPE. See Hope. 

BUFFEB rbuf*ur^], sh,^ si A the master of a household. — Shrews- 
BUBY, Vjington ; Whitchubch, Frees, * I reckon the buffer 11 '&ve 
to pay for it' C£ Oaflter (1). 

BUFFET-STOOL, ah., obs. a stool. Halliwell says, 'variously 
described.* * The Low Parlor^ six buffett'-stooles. Inventory . . . Owl- 
bury Manor-house, Bishop's Castle, 1625. Bofet, thre fotyd stole.* — 
Tripes. See Way's note. Prompt. Farv., p. 41. Cf. Joint-stool. 

BUFT [buf't], (1) V. a.f var. pr. to knock about with any soft 
substance ; to buffet. — Whitghttbch ; Ellesmebe. ' I took my 'at 
an' bu/ted 'im reet well about the yed ; I wouldna thrash 'im.' 

(2) V. «. to stammer.— Shbewsbuby ; Pulvebbatch ; Clun. * 'Ow 
that lad bu/ts to-day.* ' Aye, 'e al'ays does 'gen rain.' 

BUFTEB [buf-tur*], sb. a stammerer. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch ; 
Clun ; Newport. Cf. O.E. buffere, stutterer, in Stbat. In Isaiah, 
xxxiL 4, where our yersion has ' the tongue of the stammerers,' the 
Yulgate yersion has ' lingua balbonum.* Wyclif translates balbonum 
by * of bufferes.* 

BUFTT [buf -ti*], same as Buft (2).— Newport. * *Er bu/iies a bit in 
'er talk.' This term is not commonly used. 

BUOABO [boogni'boa], sb. an imaginary object of terror; a hob- 

foblin. — Pulverbatch ; Ludlow. ' Bugaboos comin'. Tummy, if yo' 
inna stilL* Cf. Boogie. 

BUOAH [bSog-h'nl sb. the eyil spirit ; the deyil. — ^Ludlow, Herefd, 
Border. * If yo* dunna be qweet PU let bugan tak' yo.* 

Mr. Oliphant, speaking ox a collection of poems which he belieyes 
tohayebeen compiled Mtween 1220 and 1250, and now printed in 
*An Old English Miscellanj' (Early English Text Society), says, 
' We see in page 76 a Celtic word brought into English, a word 
which Shakespeare was to make immortal. It is said that ^^eedy 
monks shall be ** bitauht ^e puke ; " that is, given over to the JB^iend. 
The Welsh ptvcca and bwg mean *' an hobgoblin;" hence come our 
bugbears and bogies J — Sources of Standard English, p. 154. 
See B^gie. 


BTJOQIES [buogTz], same as Bugs, q.v. — ^Pulvebbatch ; Ellssmbbb. 

BirOLES [beu'glz], beads of any kind. — Shbbwsbubt. 

BTJOS [bug'z], Wem. pbuog-z], Ludlow, Pediculi hiimani, 
same as Boes, q. v. * I ve bin dramin* about btigs i' my yed ; theer's 
sure to be sickniss for some on us i* the 'ouse/ said Jane Philips of 
Lee Brocklehurst. On bein^ asked by what name hugs — as usually 
understood by that appellation — ^would be distinguished from these 
ptdiculiy she answered* ' Bed-bugs.* 

* Bug/ says Mr. Cyril A. (Jreaves, * is the old English equivalent 
to the Latin insedum, and in Kent all insects are popularly called 
higa . . . Various kinds of insects are specified by the suffix bug to 
their own name, as * beetle-bug/ &c. The sleep-staying pests which 
only we call btig$, are with them * bed-bugs.' — Science Gossip, June, 
1874, p. 140. 

BTTLGE [bul'zh], v, a., pec, to dint. — ^Ludlow. * Somebody's gid 
that new milk-tin a fine knock an' bulged the side in.* Of. Dinge. 

BULL [bul* or buol*], sb. the 'coupling ' which fastens harrows together 
so as to give fall play to both, in accommodating each harrow to the 
inequalities of the land. — Oube Hills. 

BULLED [buol'd], part, adj,, ohsols, swollen : said of cheese that 
from some cause generate fermentation after being pressed, and con- 
sequently rise and bulce. — Pulvebbatch. Bmled is a corrupted 
form of O.E. boiled, swelled. 

' His Bodi was Boiled * for wra)>)>e he bot his lippes.' 

Piers PL, Text A, pass. v. 1. 67. 

See also Exodus ix. 31. Dan. bolne, Sw. bulna, to swell; to 

BULL-HEAD [bul- or buol^ed-'], (1) sb. Coitus gdhio, Miller's 
Thumb.— Glee Hells. Qy. com. Of. * Hie mullus A", a bulhyd.'— 
Pictorial Vocabulary, xv. cent., in Wr. yocabs., vol. i p. 253. 

(2^ sb, the tadpole. — Pulvebbatch. 

* A Frog [is] first a BulUhead, then a Frog-tail, then a Frog. — 
Academy of Armory, Bk. ii ch. xiv. p. 325. 

BULLIBAO [bul'iVag], (1) v. a. to banter ; to teaze. — ^Ltjdlow. 

(2) sb, a banterer ; a person who teazes. — Ibid, ' 'E's a reg'lar 
bullirag—neYeT lets one be.' 

BULLS' EYES [buol'z eiz],, holes in cheese caused by the 
whey not having been properly pressed out, or from having had too 
much rennet put into the milk. — Pulvebbatch. * I dunna like this 
cheese, it's got too many bulls^ eyes in for me.* Of. Eyes. 

BULL-STUB [bul- or buol-stub], sb. a buU that has been gelt— Clee 
Hills. Qy. com. 

BUM [bum-], sb, a contracted form of * bum-bailiff; a sheriflTs 
officer. Oom. ' I 'ear theer*s gwe'in to be a sale at Betchcot, they'n 
'ad the bums i' the 'ouse for a fortnii' 


BTJHBLE [buin-bl], ah. the Humble bee ; one of the species Bomhus. 
— Clee Hills. * Eh ! theer's a big bumble.* 

BXTMMIL [bum'il], v. a. to beat; to pound. — Ludlow. Cf. 
Pommel. See B and P in Qrammar Outlmes {conwnarUs). 

BUHD [bund-], (1) pret and part, past, bound. — Shrewsbukt; 
PuLVEiiBATC?H. * Mother, whad*n 'ee think ! Tve jest aid 'em takin* 
my nuncle off to Sosebry 'firmary, 66th 'is yed bund up ; 'e's fell off 
the ruff at the Squire's, an's aumust killed.' A.S. bindan, to bind ; 
p, «., J»u bunde. Cf. Bond (1). 

(2) [bun* or bund'], sb, same as Bond {2).— -ibid. See Boutin. 

BXJHDATION [-bundai-shu'n], sb. an abundance. Com. 'Theer'll 
be a bundation o' fruit o' them ras'b'ry-canes I spect.* Cf. Abund- 

BXnOHL [bun'ill sb. a beverage made from the crushed apples after 
nearly all the juice has been expressed for the cider. The chief in- 
gredient is water ! — Clee Hills. 

BiniT [bunt*], (1) v. a. to push with the head as calves do. Com. 
Cf. Pote. 

(2) [biint], sb., obaols. a third swarm of boes from one hive. — ^New- 
POBT. The first is the * swarm,* par excellence ; the second, the * cast ; * 
the third, the bunt ; the fourth— of rare occurrence — the * couch.' Old 
Dinah Shuker of Edgmond, a good authority, said [1874] of the last 
two terms, 'Very owd words them bin, theer's fe6o [Gl. fi'eo*] as 
knows o' them n^ms now-a-days. Folks getten noo n^ms for 
things.' CI Ob and Play. 

BITE [bur'-], (1) sh. the sweetbread of a calf. Com. 

(2) sb. a whetstone for scythes. Com. 

(3) sb. a rough excrescence on trees. — Chtjbch Steetton. Gael. 
bcrr, a knot ; liunp ; swelling, in Wedq. Cf. Canker (3). 

(4) sb. the hooked scaly head of Arctium Lappa, common Burdock. 

' . . . Hateful docks, rough {lustles, kecksies, burs.' 

K. Henry V., V. ii. 52. 
Fris. borre, burre, Dan. borre. — ^Idem in "Wedg. 

B1TBL [bur'l], v. a, to cut the wool from about the roots of sheep's 
tails before shearing time. — ^Pulverbatch ; Newpoet ; Ellesmebe. 
In the manufacturing of cloths the nrocess of clearing it of the knots, 
ends of thread, and the like, with little iron nippers caUed burling^ 
irons, is termed burling. Todd, in Wedg. 

* Burle of clothe, Tumentum.* — Prompt. Parv. Qi. Breech. 

BTTBLDTOS [bur'li'nz], sh. the wool cut off as described above. — 
ibid.^Gi. Breeching-wool. 

BTJBH [bur'n], sh. a burden; a bundle. — Shrewsbubt; Pulvbr- 
BATCH ; Much Wenlock • Wem. • Well, I think Tve done my shar* 
for to-day. I got a g66d bum o' laisin afore my breakfast, an' two 
senoe; an' faX a bum o' sticks throm the ooppy to yeiit tiie oven.' 


* Then Isaake SDeaketh to his &ther, and taketh a burm of stickea, 
and beareth after nis father, and saieth . . .' — Chester Playe, 1. 65. 

BUBV-MARK, (1) sb., obs. the mark on an animal's hide made by 
the Brand-iron (1), q. v.— PuLVEaBATOH. Qy. com. 

(2) $b, the stamp of the Brand-iron (2) on tools and implements. 


BXTBBOW [buT'oe], (1) v. a. to bore. — Pulverbatch. *Them ship 
han burrowed thar backs i' the dyche bonk i' the sandy leasow till the 
roots o' the trees bin bar'.' Of. A.S. borian, to bore. 

(2) adj, sheltered; shady — * the burrow-eidid of the hedge.'— Much 

' \>iB cowherd comes on a time * to kepen his bestes 
Fast by-side l^e bortvj ' {^ere \>e bam was inne.' 

William of Faleme, L 9. 
A.S. beorgan, to shelter: beorh, a defence; refuge. Cf. Succourful. 

BXTBT [baeVi*], (1) sb, a labbit-borrow. — Ludlow, Bur/ord. 'A.S. 
beorh. Cf. Burrow (2). 

(2) sb. a hole in the ground in which potatoes are kept for winter 
use, covered with straw and soil. — Ludlow ; Newpoet. A.S. beorgan, 
to protect ; keep ; preserve. CI Hod, Hog, and Tump. 

BITSH [buosh*], (1) sb, an iron socket fastened into the centre or 
* eye ' of the lower mill-stone, in which the spindle that carries the 
upper mill-stone rotates. Com. See Cockhead. 

(2) sb, that part of a wheel which fits into the nave, and in which 
the axle works: it is made of iron, and fastened inside the nave or 
centre of the wheel by means of lon^tudinal ribs. Com. Cf. Boukin. 

' One paire of biishis , . . one paire of bushes soles.' — Inventory , . . 
Owlbury Manor-House, Bishop's Castle, 1625. 

' The Busshes are L^ns within the hole of the Nave to keep it from 
wearing.' — Academy of Armory, Bk. ITT, ch. yiiL p. 332. 

BtrSK [busk*], sb, a piece of wood or ' sheet^iron ' worn down the 
front of women's stays to keej^them straight. Com. Nares— who is 
wrong in supposing the term obsolete — gives the following, amongst 
other quotations, iilustrating the use of tiie busk in the i^izabetluui 
period: — 

' Her long slit sleeves, stiffs buske^ puffe verdingall. 
Is all that makes her thus angelical.' 

John Mabston (a,D. 1699), Scourge of ViUanie, TL. vii. 

* Fr. busc ; petit b&ton dont se servent les Dames pour tonir leur 
corps de jupe en ^tat.* — Chamb. 

BTTSSOCE [busnik*], sb,, sl,1 a donkey. — ^Atcham; Wkv. 

BUT R>ut*], (1) sb, a space of ploughed land, comprising a certain 
numoer of furrows, determined by the character of the soil. Com. 
See Feerings. 

* Hec amsages An", a but of lend.'— jPtctorioZ Vocabulary, xv. cent., 
in Wr. vocabs., voL i. p. 270. 

(2) $b, the stump of a tree; the thick end of anything. Qcnn. 


O.N. hUr^ the trunk, fitnmp of a tree. Ft, hout, the end. W. pwi, 
any short, thick thing ; stump, in Wedo. C£ Stoul (1). 

(3) sb, an esculent root, such as a turnip, carrot, &c — Pulyeb- 


(4) V. n. to form such-like esculent roots. — Tbid, < Yore garrits an' 
inions looken well, John.' * Aye, but I doubt they bin on*y toppy ; 
I dunna think as they bin huUin* well.' 

BXTTTESED ALE [butWd ail], sb. ale boiled with butter, lump sugar, 
spice, and eggs — said to be an excellent specific for cold. Com. It is 
made thus : ooil a pint of ale with a lump of butter in it, beat up two 
egfB with sugar and spices, pour the boiling ale upon the eggs, stirring 

BTJTTER-LEAyES, sb, pi, leaves used in packing the butter for 
market. Com. Various kinds of leaves are employed for this pur- 
pose — ^the sycamore, the nut, &c. Sometimes the Sicilian beet (Beta 
cida) is cultivated expressly for the sake of its long, cool, green 

BUTTEB-MIT, sb, a shallow tub for washing the butter in. Com. 
Cfl Kemlin. 

BTJTTEB-HOHET, sb, the money which is the fanner's wife's per- 
quisite from the sale of her butter, eggs, &c. — Shkewsbuby ; Wem. 
'Things wenten very low i' the market to-day. Missis; I hanna 
brought yo' much butter-money,* 

' And when the father on the earth did live, 
To his sonnes fieuicie he such way did give; 
For at no season he the plow must hold. 
The summer was too hot, the winter cold ; 
He robs his mother of her butter-pence. 
Within the alehouse serves him for expence.' 

Taylor's Workes, 1630, in Wb. 

' She's thrimlin' for her buUer-brcM, her butter-brass, her butter-brass. 
She's thrimlin' for her butter-brass, but willn't thrimle lang.' 

' Bobby Bank's Bodderment,' in the Folk-Speech of Cuniberland, 
by A. J. Gibson, p. 25. 

Cf. Spattling-money. 

BTJTTEBT [but-h'rT], sb. the pantry of a cottage or farm-house.— 
PXTLYEBBATOH ; WsM. ' Cuddlin' i' the buttery ' is a phrase equiva- 
lent to ' cupboard-love.' * Theer's a power too much cuddlin* C tJis 
buttery gwein on.' ' Hec botolaria. An", a botry.' — Pictorial Vocabulary^ 
XV. cent., in Wr. vocabs., vol. i. p. 274. 

BUTTIHO-IBOHy sb. an implement for peeHng the bark off trees. — 
MuoH Wenlocx. Qy. com. C£ O.Dutch botten, butt; pdlere, in 

BUTTT [but-i*], (1) sb, a fellow-workman; a partner in any 
business. Com. 

(2^ sb. a contractor who agrees to raise the minerals to bank at so 
muGli per ton, or per dozen; the latter applying to the iron-stonee» 


representing about two tons. — Collieby; M. T. Cf. Oharter- 

(3) sb. a fellow, as of a shoe, a glove, &c. — Shhewsbxtry ; Clee 
Hills. ' Tye fund one shoe, but canna see the butty no-w'eer.' Cf . 

(4) V. n. to cohabit, as man and wife. — Collieky. * Did'n'ee 'ear 
as Jim Tunkiss wuz come up throm the ** Black country " an* brought 
three childem to the parish ? ' ' Eh ! I didna know 'e wuz married.' 
* Well, I reckon 'e inna married, but Vs bin buttyin* alung o' one o' 
them Monsells.' 

BXTZZY-BALL [buzi* haul-'], sb, same as Briax-bo88, q. v. — Church 
Steetton. See also Bk. 11., Folklore^ &c., * Superstitious Cures 

BWjllE [bwei'll, (1) v. a, to boil. — Pulverbatch ; Ludlow. ' Theer 
wuz four couple axed up o* Sunday ready for May weddins.' * Aye, 
behappen they'n find it easier to get married than to keep the pot 

' Sche sette a caldron on ^e fyr ; 
In which was al ]>e hole atir, 
Wheron f>e medicine stod, 
Of ius of water and of blod 
And let it buile in such a plit, 
Til {yat sche sawh \fe spume whyt' 

John Gower (a.d. 1393), Confeano AmantUt 
Book V. Specim, Early Eng. xx. L 295. 

(2) Bb. same as Bile, q. v.— Ludlow, Burford, 

BW0I8TIH. See Beestings. 

BWOY [bwoi*, corr. bw:auy], «ft., obaols.y var. pf\ a boy. — Shrews- 
bury ; Pulverbatch. ' Jack's gwun a big strung bwoy ; ifs time 'e 
wuz gettin' 'is own crust,' 

BWUdS [bwun'z, corr. bwoen'z], sb, pL, var. pr. bones. Com. 'Pilt 
some yarbs to them bvmiu ; the^^'n mak' tuthree broth.' 

BY [bei*], (1) prep.^ pec. against. — Worthen ; Whitchurch; 
Ellesmere. Qy. com. 'I never knowed no 'arm by 'im' (Elles- 
mere). 'E's a tidy mon, sir, leastways I know nuthin' by 'im' 
( Whixall). In this sense of * against ' our translators have used the 
word 6y— 1 Cor. iv. 4 : * I know nothing by myself ; yet am I not here- 
by justified ' — ^where the Greek words fully bear out the meaning of * I 
am not conscious of anything against myself.' 

' Ac it is noght by the bisshope 
That the boy preacheth.' 

Piers PL Prol, L 160, ed. Wb. 

The same sense would seem to be implied in by-name, a term of 

(2) prep., pec with. — ^Worthen; Bishop's Castle. *I dunna 
know whad to do by 'im.' 

BT-BLOW [bei* bloa*], sb. an illegitimate child. — Colliery. Qy. 
com. This word is found in Bailey, ed. 1782. 


' Sal, Thou speak'st not like a subject ; wbaf s thy name f 
Fil, 'hlLy name is Draco. 
SaL Of the Athenian Dracos P 
Fil, No, of the English Drakea Great Captain Drake 

SThat sailed the world round] left in Spain a bv-blow, 
)f whom I come.'— The Slighted Maid, p. 27, m Wb. 

BT-OTJH [bi'gaem' or bi'gum*], a slight oath ; an expletive. Com. 

BT JDTGS [bei* jing'z], interf. used chiefly by children to express 
approbation of what is thought to be clever or witty.— Sheewbbxjby; 
Elxjssme&e. ' By jinga ! Surrey, lad, yo'n copped that.' 

* While Willie lap, an' swoor hyjing, 
'Twas just the way he wanted 
To l>e that night.' 
BoBEBT £UB17S, PoemSy p. 45, L 7, o. 2. 
C£ By jingo in Hal. 

BT-LEDDY [bei* ledi'], expl, an adjuration or oath corrupted from *by 
our Lady,' the Blessed Virgin. — Newpobt, Market Drayton. 

BTLET [bei'let, corr. ba'ylet], sh. a river island; land lying be- 
tween the divergent branches of a stream, as, for instance, between 
the natural course of a brook and the mill-stxeam, or ' flem,' q. v. — 
Shbewsbubt*; Pulvebbatch; Glee Hills; Bbidgkobth; Much 

' William Benbow is rated to the poor on St. Mary's books for hylet 
[the island at Coton-hill] and tan-house, in everjr year from 1652 to 
1664 inclusive, with the exception of 1663, when it is Martha Benbow 
for tlie bilett' — ^Note on the Benbow family in Owen and Blakeway's 
History of Shrewehwry^ vol. ii p. 390. 

'Bbidqkobth Hobticultubal Societt. 

' The second annual Exhibition was held on the ByUt, Low Town, 
yesterday. . . .' — Eddowes^s Shrewsbury Journal, Sep. 9, 1874. 

BTHOW [bi'nou*], adv. by this time. Com. ' They'n a got theer 
bynow, I spect.' 

BYSTIir-CVSTABD, same as BeeBtin'-custard, q. v. — ^Pulvebbatch. 
Ct Barfdt-custard. 

BTSXnrS. See Beestingpi. 

BYTACK [bei*tak][, eh, a farm taken by the tenant of a lai^er farm, 
to which it is, as it were, tacked on. llie land only being wanted, the 
house and * building' are let separately. — ^Pulvebbatch ; Wellixg- 
Tox. Qy. com. ' Theer *11 be a bundation o' housen to be 'ad, for 
one 'afe o' the farms bin let bytack.* * Tack, a lease ; possession for a 
time.' — Jamieson. 

BY-TAIL [bei'tail], sh. the right handle of a plough : it is fastened 
to the ' shell-board.' The left handle is called the ' master-tail,' and 
is fastened to the foot of the plough. — Cltjn ; B'bidgxobth. 

BY-WHILES [bi'weil-z], adv. at times.— Cobve Dale. See (hvlert 


CASDA8 [kad'u*8], sh,, ohsola, a fino worsted galloon or ferret, now 
chiefly employed in decorating horses, but at one time used for 
'recruiting colours.' — Shbewsbuby. 'Theei's lots o' young chaps 
listed 1^ May; the caddtu wuz flyin' about Sosebry streets above 
a bit.' 

' 8erv, He hath ribbons of all the colours i' the rainbow . . . inkles, 
oaddisses, cambrics, lawns.' — Winter^ Tale, IV. iv. 208. 

Caddis f in the Gloss, to the * Globe Edition' of Shakespeare, is said 
to have its name &om its resemblance to the ' caddis- worm.' 

Gadas Bombicinium. Codas appears to have signified flocks*'of 
silk, cotton, wool, or tow, used for stuffing eamboieed garments. 
In the curious poem by Hue de Tabarie, at Middle Hill, entitled 
' CoTMvU U fiz Beafu armS en la croyz\ is this passage — 

, ' Pur akdown ly hayle Uaunche char e pure 
Pur cadaz e cotoun de eawnkfu le encustute? 

MS. Heber, No. 8336. ^ 

In the petition against excess of apparel, 1463, it is thus mentioned ; 
'No yoman &c to were in the aray for his body eny bolsters, nor 
stuife of woole, coton, or cadoM^ nor other stuffer in his doubtlet, save 
l3ni7ng accordyng to the same.' — BoT. Pabl. ' Codas or crull, mi- 
jdUj — ^PALSa. * Cardarce, pour /aire caption ; the tow or coursest part 
of silke, wherof sleaur is made.' — Ck)TO&. Nares explains caddis to 
be a sort of worsted lace. — Prompt. Parv, and Notes, 

CABDI8SED [kadi'st], part. adj. dusted with red powder : said of 
sheep. — Cleb Hills. 'Maister, I 5dnder yo' liken yore lomb's 
eaddissed athatn.' 

CABE Pkai'dl, (1) ah, a pet Com. ' 'E's a reglar cads : ' said of a 
spoiled child. A cade-lamb is a lamb brought up by hand. Cf. Kpd^ 
lomb in Wr. Tocabs., voL i. p. 245. 

(2) v. a. to pet ; to bring up tenderly. Com, 

CADISE [kai-dish], (1) adj, spoiled by over-indulgence. — Pulver- 
BATCH. Qy. com. * Jenny Preece 'as put 'er lad to a wilrit ; but 'e'll 
neyer stop throm 'is mammy, 'e's so cadish* 

(2) adj. docile ; gentle : said of animals. — Shbewsbttby ; Newpobt. 

CAST [kai'di*], same as Cadish (1). — Church Stretton. 

CAFF [kaf*], (1) ^b. an implement for hoeing and earthing up 
potatoes. — Glxtn; Ludlow. <. . . . caffs and hoes.' — Auctioneer's 
Catalogue (Stoddesden), 1870. Cf. Kibe. 

(2) V, a. to clean and earth up potatoes. — ^Ludlow. 

CAKET [kai'ki'J^ocf/., «/.1 weak of intellect; silly. — Shrewsburt; 
Wellikoton ; Wem ; Ellesmere. * Now then, whad's wrang wuth 
yo' ? Bin 'ee cryin' fur a biled aip'ny, yo' cokey piece ? ' 

CAKDTO [kai'kin]. See Bk. II., FolMare, &c., ' Customs.' 

CALAHIHCA, sb. a sort of red shale — a mixture of red and yellow 
day, marl, and sand. — Colliert, Maddey; M. T. 


CALL [kaul'], (1) sh. occasdon; necessity. Com. "E'd no call to 
say tnat on 'er.' 

(2) V. a. to abuse ; to yilify. Com. ' ^Er caUed 'im fiir ererjrthin' ; 
the worst name as 'or could lay 'er tongpie to wuz too good for 'im.' 

CALL-WOBDS TO ANIHALS. Cam >— Cow-up, cow-up, coop, 
coop [kuuw'oop, kuuw'oop, ki^, kil^'p]. The last two words are used 
as they near home. Com. Hoap, heap, hoap [*ii66p, i!l65p, iid6p}, 
Glun. Hie-up ['ei'up], or how-up [uuwoop], is to dnye them. Com. 

Calve$ : — ^Mog, mog, mog f'mog, mog, mogj. Com. 

Piga : — Dack, dack, dack ['dak, dak, dak], Shkewsbxtry ; Church 
Stbbxton ; Ludlow. Guey, guey, guey ['gpieaiy, gueaiy, gueai-y], 
GoBYE Dale. Guep, guep, guey ['guep, guep, gueij, Clun. Nack, 
nack, nack ["nak, nak, nak], Shbewsbuky ; Pulyebbatch ; Church 
Stretton; Eu^esmere. Pig, pig, pig ["pi'k, pi'k, j)rk], Pulyer- 
BATCH ; Ellbsmere. Poo-ik, poo- -ik fpuo'i'k, puo'i'k], to -pigs at 
a distance. — Worthen. Rio, ric, ric FViTL, r'i'k, ri'kl Shrewsbury ; 
Much Wenlock ; Wellikoton ; Whitchurch, lup, yup, yu-up 
[•yi^T), yi!i"p, yil^**iip], with an increase of pitch on tip.— -Craybw 
Arms. Stoo, stoo, rree ['stoo, stoo, ..r'ee"] is to driye pigs. Com. 

* They say in my contrye, when they cal the3rr hogges to the swyne 
troughe. Come to thy myngle mangle, come pyr, come pyr.' — 
Latimer, Sermon iii. p. 98. 

Hor$e$, See Waggoners' Words. 

CALL-WOBDS TO POTJLTET. Fowls .-—Chuck, chuck, chuck 
['chaek, chaek, chaek], Shrewsbury ; Pulybrbatch. ['chuk, chuk, 
chuk]. Com. ['chilkk, chiik, chiik], Ellbsmere; Whitchurch. 
Shoo [shi!k"] is to drive them. Com. 

Chfckeiu: — Chick, chick, chick (^'chik, chik, chikl Shrewsbury. 
Qy. com. Tweet, tweet, tweet ["twi'^t, twiH, twi'tl, Ellesmebe. 

Ducks: — Weet, weet, weet ['wi'-t, wi''t, wi'i;]. Ellesmebe. Wid, 
wid, wid ['wi*d, wi'd, wi'd], Shbewsbuby ; Pulyebbatch ; Ghubch 
Stbetton; Clun; Ludlow. Widdy, widdy, widdy ["widi*, widi*, 
widi'], Clee Hills. 

Oeese : — Ghis, gus, gus [*gns, gus, gfusl, Cbayen Abms ; Chubch 
Stbbtton ; Clun ; Ludlow. Lag, lag, lag ['lag, lag, lag], Shbews- 
buby ; Pulyebbatch ; Et.TiTWMEBE. ^oo-lag [ 'oo &g] driyes them 
on. Ibid, as for Lag. 

Turkeys : — ^Pen, pen, pen ["pen, pen, pen], Shbewsbuby ; Pulyeb- 
batch. Pur, pur, pur (.'pur, pur', pur], Pulyebbatch ; Wobthew ; 
CbayexAbms; Clun. 

CAXOMIHE pcam'u'mein], sb,, var. pr. Anthemia nSbilia, Chamo- 
mile. Com. 

CAMPEBIVO [kam'puVin], adj.y ohsols, mettlesome ; high-spirited. 
— Pulyebbatch. 'Young Dicken rides a fine camperin' 'orse to 
markit' ' Aye, an' 'e's a fine eamperin* fellow 'isself.' 
Dan. kdmpe, to fight. 

CAHAST (^u'DaeTi*]. ' GiYc a cat a canary ' is a phrase analogous 
to ' Tell that to the marines,' impijring disbelief in an improbable 
story. — Shbewsbttby. 'Chow- wow, "Give a cat a canary , dunna 
tell me none o^ yoie romance.' 


CAB30TTLE [kan-bot-1], ab. Parua caudaitis, the long-tailed Tit- 
mouse.— Shrewsbtjky ; Bbidonobth; Newpobt. Cf. Bottle-tit. 

CANDLE OP THE EYE, phr, the pupil of the eye.— Shkewsbury ; 
PULVERBATCH ; WoBTHEN ; Wem. Eay gives, • The Bird of the Eye, 
the Sight or PupiL Suffolk' See p. 70, ed. 1768. Of. Pen of the 

CAH-DOTIOHS [kan doa'z], sb. pl.y obs, small, oblong cakes made for 
the breakffiist-table. — Ludlow. Perhaps can-doughs = portions of 
dough baked in cans ; just as bakers call loaves baked in tins * tin- 

CANE [kang'k], (1) v. n. to cackle as geese. — Pulyebbatoh; 
WoBTHEx; Glee Hills; Ellesmebe. 

(2) V. w. to talk rapidly ; to gabble.— Wellinoton. 

(3) sh. a fit of ill-humour.— Shbewsbuby ; Pulyebbatch. *I 
toud 'er a bit o' my mind, an' 'er 'u£Pd an' ding'd an' went off in a 
fine cank* 

CANKEB [kang-kur'], (\) sb, rust in wheat. Com. 

' Foins, 0, that this good blossom could be kept from cankers' 

2 K. Henry IV,, IL ii. 102. 

(2) sh, a species of dry-rot in turnips. Com. 

(3) sh, an xmhealthy excrescence on trees or plants, preventing 
kin^y developments, and causing a withered, dead appearance. 
Com. Cf. Bur (3). 

' Full soon the canker death eats up that plant.' 

Borneo and Juliet^ IL iii. 30. 

(4) sh. verdigris. — Shbewsbuby. Qy. com. 

' Nay, I tell you it is old truth, long rusted with your canker^ and 
now new made bright and scoured.' — ^Latimeb, 8erm.j^, 30 (Parker 

* What is this but a new learning ; a new canker to rust and corrupt 
the old truth ? '— /d. p. 31. 

(5) V. a. to envenom by verdigris, brass, or copper, so as to cause 
idceration. — Shbewsbuby. Qy. com. 'Yo' shouldna let the child 
play 66th brass ; if 'e puts it in 'is mouth it 'U canker it.' 

(6) sh, a sore in the mouth popularly believed to be caused by the 
venom of verdigris, brass, or copper. Com. Lat. cancer, a canker. 
This ' mouth disease ' is known m medicine as Cancrum oris, a foul 
ulcor inside the lips and cheeks of children — rarely of adults — often 
arising from bad food or bad constitution. The following curious 
entry in the Register of Sir Thomas Botder, Vicar of Much Wenlock, 
may justify the introduction here of the term canker in a usage 
adopted by the medical profession. 

' 1544. 5*^ July . . . The said Joan child, single woman, of the 
age of 22 years, deceased, and died upon the msease of a Canker 
within her mouth, imder the root of lier tongue, which as her f&ther 
said she chanced to have through the smelling of Bose-flowers.' 

CANKERED [kang'kur'd], (1) part, adj. affected with canker. Com. 
' Them cabbidge 5dn mak' nuthin this 'ear— they bin poor car^sertd 
tack.' See Canker (3). 


(2) adj. 0TO88 ; iU-tempered. — ^Wem, Shawhury, 

' We had neuer such a cankered carle. 
Were neuer yi our companies — Percy Folic, i. 48. 

' ^if cankered Mad^, our aunt. 

Come up the bum, she'll gie's a wicked rant.' 

Allan Bahsey, The Oenile Shepherd, L ii. p. 21. 

Bay has 'A cankred Fellow, Cross, Ill-condition'd.' A North- 
country word. 

CAHKEEGXTS [kang-ki'as], adj. venomous. — ^Pulvebbatch. 'The 
poor child's ^t a despert leg throm that earless wench piittin' the 
warmin' pan i' the bed— if s sich a nasty canldrcv* thing to be burnt 
56th.' 6ee Canker (4), also (5). 

CAXVA. See Grammar Gutlines, verb Can. 

' An' forward, tho' I canna see, 
I guess an' fear ! ' 

BOBEBT BXTBNS, PoffTM, p. 54, 1. 17. 

CAVT [kant*], (1) v. n. to gossip; to carry tales. Com. 'That 
keeper's al'ays caniifC to the Squire about somebody ; but if 'e dunna 
mind 'is owd rabbit grins, an' let other folks alone, Til put a scotch 
on 'is V^l afore lung.' Cf. Clat (1). 

(2) eb. a tattler ; a tale-bearer* Com. ' 'Er's a reg'lar owd tanJt^ 
that^s whad 'er ifi.' Cf. Clat (2). 

(3) eh, gossip ; tattle. Com. ' 'Er's never athout some cant to teU. 
yo' on, g& w'en yo' wiU.' 

CAHTEL [kan'tel], ah,, ohsoh, a comer ; a small piece left, as of 
bread. — ^Fulvebbatch. ' We mun bake to-morrow, I see, as theer's 
on'y one loaf an' a bit of a canUH as 'U 'ardly see breakfeut o'er.' 

' For nature hath nat take his bygynnyng 
Of no partye ne cantd of a thing, 
But oz a thing that parfyt is and stable.' 

Chauoeb, The Knightee Tale, L 2150, ed. Morris. 

' Hec qtuidra, a cantel of brede.' — Pictorial Vocabulary, xv. cent., in 
Wr. vocabs., voL L p. 258. O.Fr. chantel, cantel, coin, morceau. 
— ^BuB, 

CAHTING-QTTAETEB [kan-tin kwaur'tur"], sb. from Candlemas Da^ 
to May-Day is called canting-quarter. — Pulvebbatoh. Candlemas is 
the beginning of the ' laying season' in the poultrv-yard ; and about 
the same time farm-house servants are * hired for May.' These events 
give rise to much ohit-'Chat, or, as it is called, cant, amongst the house* 

* Does your goose lay P 
Does your maid stay P * 

is a fiuniliar couplet, which aptly illustrates the kind of thing that has 
given rise to the term canting-quarter^ 

CASTLE [kan'tll, sb., obaols, a can-fdl. — Shbewsbubt; Pulveb- 
batoh. *Han"ee'ad a good ''Tummasin" this timeP' * Well, as 
the owd sayin' is, " Them as 'ad'n most mouths 'ad'n most mate." Mrs. 
Ward an' Mrs. Ambler an' most o' the good owd 'ouse-keepers gid'n 



us a cantle for every one. We'd'n pretty nigh a 'oop a piece.' * Oh I 
a tidy Christmas batch.' Cf. Thinkle. See Bk. II., Folklore, &c., 
' Customs connected with Days and Seasons ' (8. Thomcu^a Day), 

CAPLIN* [kap'li'nl sb,, ohsols. a piece of strong leather made of 
horse-hiae, laced Dy thongs or strips of eel-skin to the two parts of a 
flail respectively; viz., to the *8wipple' and the 'hand-stafiP.' The 
caplins are in their turn similarly umted, thus giving to the flail the 
requisite swing when in use. — Pulverbatch, Qy. com. 

' The CapliiigSf the strong double Leathers made £Eist to the top of 
the Hand-staff and the top of the Swiple.' — Academy of Armory, 3k. 
in., ch. viii. p. 33^. 

* Cappe of a fleyle.' — Prompt. Parv., p. 61. Cf. Kile. 

CABEYV rkaar''i'n], (1) sb., ohsols, a foul carcase, as of an animal 
that has oied from disease. — Ellesmebe. 

* He crouke3 for comfort • when carayne he fyndej 
£ast vp on a cl3rffe * (^er costese lay drye ; 

Fallej on \fe foule flesch * & fyllei his wombe.* 

Alliterative Poems, The Delw^e (A.D. 1360, ctrea). 
Specim. Early Eng., xiii. 1, 459. 

O.Fr. charoigne de caro (nominatif carnis). — Bxtb. 

(2) sb, an opprobrious epithet applied to a woman or c^l of dirty 
habits. — Shbewsbtjby ; EUiESMEBS. * Yo' bin a nasty, cUrty careyn, 
that's whad yo' bin.' 

* Out, you green-sickness carrion ! out, you baggage I 
You tallow face ! ' — Romeo and Juliet, TH. v. 157. 

CASFXTL [kaa-r'ful], adj. careful. Com. An old form. 

' 30 schul 3ild a earful counte on dredful domys-day.' 

John Audelay*s Poems, p. 21. 

CAEWET [kaa'r'ni'], adj. giddy ; thoughtless. — Shrewsbury, 
* Mary, Veer's them matches as I sen' yo' to fatch ? ' * I forgot 'em, 
mother.' * Forgot ! yo' bin al'ays forgettin' ; I never see sich a 
Carney piece i' my days.' Cf. Carny, B. vii., E. D. S. 

CAEPENTEE [kaa-r'pentur'], sb. Porcellio scaber, the Wood-louae. 
Generally used in the plural form, carpenters. — Newport. 

CAEEIAOE [kaar'i'j], sb. a sling attached to the leathern girdle 
worn by a mower, in which he carries the whetstone at his back. — 
Pulverbatch; Church Stretton. Cf. Sling. 

CASE fkais'], v. a. to skin. Com. ' I never sid a nimbler girld i' 
my life ; Wd case them rabbits awilde yo' bin lookin' which way to 
begin.' This term, though used chiefly with reeroect to small animals, 
as rabbits, hares, squirrms, &c., is not restricted to them; rooks are 
cased in preparing them for pies. 

* First Lord. We'll make you some sport with the fox ere we cow 
him.'— ^Zr« Well Thai Ends Wdl, UL vi. 111. 

CASE-HAEDENED [kais-aa-'r'dnd], part. adj. impenetrable to all 
sense of shame or moral rectitude. — Pulverbatch; Ellesicere. 
Qy. com. "E's a ooH-hardened scomidrel; if 'e dnnna come to the 


ealluB it '11 sa'prize ererybody as knows 'im.' ' Aye, 'e wuss always a 
aespert arode lad.' 

' C<ue'har€knedy obdurate; hardened in impiety.' — Bailey, ed. 

CASE-KNIFE [kaisDeif], sb. a carving-knife of the common type, 
without sheath or ca&e of any kind. — Pxjltebbatch. * Why dunna 
yo' get the aise-kni/e to cut the bacon? Yo'n 'urt yoreself worse 
than the flitchen 66th that little thing.' 

CASELTY, CA8EBTLT [kas-u'lti'], Shrewsbury ; Atchah ; Wbm. 
[kazTir'tli'], Pulverbatch; Wem. (1) adj. uncertain; doubtful: 
said of the weather. Com. See Brea!k-up. 

(2) cuij, insecure ; hazardous : as of a wall or stack out of the per- 
pendicular. — Pulverbatch. * Now, John, 66n 'ee think o' yore stack 
oy daylight ? It looks mighty caaertly.* 

(3) adj. dangerous ; critical : as of the state of a person in illness. 
— ^Pulverbatch. * Poor owd Betty Jones lies in a verv caaertly con- 
dition ; they sen 'er leg an' thigh bin broke, an' it's a oad job at 'er 
age ; but 'er met as well a bin killed on the spot.' 

CA8ET8 [kai'zi'z], sh. pl.y var. pr. ' causeys,' paths or roads between 
the beds from which the peat, or * tuif,' as it is called, is cut on 
Whixall Moss. — Whitchurch. 

' Haremeare Mosse was incompassed roimd with the water of this 
Meare ; howbeit, the neighbours did gett some turves upon it ; which 
they carryed over the water in boats ; butt Sir Andrew Corbet caused 
a lio'ge causej^y or banke, to bee raised throw the water, soe that teames 
and carts might easily passe from Haremeare Heath to the Mosse, and 
the turves (which beefore were had freely) were sold at 8d a vard, 
that is, 80 sqiuu^ yards, to cutt and lay upon, which yeilded a loade 
for the best teame thatt was.' — Gouoh's Hutory of Myddle, p. 30. 
See Causey, B. xiv., £. D. S. Cf. Causey, below. 

CA8P [kasp'], sb. the cross-bar at the top of a spade-handle. Com. 
' The easp o* that spade's cracked, I see ; it mun '^ve a cramp pCit 
through iV 

* The head, or handle, or kaspe (of a spade).' — Academy of Armory, 
Bk. m., ch. viiL, p. 337. Cf. Critch. 

CAST [kast'l (1) v. a. to throw over; to fling: as of animals for 
purposes ot farriery. Com. 'iWe'n 'ad a despert job to cast that 
cowt ; 'e gid Jim a pote as 'e 66nna forget in a 'urry.' Icel. kasta ; 
Swed. kasta ; Dan. kaste, to throw. 

(2) part, past, thrown over; flung: said of sheep that have 
accidentally got on their backs, and cannot regain their footing. 
Com. ' Ihck, yo' mun run for life to the fare end o' Wuken [Oaken, 
a field at Pulverbatch] ; theer's a yeow cast i' the briers, an' 'er'U be 
4jed direc'ly ; tak the brummock 66th yo' to cut the briers.' 

(3) V. a. to bring forth prematurely : said of cows. — Shrewsbury ; 
Pulverbatch ; Clee Hills. ' Daisy's cast 'er cauve.' 

' Thy ewee and thy she-goats have not catt their young.' — (Genesis 
nd. 38. 
See also Mjdadhi iv. 11. C£ Pick (1), 

r 2 


(4) part, pati.^ ohs6l$, ? defeated ; thrown oyer ; condemned : as in a 
law-suit.— Shrewsbuey; Pulverbatch. 'Theer's bin a lung law- 
shoot about a right o' rd6ad ; but the newcomer's got ca&t : it's bin a 
r56ad for marr'in' an' berrin' this forty 'ear. I thought if they coulden 
stop it, it wuz mighty odd to me.' 

'1541. Memorandum that the 10*^ day of this instant month of 
Feb'', in the year of our Lord 1541, here was buried W" Lowe, a 
Cheshire man bom, which William was a lad of 18 years of age or 
hereabouts, ccut by the verdict of 12 men at the ^ Sessions holden 
here. . , .' — Begister of Sir Thomas Boteler, Vicar of Much Wenlock. 

' ... It is not a Strang thing for Mr. Lloyd to impose upon his 
neighbours, as appeares by his stopping of a footway oyer his back 
side, for which he was sued and ca$t,* — Gouoh's History of Myddle, 
p. 109. 

* Well, my dear Ladies, said he ... Is sentence giyen P 

*It is, Sir Charles — He took my hand, . . . — I have hopes, my 
dear Miss Byron, that you are cast/ — Sir Charles Orandison, vol. yi« 
p. 194, ed. 1766. 

(5) V. n. to yield ; to produce. — Clee Hills. * Well, Tummas, 
'ow did that w'eat <xLst as yo' wun throshin' ? ' ' Middlin' like, con- 
siderin' the saison ; but it dunna cast like it did last 'ear.' Cf. Out* 

(6) V, a. a hunting term. Com. A huntsman is said to cast his 
hounds when, the scent being lost, he takes them on the line of the 
hunted animal, or to the right or left, in order to recover it. The old 
hunting rule is to cast forwards for a fox ; and to cast backwards for 
a hare, as this animal almost always trios to * double ' back again. 

(7) sh. a second swarm of bees in the season from one hive. Com. 
See Bunt (2). 

CASTLDSrO [kass'dlin], ah. an abortive calf. — Shbewbburt. See 
Cast (1). 

CASTBEL [kas'tr'el], eh. a worthless person. — Cleb Hills. CC 
Wastrel (1). 

CAT [kat'], ah,, ohsA a stand formed of three pieces of wood, orna- 
mentally turned or carved, crossing each other in the middle; it 
could be set up at either end, and would still have three feet on the 
ground at the vertices of a triangle. Com. The cat was intended to 
hold a plate of hot cakes or buttered toast before the wood-hearth, so 

feneral in farm-house and cottage throughout Shropshire up to the 
eginning of the present century, and still [1874] occasionaUy to be 
seen, ' rll butter the flaps straight ofiP the oackstwun, if yo'n fatch 
me a plate an' the cat to put it on — ^they'n keep whot till tay.' 

CAT-BBAIH [kat'br'ain], sh, a rough clayey kind of soil full of stone. 
— ^WBLLmaTON. Ot Botch. 

CATCHIVO-TIKE [kach-in tei-m], ah. It is called caichirC time 
when in a wet season they catch every minute of foyourable weather 
for field work. — Shrewsbury; Clee Hells. 

CATEB^OBVELLED rkaitui' kaur'neld], adj. iiregulai^ of form ; 
out of proportion: said of any material that won't cut to a required 


8bape. — PuLVERBATCH. * I never sid sicli a cater-eomelled tHng as 
this ; for turn it which way yo' don, yo* canna get it squar' nor round.' 
Cf. Wanty. 

CATEBrCOBHEBED, adj. diagonal.— Wellixoton. A house stand- 
ing diagonally to the street would he eater-cornered, Cf. Endways-on, 

CATES-WIFFy cuiv, across ; from one side to the other in an oblique 
direction, as a tipsy person would go. — ^Wem, Burlton. * I seed as 'e 
wunna sober by the way 'e went cater-wiff alung the r6o&d.' 

CATS' EYES [kat's eiz], ah, Epilohium angttstifolium, Rose-bay, 
Willow Herb. — Cbaten Ailms, StokeBay, 

CATS' GALLOWS [kat's gal'u'ss], sh, a kind of Ipaping-pole made 
by children, consisting of a stick laid horizontally upon two forked 
sticks placed upright in the ground. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch. 
Called also cat gallows. — Ludlow ; Newport. Jumpin' cats* gallusses is 
a fJEiyourite game with children. 

CAT'S HEAD, sb., ohs, a ' pit-head ' standing on three legs. Com. 
M. T. See Pit-head. CI Gat. 

CAT'S TAIL, sb. Aconitum NapSIlu8, Wolf s-bane. — Ludlow. 

CATJF [kauf], (1) sb,, var, pr, a call Com. 

' A cow and a cauf, a yowe and a hauf, 

And thretty gude shillings and three ; 
A vera gude tocher, a cotter-man's dochter, 
The lass with the bouie black qc.' 

Egbert Burns, Foerna, p. 255, L 21, c. 2. 

(2) eh, a silly, stupid person. Com. ' Yo' great cauf, could na yo' 
do that bit'n a job athout me '&yin' to tell ya the same thing twize 
o'er P ' 
i * 0, Custance, Tou great cdlfe ye should haue more witte, so ye 
should . . .' — Baister Doister, Act ij. Sc. iiij. p. 37. Cf. Auf. 

CAVSET [kaus'i'l, (1) sb. a paved foot-path, often raised above the 
ffeneral level. Com. ' The waiter's out all alung the flat aimiust 
level 65th the caueey* 

' This plain aforesaid named Laboriee, is confined on both sides with 
the great cauaeis or high waies raised by the consuls.' — Hollaio^'s 
Fliny, xviii. 11 (A.D. 1634). 

* Ye dainty Deacons, an' ye douce Conveeners, 
To whom our moderns are but causey-cleaners I ' 

EoBERT Burns, Foems, p. 27, L 23. 

Our received word 'causeway' is a corruption of causey; an old 
spelling of which, according to Mr. Skeat, was calcic, m>m Lat. 
ealceaia via, a way made with lime ; whence Span, calzaday a paved 
way; and Ft, chauss^e, the same thing: from which last comes 
directly Eng. causey, 0£. Caseys. 

(2) sb, a narrow paved yard at the back of a house ; also a pave- 
ment surroimding, or partly surrounding, a house. Com. ' Sally, 
ban' yo^^upaust done sloppin' out theer P ' I've on'y got the causey 
to swif^T^anna be lung.' 


CATTTE [kan-y], same as Canf (1). Com. 

CATJVE KIT [kau'v kit], sb, a kind of * loose box ' in the cow-house 
where the sucking calves are kept. Com. CI Cote, from which Kit 
is probably corrupted. 

CA7ALDBT, CAVALTBT [kavuldr'i', kavm'ltr'i'], sh., var, pr. 
cavalry, having special reference to the * Yeomanry Cavalry.* Com. 
The interchange of d and t is determined rather by individual usage 
than by any other law ; but cavaltry is the more general form. In 
an old diary kept by an * Oswestrian,* early in this century, there is 
the following: — *The cavdldry called up m Oswestry to quell the 
colars at Chirk, Jany. 1, 1831.' See Byegones, 2d Oct. 1876. 

CAVE pcaiv], (1) v. n. to give way, or fall in, as earth that is nnder- 
minea. — PtrLVERBATCH. *Two men wun buried aHve in sinkin' a 
well at Le Bot'ood las' wik ; it caved in on 'em six yards dip.' 

(2) pceiv], Shrewsbxtby. [keev], Newport, [kaiv], Wem ; 
Ellesmebe ; Oswestby, v, a. to turn over ; to tilt up, so as to 
empty. * Now then, look afore yo', or yo'n cave that bouk o'er an' 
sheod all the milk.' Cf. Kale (2). 

CAW [ki'-au], Wem. See Croup. 

CHAO [chag*], sb. a branch of broom or gorse. — Pulverbatch; 
Ellesmebe. ' Theer's a djel o' bread, beside apple-fit, so mind an' 
&ve the oven whot ; ptit tuthree more chage o' brum in, an' diSr it 
well.' C£ Jagr (3). 

CHAHBEiR [cbaim'bur'], sb, a sleeping apartment on the ground- 
floor. — Shbewsbtjby ; Pulvebbatch ; Wem. Bed-rooms on an 
upper story are called * upstars ' [upstairs]]. * It's a despert poor little 
'ouse ; no loft o'er it, but chamhera d6th hme flurs, an' I cauna bar a 
place athout upstars/ 

CHAMBLE, CHOMBLE [cham-bl], Pulverbatch. [chom-bl], 
Shbewsbtjby ; Wem. (1) v. a. to gnaw ; to nibble : as rats and mice 
do. ' To'n got a nice lot o' cheese ; I 'ope the mice 66nna tak' a* 
fancy to chamble 'em, for they bin pretty good judges in a cheese.' 
Cf. Chassel. 

(2) V. a. to peck ; to break into small fragments : as birds do seed. 
— Ibid. 'Dunna piit the canary so much sid to chamble an' flirt 
about ; 'e covers the window-sill 6dth 'is chimblin's.' 

CHANCE-CHILD [chans* cheiid], sh, an illegitimate child. — Shrews- 
bury. Cf. Love-child. See Base-cliild. 

CHANCE-PEHHT-STOITE, sb. the highest bed of iron-stone in the 
coal-field.— Colliery ; M. T. 

'After the preponderance of vegetable remains in all the lower 
measures, a change is discovered here in the shape of a great abund- 
ance of Leptoena Scabicula. This fossil, it is beueved, lubs only been 
found in the Penny iron-stones ; in many instances it forms the 
nucleus for the nodmes of iron-stone. Another characteristic of this 
Penny-stone is the presence of Megalichthys ffibberti, Oyracanthus, 
FormoauB, and Conulenics.'^NoteB on the Shropshire Coal-Pield, by T. 
Parton, F.G.S., 1868. 


CHAHET [chai'ni'], sb,, var, pr. cbina. Com. 

CHAP [cliap-], (1) 8h. a fann servant : of such, all below the ' bayly ' 
are chaps. Com. Abbreviated from Chapman. 

(2) $h. a familiar appellation for man or boy, as 'fellow' is in 
' poLte circles.' Com. 

* An' ane, a chap thafs damn'd auldfarran, 

Dondas bis name.' 
BoBEBT BuBjrs, Poems f p. 11, 1. 21. 

(3) $h. an admirer; a sweetheart. Com. The country girl speaks 
of her chap, as the town-bred damsel does of her * young man.* A 
lady was expostulating with her maid-servant upon some unwise love 
affairs which had come under her notice — * I know it's all right whad 
yo* sen, Ma'am,' said the girl, * but indeed, Missis, I canna 'elp it ^ 
I've bin in trouble alang o' the chaps ever sence I knowed anythin*. 
The lady looked into Fanny's blue eyes and — ^believed her ! 

OHAPMAH [chap-mu'n], sh., obsols. a buyer. — Pulverbatoh. 

* Whad sort on a far han'ee 'ad to-day ? ' * A mighty 'onest un— every 
mon kep' 'is own ; I took a right useful cow an' cauve an got never a 
chapman — ^nod a biddin'.' This old word chapman formerly meant 
sdier as weU as buyer ; a trader ; a merchant. A.S. cedpmunn, a 
merchant; a market-man. 

' I'anne micthe chapmen £eire 
J»uruth englond wit here ware. 
And baldeiike beye and sellen, 
Oueral )>er he wilen dwellen.' 

Haveloh the DanSy 1. 51. 

*,In Surrye whylom dwelte a companye 
Of chapmen riche, and therto sadde and trewe, 
That wyde-wher senten her spicerye, 
Clothes of gold, and satins riche of hewe.' 

Chatjceb, B. 135 (Six-text ed.), Skeai 

♦ Beauty is bought by judgment of the eye. 

Not utter'd by base sale of chapmen^ s tongues.' 

Lov^s Labour Lost, TL i. 16. 

* Par. Fair Diomed, you do as chapmen do, 
Dispraise the thing that you desire to buy.' 

Troilus and Cressida, IV. L 75. 

' When chapman billies leave the street, 
And drouthy neebors, neebors meet, 
As market-days are wearing late, 
An' folk begin to tak the gate.' 

: Bobeet Bttrns, Poeijw, p. 91, 1. 1. ^ 

< In the days of Edward I.,' says Mr. Oliphant, * we find scores of 
French words, bearing on ladies' way of life, employed by our writers. 

• . . The English chapman and monger now withdrew mto low life, 
making way for the more gentlemanly foreigner, the marchand,^ 
Mr. Ohphant makes further mention of chapman^ as — together with 
other words which he enumerates — ' still sixnggling for life,' at the 
dose of the sizteenth century. — Bowrces of Standard English^ pp. 


CHAPKOVET [chapinani'], sh.^ ohsoU, money vhicli the seller 
giyes back to the buyer for * luck.' — Pulverbatch ; Wbm. Qy. com. 
' I gid seyen pun ten for 'er at the for, an' got fiye Bhillin' for e?Mp- 

CHABLES'S WADT [chaa*i'lzi'z wain], sh. the constellation Ursa 
Major.— Bishov'b Castle; Cluk; MuchWenlock. 

' First Carrier. Heigh ho I an it be not four by the day, 1711 be 
hanged : Charles^ wain is oyer the new chimney, and yet our horse 
not packed. What, ostler 1 ' — 1 K. Henry IV, ^ IL L 2. 

In the Staimton edition is the following note : — ' CharM wain. 
The yulgar anpeUation for the constellation called the Bear, and a 
corruption of uie Chorlea or Churls (i.e. rustic's) wain.' Cf, Jack and 
his waggon. 

CHABM [chaa*r'm], Shrewbbitbt ; PuLyEBBATCH ; Newport ; Wem ; 
Ellesmebe. [chaam'l, CoByE Dale. (1) sh. the intermingled and 
confused song of all tne morning birds. ' 'Ow the birds bin singin' 
this momin' ; the copp^s all on a charm.* 

* Sweet is the breath of mom, her rising sweet, 
With cAanii of earliest birds . • .' 

Paradise Lost, Bk. iy. 1. 64U 

' I cTierme as b3rrdes do whan they make a noyse a great nomber 
togyther.' — Palsgrave, in HaL 

Hence, perhaps, * a charm of goldfinches,' meaning a company of 
them,' giyen by Strutt in ' Terms used in Hawking.' — Sports and 
Pastimes, p. 38, ed. Hone, 1833. 

(2) sb, a murmuring noise ; a hum, as of many yoioea ' Whad a 
charm them childem bm makin i' school.' A.8. cyrm, a noise ; shout. 

CHAETEBrKASTES, sb. same as Bntty (2).— Colliebt ; M. T. 

CHASSEL [chas'h'l], i;. a. to nibble, as rats do com. — CoByE Dale. 
* The rots nan chasseUed away one 'afe o' the V^t i' the rick.' Of. 

CHASSELLIHOS [chas'li'linz], sb. pi. cut or nibbled grains of com 

it in the * tail-ends,' q. y. — OoByE 

which fall out in the * tail-ends,' q.y.^OoByE Dale. C£ 

CHASTISE [chastei'z], v. a., pee. to suspect; to accuse. — Shbews- 
BT7BY ; PuLyEBBATOH. ' If s 'ard to say Ven a thing^s gwun who 'as 
it. I chastised Joe on it; but 'e flatly denied,' an' toud me so steiight 
format Veer an' w'en 'e lef it, as I beueye 'e's innicent.' 

CHATOES. See Potatoes. 

CSHAT8 [chat's], sb. pi. small branches and twigs used for firing. — 
Shbewsbttby ; Pulyebbatgh ; Ellesmebe ; Oswestbt. ' Dick, run 
an* &tch tuthree dry chats to put i' the oyen, I canna get this big 
'66d to bum.' 

' Loye of lads and fire of chats is soon in and soon out.' — Darhish. 
Bay's Proverbs, p. 42. 
Ash has ' chat-wood, small brushwood for fire.' 

CHATIEE-PIE, 8b. Pica eaiiddta, the Magpie. — Bbidqnobth. 



* And chattering piti in dismal disoords sung.' 

3 Hmry VL, V. yi 48. 

CHATTT ZBOVSTGHE, sh. crambling^ tender iron-stone. — Collibrt; 

CHAW [chanj, (1) v. a. to masticate; to chew. — Pulyebbatoh ; 
Newpobt. Qy. com. 

' . . . But still as yon are fishing chaw a little white or hrown 
bread in yonr mouth, and Cast it into the Fond about the place 
where your flote swims.' — The Compleai Angler, ch. viii. p. 172. 

A. 8. eedwan, to eat ; chew. 

(2) V. a., pec. to mumble in speaking. — ^Lttdlow. ' Dunna chaw 
your words ; spake 'em.' 

CHAWL [cbau'l], (1) «&. a pig's cheek ; a cheek of bacon. — Shbews^ 
BUBT ; ruLYEBBATGH ; Clun ; Nbwpobt ; Wbm. * Bacon WU2 a bit 
chopper at the fiEir ; I bought a prime par o' chawla for Id, a lb., an' 
yo' ooiild'n '&Ye a good flitchen at Sd.' 

* Hee was byglich ybownde * on bothe twoo halues, 
Bothe his cMitU & his ohynne * with bhaynes of yren.^ 

K, Alieaunder, L 1119. 

Ghayylbone or chawlbone, Mandibula, *A ohafte, a chawylle, a 
chekebone; maxtUa, . . mandvhUa . . .' — Cath. Aitgl. In the 
Latin-English Yocabulary, Harl. MS., 1002, f. 140, occurs the word 
* hrancuB, a gole, or a chawle.' — Prcm^, Parv, and Notes. A.S. ceaflas, 
nom, pi. jaws ; cheeks. Cf. Ghoul (1). 

(2) V, a, to chew; to munch. — Shbewsbttby; Ludlow. '"Whad 
'nee got i' yore mouth, chawlin* athatn P ' C£ Chaw (1). 

CHEAPEN [chepn], v. a. to ask the price of anything. — Shbews- 
bttby; PxTLYEBBATCH ; Gluv ; Wbm. "Ow's butter gwelin this 
momin' P ' 'I dunna know, I hanna che^ned it' 

* Kite Ay, about an hour hence walk carelessly into the 

market-pblce [Shrewsbury], and you'll see a tall slender Gentieman 
eheapning a Pennyworth of Apples, with a Cane hang^g upon his 
Button ...... 

' Smith. A tall slender Gentleman, you say, with a Cane I Fray 
what sort of Head has the Cane P 

*Kite. An Amber Head with a Black Bibband.' — ^Fabqxthab's 
Becruiiing Officer, Act HL. Scene. — ^A Chamber. 

Chepyn, Lidtor. 'To chepe, taxare; Chepe, preciwn,^ — Oath, 
Akol. In Caxton's Boke for Travellers, a servant who is sent to 
market is thus directed : ' So chepe for us of the yenyson, $i none 
hargaigne.' Palsgrave nves the verb. * To bargen, chepe, bye and 
sell, marchander, Gk> cheape a cappe for me, and I wyU come anone 
and bye iV A.S. ce&pian, negctiari. — Prompt. Parv. and Nota. 

CHEER [chee'h'i^], sb.f var. pr. a chair. Com. 

CHEESES Fchecziz], tib. pi. the seed-vessels of Malva sylvettria^ 
common Mallow. Com. John Clare, the Northamptonshire poet, 
has a remiaisoenoe of childish games with these cheeeee, when ho 


' The sitting down when school was o'er 
Upon the threshold of the door, 
Picking from mallows, sport to please. 
The crumpled seed we call a cheesej* 

' Lea petiU fromageons ' is the name given by French children to 
the ' crumpled seed ' of the Mallow. 

CHEM [chem'], sb. a team of horses. — Pulverbatoh ; Weu; 
Ellesmekb. ^ ' Theer wuz a grand stand-off at the love-carriage las' 
Saturday — ^thirteen waggins. Mr. Bromley's chem come in first, an' 
Ben looKed pretty proud on 'is for^ 'orse ; 'e gid two shillin' for a star 
for 'im.' See Iiove-carriage. 

CHESPIT [ches'pit], sb. a cheese-vat. — ^Wem ; Ellbsmebb. 

CHESWIT [chez'wi't], same as Chespit. — Shrewsburt ; Pulver- 
BATCH ; Clxtk. * I never sid sich a noggen fellow as that oowper is. 
I axed 'im to mak' me a squar^ frame for crame cheese, an' *e's gwun 
an' made a cheswit big aniif to shoot a Cheshire mon.' 

* Casiarium,' glossed ' cheee-waiet occurs in a Metrical VocahtUaryf 
perhaps ziv. cent., in Wr. vocabs., voL L p. 178. 

CHILDEE [chQ-dur'], sb. pi children.— Newport. 

* Of mouth of childer and soukand, 
Made )K)a lof in ilka land.' 

Metrical English PialterCbQfoTe A.D. 1300). 
Specim. Early Eng,, II. viii. 5. 

Mr. Oliphant, speaking of the changes at work in the English of 
about A.D. 1120, says, ' Cildru turns into cyldren, for the South of 
England, unlike the North, always loved the plural in en, of which 
the Germans are so fond.' And he observes of Ormin, who wrote 
about A.D. 1200, 'He uses childre for the plural of child^ and the 
former still lingers in Lancashire as childer ; ' adding, ' Our corrupt 
plural children came from the South, as also did brethren and kine.* — 
yonrces of Standard English^ pp. 70 — 102. 

Mr. Earle says, * Brethren and children are cumulate plurals. They 
have added the -en plural form on to an elder plural ; for brether and 
childer were plurals of ** brother" and "child".' — Philology of the 
English Tongue, pp. 316, 317. A.S. ci7<2, a child; pL cildra, cildru. 

Of. Childermas-Day. 

CrilHi'DETlTH' [chil'du'r'in], sb. pi. children. — ^Newport. A form of 
rare occurrence. 

' God that made se and sond, 
With blody woundis he saU stond, 
Come ye alle on ryjt bond, 
je chylderin that nan sertyd me.' 

Bongeand Caroh of the aeign of Henry VI., xvii. p. 2. 
Warton Club Publications, 1856. 

CEILDEBH [childor'n], sb. pi children. Com. 

* And play as chyldeme done in strete.' 

Early Eng. Miscel., iii. p. 10. 

mrton Club Publications, 1865, 


CHILL [chil*], V. a.9 pee, to wann ; to take the cliill off any liquid. 
Com. ' Bring that 'cm, wench, to ehiU this drink for the Maister's 
bayte; 'e 65nna like to 'aye it cowd, sich a ^um day as this.' 

CHIKBLIHOS [chim'hlinz], sb, pi bits gnawed or pecked off. — 
Shbewsbitry ; Pulvbrbatch ; Wem. * The rots or mice han cut 
tiie bags i' the granary, an' I know theer's my 'at full o' chimblin's 
on the flur.' See Chamble. Of. Chasaellings. 

CHnOLIVS [chim'blinz], sh, pl.y var. pr, chilblains. Com. ' Mother, 
I canna bar 66th these chimUins no lunger, they itchen so.' ' Well, 
dunna scrat 'em no more than yo* can 'elp, an' I'll axe yore faither to 
fatch a good 'oll^ bough to squitch 'em 66th ; it's the best rem^ddy as 
I know to— but it gies yo' whad fur at the tune.' 

CHIKLET. See Chimney below. 

•1808. April 13*, sweeping workhouse ChimUy / 6V— PariaA 
Accounts, Much Wenlock. 

' The auld guidwife's weel-hoordet nits. 

Are round an' round divided. 
An monie lads' an' lasses' fates 
Are there that ni^ht decided : 
Some kindle, couthie, side by side, 

An' bum thegither trimly ; 
Some start awa, wi' saucy pride. 
An' jump out-owre the cnimlie 

Fu' high that night' 

H^BEBT BUBNS, PoeTM^ p. 45, L 26. 

CHIMLET-JAWH [chim'li jauin], sh., ohsols, the solid masonry 
forming the sides of the fire-place as seen in old houses. — Pulyeb- 
BATCH. ' Theer's nuthin' lef^ but the chimley-jawm,' said old Hannah 
Fletcher, describing the utter wreck of her house, which was swept 
away by the flood occasioned by the bursting of a water-spout on 
the Stiperstones, May 27th, 1811. The cottage thus alluded to 
skirted the side of the little brook which flows through the Fulyer- 
batch Outrack ; and there was literally nothing left of it ' but the 
chiTnley-jawm,^ on which hung a ham, and on a nail oyer it the good 
old dame's bonnet ; these escaped being carried away. The faroiture 
was all swept off by the flood, with the exception of uie taU oak-cased 
dock, which stood against the western wall of the cottage ; this wall 
was borne in by the violence of the flood, and seems to haye impelled 
the clock across the kitchen, as it was found leaning against the before- 
mentioned chimJ'ey-jatom, as a person faint and weary might lean 

daughter of H. F. . A 'batch' of bread, just taken out of the 

oven when the storm burst, was carried by the stream to Stapleton, a 
distance of three miles ; the loaves, swollen to an immense size, were 
taken out at Stapleton church-yard. A pot of gold pieces, twenty- 
seven ' spade ace guineas,' was never recovered ; it was believed to 
have been buried in the silt left by the flood, and in future ages may 
be brought to light as ' treasure trove.' It must have been a shed- 
ding-off of the water-spout which thus devastated the little home- 


stead in the Palyerbatcli Oatrack ; the main body of water striking 
off through Habberley and Minsterley, as will be seen from the 
subjoined account of the 'Minsterley Flood' condensed from the 
: Shrewsbury Chronicle of iike pGiiod. 

* In the afternoon of Monday, 27th May, 1811, there was a yiolent 
storm of thunder, lightning, and haiL Near the White Grit, hail- 
stones, two inches in circumference, lay almost a foot deep. About 
five o'clock a cloud burst upon the Stiperstones, and a torrent of 
water rushed down the hill-side, sweeping away several cottages of 
the White Grit minora The body of water, however, divided: one 
portion took a direction through Habberley, but the greatest quantiiy 
pursued its course along the ^mley through which Minsterley brook 
runs, and overwhelmed everything which lay in its way ; trees were 
torn up by the roots, and one containing about 80 feet of timber 
floated over meadows for more than a mile. Between five and six 
o'clock the water reached Minsterley, and flooded almost every house 
in the village. Mr. Yaughan, a farmer, was swept from his fold, and 
carried several hundred yards through the bridge, where the current 
threw him upon a pigsty, whence he climbed to the roof of a house 
and was saved. His sister was swept into the brandies of a tree. 
Thirteen persons in the ' Angel ' puDlic-house saved themselves by 
clinging to the rafters when the water reached the second story. 
The stables, with all other contiguous buildings, were swept awav» 
but 17 horses swam out. Three persons were drowned here. At 
Pontesford the flood burst into Mr. Heighwa3r's house through the 
windows ; the walls gave way and four people perished. Two ladies 
climbed on the roof and wero saved. At this place the water was at 
least 20 feet deep. The house and mill at Plox Green were " swilled " 
away. Great damage also was done at Hanwood. The torrent, 
following the course of Meole brook, reached Shrewsbury about half- 
past ten at night with a tremendous roaring noise. All the houses 
near Ooleham Bridge were flooded, and the street in front of tiie 
fSactory was inundated to the depth of nearly three feet by an instant- 
aneous gush. The foree of the stream turned the current of the 
Severn, which rose near the English Bridge four feet in less than ten 
minutes. The consternation caused in Shrewsbury was intense, as 
the event happened in the nijp;ht and in a time of drought, and people 
rushed from tneir rooms half dressed and not knowing where to ^.' 
Gmten and Blakbwat, in their History of Shrewsbury ^ vol. i. p. 
685, referring to the foregoing event, say, * A subscription was imme- 
diately begun in Shrewsbury to supply tiie loss sustained by nearly 
200 families of cottagers, and the sum of £1862 10«. Sd. was collected 
in a few weeks ; of wnich £1322 Ids. 6d, was disbursed to the sufferere, 
and 25 per cent returned to the subscribers. The liberality of the 
contribution was enhanced by the consideration that two other charit- 
able subscriptions were going on at the same time: one for the 
British detained as prisoners oy Bonaparte, and the other for the 
distress occasioned in Portugal by the invasion of the French.' 

CHnDfET [cbim'bli'], Pulvbrbatchj Clun. [cbim'di'], Clun; 
Cleb Hn.TiS. [chim-li'], Shbewsbttby; Pttlvebbatch ; Much 

-COTTOE [chin'ku'f], sh, the whooping-cough. Com^ See Bk. 
n., FoOdare, so., ' Superstitious Cures' (chin-^xnigh). 



CHnVE OF PO&E^ sh,^ ohsoU, a longitudinal cut on each side of 
the backbone gives the chine, which is afterwards subdivided into 
small 'hunks.' The chine may be cut broad or narrow to suit 
the circumstances of the household. The ordinary breadth in a 
large pig is about three inches. Com. ' Cut a good chine, Landy, as 
the ofiol lasses us most the 'ear ; the flitchens air the *amB bin wantin' 
for rent an' other things.' See OffiL 

A Chine of Fork is one of the dishes in a ' Bill of Fare for Grand 
Feasts ' given by Bandle Holme. — Academy of Armory, Bk. m. ch. iiL 
p. 78. 

CHIHK-CHIHK, sb. FringiUa ccekbs, the Chafianch.— Bbidonobth. 
So called from its ringing, musical ' call-note.' 

CHISEL [chiz'l], same as Chassel, q. y. — Craven Arms. 

CHITTEBLIHO PUFFS [chith'lin puf's], sb. pZ. puffs made of 
pastry, filled with a kind of mince-meat made of * chitterlings ' (q. y. 
oelow) and other ingredients. — Shbewsbuby; Ellesmeke. Qy. com. 
A Welshampton woman gave the following receipt for making chit" 
Ut'lin* ptiffi : * Yo maun wesh the chitte'lin's in a many waiters, then 
soak 'em four days in saut an' waiter, an' then two dajrs in fresh 
waiter, an' after that yo maun bile 'em till they bin thin and clier 
thin, an' then 'ack 'em as small as small, an' get some oorrans an* 
rais'ns an' some candied p^l an' spice, an' 'ack some apples, an' blend 
'em aU together, an' mal^ puffs on it, or — ^if yo liken oetter—standin' 

CHITTEBLnrGS [chit-h'linz], sb. pi. the 'puddings,' or intestines, 
of a pig. Com. Chitterlings, after being tiioroughly cleansed by a 
process such as that described in the preceding ' gloss,' are prepared 
for table by boiling them — the smaller ones bemg plaited together — 
and cutting them into short lengths. Served up thus, or else fried, 
they are eaten with mustard and vinegar, and are considered quite a 
dehcacy of farm-house or cottage fare. ' Qet some o' them chMt^lins 
an' fry 'em for the men's supper, they bin mighty fond on 'em.' 

Chytyrlynge, Scrutellum. * Chiterlynge, hitta.' — UATH. Ano. 
'Chyterlin^, efic2oi2e.'~FALSQ. Herman says, 'Let us have trypis, 
chetterlyneis, and tr^Uybubbys ynough, suppedita atdicodia ad satie^ 
tatem.^ Skinner derives the word from Teut. kutteln, intestina. — 
Prompt, Parv. and Notes, Cf. Koger. 

CAiTUF [chit'u'p], sb. a saucy, pert, forward girl. — ^Pulvbrbatoh ; 
Glun. ' Dun yo think as I wuz gwein to be 'ectored o'er by a little 
ehitup like that ? I soon let *er know as 'er'd got the wrang pig by 
the ear.' 

CHOICE Jchois's], adj.f pee. careful of, as valuing highly. — Shrews- 
bury ; FULVEBBATOH. Qy. com. ' They han but that one little lad^ 
an' they bin mighty choice an' tid on 'im — 'e's sadly spiled/ 

CHOKE-PEAB fchoa'k paa V], sb. a very hard kind of winter pear.— 
'RT.T.^ftVTgR^j Mont/ord, 

CHOMBLR See Chamble. 

CHOSE [choa'zl, v. a., var. pr. choose. Com. * ^Er didna chase to 
fltart alung 6dfh we, so we lef n 'er a-wham.' 


An indentore written at Shbewsbttbt, ' ye v day of October the 
^*^ yere of the Reigne of Kynge Edward the iiij*^/ contains the 
following : ' Also it shall be lawfiul for the said John C & his eyrys to 
electt & choM any other honest or lawfuU prest,' &c. — Owsx and 
Blaksway's HUicry of Shrewsbury, vol. ii. p. 469. 

' Therfore let oure kynge, what tyme hys grace shalbe so mynded 
to take a wrfe to chose njin. one whych is of god, that is, whyche is 
of the honsholde of fEiyta.* — Latimeb, Sermon i. p. 34. 

CEOTJL [chou-l], (1) ah, same as Chawl (1). — ^Ellesherb. 

' So hard Bofyn rogud his roll. 

That he smot with his choiUe, 

Ajayns the marbystone.' 

John Atjdelay's Poenu, p. 77. 

(2) $h. the stomp of a tree.— Wem. Cf. Stoul (1). 

CHBISTIAIT [kr^is'cbu'n], sb, this appellation is given to an animal 
as expressive of superior intelligence. Com. ' W'y 'e'd get on that 
wall, said a woman, of a favourite do^, * an' bark Hke a Chriitian 'e 
56d, 'e knowed so well who wuz a-comin'.' 

GHBISTMAS BBOF [kr'is'mus br'on], sb., obsdsA a yule log.— 


CHSISTMAB-BBWD, lefem.— Pulvebbatch. Cf. Bnmd. 

CHUCK [chaek* and chuk*], (1) ab, a cut of beef extending from the 
horns to the ribs, including the shoulder-piece. — Shbewsbubt. 
Country butchers have * cuts ' such as the chutk, * slench,' &a, to 
meet the requirements of their farm-house customers. See Slenohi. 

(2) V, a, ltd."] to throw; to toss. Com. ' ChucJk them orts to the 
pigs, Surrey.' 

(3) V. n. a call to fowls. See CaU-words. 

' And with that word he fleigh down fro the beem. 
For it was day, and eek his hennes alle ; 
And with a chuk he gan Hem for to calle. 
For he hadde founde a com, lay in the yerd.' 

Chattgeb, Nonne Fresies Tale, L 353, ed. Morris. 

(4^ [chuk*], $h. a term of endearment to a child. Com. 'Now, 
chuck, oome an' a yore new coat on, we bin gwein to see tiie 'ouse- 
keeper at the Squire's.' 

' Macb. Be innocent of the knowledge, dearest chuck. 
Till thou applaud the deed.'— Jtfocie^A, HL iL 45. 

CBnJCEIE, diminutive of Chuck (4). 

' I wat she is a daintie chuckie. 
As e'er tread dayl ' 
Bobebt Bubjts, Poems, p. 108, c 2, 1 27. 

CHTTMP [chrnnp'], »b, a log of wood for the fire. — Shrewsbubt ; 
Wobthen. * Fatch a chump to put o' the fire, an' then itll las' u6 
till we bin ready for bed.' (jfBna^ 



CHTJITDES [chun'dur'], v. n. to mutter; to grumble. — Newport. 
See Junder. Of. Munger. 

CHIJBCHIHG MICE, phr. murmuring in an under-tone. — Pulvbr- 
BATGH ; Whitchttrch. * I aPa^s tell 'em whad I think right out ; I 
dnnna like churchin' mice, they bin never the wiser then.' 

CHUBL [chur'l*], sb. CheiranthtLa Cheiri ; the common Wall-flower. 
— Colliery. Of. Bloody Warrior. See Wall-flower. 

CHUBN-DBHiL [chur'n-dr'ill sb. a flat, edged tool, used in drilling 
holes for blasting ; it is worked with the hands alone, not, as is the 
ordinary ' drill/ with the hammer. Com. M. T. 

CHUBlfllfO [chur^nin], part. adj. working the * churnrdrilL' Ibid. 

CHIJBB'-OWL, sb., obsols. CaprimuJgus Europceus; the European 
Goat-sucker. — Bredonorth. Called Churn-owl from the peculiar 
cry the bird utters — * chur-r-r ! chur-r-r ! ' Cf. Night-hawk. 

CLACK pslak'], (1) ^&. a contemptuous term for a woman's tons^ue. — 
Shrewsbury; Pulverbatch; Wellington. Qy. com. 'Whad a 
dcuJc that 56man 'as ! 'Er puts me in mind o' Betty Andras o' Cruck 
Meole, Ven the chap i' the market-train gwein to Sosebry said to 'er, 
" Wy, Missis, I should think yo' lied yore tongue this momin* afore 
yo' started." But Betty wunna short fur a nanser to 'im ; no danger I 
" No, indeed, sir," 'er said, " I didna ; it runs &st anuf athout ilin' ! " * 

' par mid f^u dackest oft and longe 
And ^at is on of )>ine songe.' 

Owl and NigMingode, 1. 81. 

O. Dutch, Jdadsen ; O. Icel. klaka, clack.~^TRAT. C£ Clat (3). 

(2) sb. noisy, unmeaning talk. Ibid. ' I tak' no more 'eed on 'er 
eladc than a nowd 'en cacklin'.' 

(3) sb. the valve of a pump. — Pulverbatch ; Welmnoton. Qy. 
com. ' I canna get a drop o' waiter out o' the pump ; I dunna know 
w'ether it's the dock or the bucket, but summat's wrang.' Cf. 
GUcket (3). 

(4) eb. the valve of bellows.— Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch. Qy. 
com. ' 'Ow can yo' espect them bdlys to blow w'en yo'n got yore 
knee agen the dock 9 ' 

(5) »b. a smart slap. — Shrewsbury. ' Mother, Mary's gid our 
little Sam a dadc o' the side on 'is yed.' * Well, jest let me ketch 'er, 
an' rU gie 'er Jack-up-the-orchut.' 

Claque; coup du putt de la main. — Chahb. 

CLACKEBy sb. a wooden rattle used to frighten birds. Com. , ' It's 
a pity to see a nice bwoy like Jim stuck i' the leasow to frighten 
crows ; 'e inna lazy, fur 'e works the dadcer right well. 
C£ Fr. daqudf the clapper of a mill. — Chamb. 

CLAK [klam*]^ (1) same as dem, q. v. — Clun, Hereford Border. 

< My intrails 
Were damnCd with keeping a perpetual &st.' 
Baman Adcr^ IL iL, Mabsinoes (first half 17th cent.) in Nares. 

Bailey has < Ckmm»d, starred with hunger; * ed. 1782^ 



(2) vh. to pull all the bells at onoe in ringing a peaL Com. * I spec 
the weddin'a come off ; I 'ear Wee^ry beUs rmgm' an' dammin^ bke 

CLAMPER [klam'puT'], sh. an3rthmg big, cumbroos^ troublosome, or 
obstructive, would come under me signification of this term. — 
WoETHBN, Cherhury. 

CLAHE [klain*], (1) v, a, and adj., var. pr, clean. Com. A.S. 
ddenan, to dean ; cZcen, clean. Bee Soureea of Standard UnglUh, p. 

V. a. to change the morning drees; to arrange the afternoon 
lette ; not necessarily to perform the ablutions also. Com. ' Han'ee 
Bid Mary about P ' ' Iss, I met 'er now jest at the top o' the stars, gweln 
to dane 'er fur tay.' 

(3) adv. entirely ; quite. Com. ' Sally, the Maister's jest bin an' 
toud the Missis as the fox 'as bin i' the mght an' t56k all them gullies 
— ^they bin clane gwun, 'e hanna lef one. The Missis is in a fine fan- 
teeg, an' ptits the faut on yo' fur nod seein' as they wun ssie i' the 
crew ; so yo'd'n better bewr*.' 

* Medleth namore with that art, I mene. 
For, if ye doon, your thrift is goon ful dene.^ 

Chaitceb, G. 1425 (Six-text ed.), Skeat. 

C£ Pb, IxxTiL 8 ; J«. xxiy. 19. A.S. adv, d<hne, entirely. 

(4^ adj\ clear; pure, with regard to complexion; wholesome 
lookmg. Com. ' 'Er wuz a mighty pretty girld ; sich a dane skin 
an' cUer red an' Vite.' 

CLAVLY [klan'li'], adj. clean and neat of habits. — ^Pulverbatch ; 
Ellbsmsbe. Qy. com. "Er's a danly, tidy 66man, an' the best 
*uz'ife i' the parish.' A danly dab is a sl&ttem. Cf. Dab (4). 

' \fe stede stod ful stille * fK)u^ he steme were, 
YHule )>e kniit him sadeled ' & danli him greil^ed.' 

Waiiam of PaUme, L 3288. 

A.S. ckSnZIc, pure ; cleanly. 

CLAHBE rklanz*], (1) t'. a., var. pr. to clear ; to &ee from impurities 
or superfluous matter : to cleanse. — ^Pulyebbatch. This word is not 
used in the sense that dean is, with regard to domestic economies. 
* A dose o' camomine tay 66d. do that cowd good ; it 66d danee the 
stomach — ^theer's nuthin like yarb tay.' 

' And danae here consyans dene and kepe charite.' 

JoHif Audelay's Poems, p. 14. 

* On Tche braunche was a word * of >hreo manor enkes ; 
Gk>ld and Seluer he seis * and Asur forso>e. 
' ffia makely ', quod l^e wiht * ^ marke of gold ; 
And ' J^is saues ', qua)i p9,t wiht ' >e sevne of selaer ; 
And '>is cton«e8' * as fie Asur kennes. 

Jo$iph o/Arimathie, L 198. 

A.S. dJkneian, to cleanse ; to purify ; to dear. 

(2) eh. the after-birth of a cow. — ^Pulyebbatch. Qy. com. AJSL 
dameung, a cleansing; purification. Of. Oleaxung. 


0LAVSIVO-BIEVE;[klaii*zi'ii siy], sb. a large sieve used in brewing 
to strain the hops' from the vort. — Shkewsbusy ; Pttlyebbatch ; 

Hoc eokUorium^ a clenynff-sef e, under the head of ' FandticMtor cum 
mis InttruvMniis* occurs in Pictorial Vocabulary, xy. cent., in Wr. 
yocabfl. yoL L p. 276. 

CLAP pdap-], (1) V. a. to lay down hastily. Com. ' I clapf the 
kay o the drink down eomew'eer, an' now I canna £nd it.' 

(2) V, a. to set down in writing. Com. ' I mus' clap down a few 
arrants, or else I shall forget the one 'afe.' 

(3) V, a, to sit down hastily. Com. * 'Er clapt 'erself down on the 
first cheer 'or come to.' 

(4) V. a. to close, as of the double doors or jrates of a farm-yard. 
Com. * Tum, dap them gates together, 66t 'ee r ' * Wen I've got the 
ship out o' the foud.' 

(5) V. a. to apply, as of a poultice or plaister, &o. Com. ' If s on'y 
a Dit of a scrat ; 1 11 clap a slip o' plaister on it jest now.' 

' Hell elap a shangan on her tail, 
An' set the bairns to daud her 

Wi' dirt this day.' 
BoBEBT BiTBNS, Pwmi, p. 29, L 18. 

(6) V. a. to smack; to slap, as- a sign of approbation. Com. Cf. — 

' And he dapte him with ^ tre 
Rith in pe fule necke so.' 

ffavdok the Dane^ L 1821. 

(7) $h. a smack; a slap of encouragement. Com. 'Well said, 
Jack I To' deearye a dap o' the back for that.' ' But yo' dappen too 

CLAPPEBCLAW [klap-uVklau*'], v. a. to scold and abuse with the 
tongue. — PiTLyESBATCH. Qy. com. * I belieye 'er dapperdawed 'im 

CLAPPEECLAWDrO, a round of abuse. Ibid. ' 'Er gid 'im sich 
a dapperdaunn' as 'e neyer 'ad.' 

CLABT [klaa.r'*i*], sb, olteA a shrill noise ; a ringing cry. — PuLyER- 
batch; Wobthex. (1) * It shewns the time o' 'ear; the rooks bin 
makin' a pretty c/ary.' (2) * Bin the 'ounds out to-day ? 1 thought 
I 'eftrd thar dary.* 

Cf. ' Clari'sonous [dari&onuSj Lai], sounding loud or shrilL' — 
Bailet, ed. 1727. 

CLAT [klat-1, (1) v. n. to tattle; to propagate idle tales.— Pulver- 
BATCH. • *Er's always dattin' about somebody.' Cf. Cant (1). 
(2) »h. a tattler ; a tale-bearer.—iWd. Cf. Cant (3). 

• Clit, dat, clit. 
Tore tongue shall be slit ; 
An' eyery little dog in the town 
8haU '^ye a bit.' 

ShropBhire • Nursery Rhyme/ 
CL^Tett tahtain Halliwell's Nursery Rhymes of England, p. 76. 



' Glaud, That elatteran "Madges my titty, tells flio flairo 
Whene'er our Meg her canker'd humour gaws.' 

Allan Ramsay, The Oentle Shepherd^ HE. iL p. 42. 

(3) sh. a contemptuous term for a woman's tongue. — EtJiBSMKRE. 
' Whad a clot that woman 'as ! Did'n'ee ever 'ear sich a nise 'er 
mak'sP' CL Clack (1). A.S. datrung, anything that makes a 

CLAW [klau'1, V, a. to seize hold of; to snatch at — Shrbwsburt. 
Qy. com. ' Now, childem, W needna daw out o' the basket as soon 
as it's put down, yo'n get whad's in it none the sooner.' 

' He daws it as Clayton daw^d the pudding, when he eat bag and 
all.'— Ray's Proverbs, p. 220. 

A.S. dawian; O.H. Germ. Jdawen, to claw; clutch. — Stbat. 

CLAWS, CLEES, CLET8 [klau-z], Ellesmebb; Wem. [klee-z], 
Shbewsbury ; Clun. [klai-zj, Pulverbatch ; Worthen ; Bishofs 
Castle, sh. pi, the respectiye parts of a cloven-foot ' Tak' car* as 
yo' scauden the pig's fit well, so as the deys 66n come off aisy athout 
tarrin 'em.' 

Handle Holme, in his Academy of Armory , enumerates amongst the 
parts of ' The Legs and Feet of a Bull, Oxe, or Cow,' the dees or 
noofis, which is termed douhle-dawed, or cloven-footed. — Bk. II. ch. 
xi. p. 171. Of a sheep, hoofis or daws. — Ibid. p. 177. Swine's feet, 
daws or hoofs. — Ibid. p. 181. 

* Claw, or cZ« of a beste. UngulaJ* — Prompt. Parv. 

Minsheu fed. 1617, p. 97) has the following :—* 2051. The Cleye» 
of Crabbes, Scorpions, &c., 4 Lat. Chelae arum; idem Gr. x9^<<^» ^* 
ff^ifXai, a trxt^itf* i.[e-] findo, to cleave asimder, quia fissae videntur in 
duas partes, because they are divided and cloven asunder.^ 

A.S. dawu, a claw ; dea, dec ; id. pL deawan, deaum. 

CLAY-COLD [klai- koa-ldj, adj. quite cold; lifeless. Com. (1) 
* Weerever han'ee 'ad this child P it's fit an' 'an's bin day-cold — it's 
welly starved to djeth.' (2) *The body wuz day-cold w'en it wua 

CLEACH [klee'ch], (1) v. a. to clutch. — Glee Hills. 

< )>enne Sir Gauan bi \>e coler cWhes Ye kni^t.' 

The Anturs of Arther, &c., 48, 7, in Strat. 

(2) V. a., obsols. to lade out in a skimming kind of way, so as not to 
disturb the bottom. — Pulverbatch. * Tak' a spfirtn an' fatch a spot 
o' crame ; deach it under caifiilly, nod to disturb the milk much, or 
we shan '&ve it sour.' 

CLEACH-HOLE [klee'ch oal], sb., obsols. a place scooped out in the 
bed of a brook, to collect water for domestic purposes. — Pulver- 
batch. ' Mind as yo' dunna muddy the deach- ole ; 1 shall want it 
clier for weshin* the butter.' 

CLEACH-ITET [klee-ch netl sb. a hand-net. similar in form to a 
'shrimping-net,' used in shallow, muddy waters to catch 'pinks' or 
other small fish. — Shrewsbury. A good *deachin* -waiter,* as 
described by John Cotton of Hanwood, is water disturbed by rain, in 
which the deach-net may be used imperceived by the fish. 


CLEAHnrO, (1) 8h, same as Clanse (2). — Atcham. Qy. com. 

(2) 9h, a cleansing drink given to the cow at the time of calving. — 
Ihid. Of. Clanse (1). 

CLEAT, CLET, CLTTT [klee-t], Whitchurch, [klet-], Wellington. 
[klnt], PuLVEEBATCH ; WoRTHEN, «6. a Small wedge. * The cogs o* 
this sned binna-d-as tight as they oughten to be ; I mun get some 
duU for 'em afore I can begin to mow.' 

^ Handle Holme has < Flow-Clates, a kind of Wedge to raise the Beam 
higher or lower.' — Academy of Armory , Bk. III. ch. viii. p. 333. 

* Cldte, cleat (elate), wedge ; cuneua,' — Strat. 

* Ciyte, or clote, or yegge (clete or wegge). Cunetu.* — Prompt Parv, 

GLEES. See Claws. 

CLEK [klem*], v. a. to pinch with hunger ; to famisL Com. Starve 
is never used in this sense ; it is applied to cold only. ' They sen 
Jack Pugh's t65k to gaol fur poachin', an' the poor 6dman an' child em 
bin clemmed an' aiarvin* ; they hanna-d-a bit o' bread nor a lump o' 
coal i' the *ouse.' 

' I cannot eat stones and turfis, say. What, will he clem me and 
my followers ? Ask him an he will clem me ; do, go.' — Ben Jonson, 
Foeiaster, I. ii. (first half 17th cent.), in Wr. 

* You been like Smithwick, either clem'd or borsten. Chesh! — Ray's 
Proverbs, p. 227. 

Du. klemmen, to pinch; O.L. Germ, (bi)klemman; O.H. Ghorm. 
(bi)chlemmen, to clam. See Strat. Cf. Clam (1). 

OLEH-OXTT [klem* gut], (1) sb. poor food. — Pulverbatch. ' I canna 
ate that, it's reg'lar ctem-gut.* 

(2) <idj\ poor; unsatisfying: said of food. — Ibid, *1 dunna like 
them dem-gut apple-fit for bayte; theer's nuthin like a good lommack 
o' bread an' cheese.' 

A field at Northwood, Ellesmere, is called Clem gutU, 

GIXM-OUTTED [klem* giiti'd], part adj. said of one who eats raven- 
ously, as if hunger-pinched. — ^Newport, Shiffnal, 

CLEHT [klent*], v, n., ohaols. to dry, as grass, &c. ; a hay-field term. 
— Bridgnorth. ' Them nettles mun be cut an' lef to dent, ready for 
the bottom o' the rick.' 

CLET. See Cleat. 

CLETS. See Clawf . 

CLICK [klik'l (1) sh. a sharp, unexpected blow. Com. 'I gid 'im 
aich a didc i' the ear-'ole.' 

(2) V. a. to dose; ta snap. — Pulverbatch. *Did'n a dick the 
wicket after 'emP' 

CLICKET Pkliki't], ah,, ohsoU, the fastening of a gate. — Craven 
Arms, Stokeeatf, An iron link is attached to the gate by means of a 
staple ; this Lnk is terminated by a short hasp-like bolt. On the 
gate-post is an iron plate, having in it a kind of key-hole, into whi(;h 
the before-mentionea bolt fits, much after the manner of the fastening 
of a trunk, thus securing the gate. 

o 2 


' Hec $ericula. A* clykyt' occnrs in an English FooaMory., xr. oenl 
in Wr. Tocaba Tol. i. p. 203. Cf. Lat. tera, a moTeable bolt or bar for 
fastening doors, and tbe srricula is represented by the dicket still to 
be seen in some parts of Shropshire ; there is one snch now (1873) on 
the wicket which leads from Stokesay Castle into the adjoining 
churchyard. * Clykett, cUtorium^ davicula* * A clekett, cJavis* — Cath. 
Axo. ' Clyket of a dore, dicquette* — Palso. The French term diquei, 
in Low Latin diquetus, seems properly to haye signified a latch. 

• Pessulus versaUliSf Oall, loquei.' — Due. 

Thus the gloss {temp. Ed. IL) Qautier de Bibelesworth {dose of zm, 
cent.) renders it — 

' Par diket et cerure (laoche and hok). 
Ert la mesoun le plus sure.' 

Arund. MS. 220/. 302 h. 

Chaucer, however, uses the word in the sense that is here given to 
it, * davictday a lytel keye.' — Ortus. Thus in the Merchants Tale — 

' . . . . he wold suifre no wight bere the key, 
Sauf he himself * for of the smal wiket, 
He bare alway of silver a dikei.* 

Prompt. Parv, and Notes. 

'Statuentes quod in ostio domus librarise sit una serura dikat 
Tulgariter nuncupata, de qua quilibet socius dicti nostri Begalis Col- 
legii habeat clavcm unam : quod quidem ostium singulis noctibus 
serari volumus.' — From chap. Ix. of the Statutes given to King's 
College^ Cambridge, by the Founder, King Henry VL, in the year 

(2) v. a., obsols, to fasten the wooden latch of a door by inserting 
a peg above it, thus preventing it from being raised. — Chuhch 
Stbetton. Wooden latches of the kind referred to, at one time 
common throughout Shropshire, are now [1873] fast disappearing. 
They are raised on the outer side of the door by the simple expedient 
of pulling a string which is fastened to the latch within, and passed 
through a hole in the door. 

(3) sh. the valve of a pump.-— Craven Arms, Stokesay, Cf . Olack (3). 

(4) Same as Cleat, q. v. — Ludlow, Deepwood^ Bromfield. 

(5) sh. a thin board, having four or five small arched apertures^ 

Cced before the mouth of a hive in the winter months to protect the 
s fram mice or other vermin. — Pitlverbatch ; Craven Arms. 

(6) V. a. to protect the hives by means of a dicket, 'Han 'ee 
dicketed the bees ? *— Pulverbatch ; Craven Arms. 

CLIES [klei'ur*], v. a. and adj.,, clear. Com. 'Hanna yo' 
diered them things away yet *f" 

CLIEBINOS [klei'urinz], sb., oba. the middle quality of dressed 
hemp or flax, between the fine tow and the 'noggs' or *hurds.' — 
Pulverbatch. *The waiver^s made rar* cloth o' the dierins; I'll 
xnak* the lads some shirts — ^they donna want a scrattin' pwust.' 

CLDTKEB [kling'kur'j, (1) sb. a cinder of iron dross, composed of 
a small proportion of iron mixed with earthy impurities. — Colliery; 
M. T. 


' The colliers are coming here, 
Is still the talk and tattle ; 
Eor they have left their cinder-hills, 
Where clinkers sore did rattle.* 

The Battle of Chirk Bank, a ballad published 

by B. Minahnll, Oswestry, Jan. 4th, 1831. 

Byegonesy August 16, 1876. See Cavaldry. 

(2) a&. a hard, incombustible cinder of coal. Com. ' I dunna like 
Short Hill coal, ifs so full o' clinkers. Now the Arscott coal bums 
away to ess, an' yo'n done 66th it.' 

(3) V. n. Coals are said to clinker when they cake firmly together 
in burning. —Colliery; M. T. 

(4) sh. a smart blow. Com. ' Fatch 'im a clinker i' the mouth.' 

(5) «&., obsols. a nail used by shoemakers for protectiDg the toes of 
heavy boots. Com. A clinker has a rectang^ar head, curyed at the 
extremity, so as to lie close to the toe leather. Half a dozen of these 
nails are required for a boot, but steel * tips ' are generally superseding 
them. ' TeU the cobbler to p&t some clinkers at the nose o' them 
boots, or they'n soon be spurred out playin' at marvils.' 

CLmiLUK HILLS, sb. pL high heaps of iron dross cinders. — 
Colliery; M. T. See Clinker (1). The * Clinker hill riots,' which 
took place near Wellington, in Feb. 1821, are still remembered as a 
matter of local history. The colliers rose in opposition to the iron- 
masters on a reduction of their wages, assemblmg between Dawley 
and Malin's Lee to the number of about 3000, with the intention of 
injuring and stopping yarious works. The Yeomanry were called 
out under the command of Lieutenant-Col. Cludde — a fray ensued ; 
the colliers occupied the clinker hillsy and hurled stones and clinkers 
on the cavalry, seriously hurting some. The cavalry fired upon the 
colliers, killed two, and severely wounded others. TJitimatelv several 
were made prisoners and committed to take their trial at the Salop 
spring assizes, March 25th, 1821. Sentence of death was passed upon 
two ; one, however, was reprieved, the other was hanged on the 7th 
of April following. The rest, nine in number, were imprisoned for a 
term of nine months, with hard labour. A detailed account of the 
' riots,' given in the Salopian Journal of Feb. 7th, 1821, was reprinted 
in Shreds and Patches, August 2nd, 1876. 

CLIP [klip-], (1) V. a. to embrace; to fondle. Com. 

' ft whan |»e sunne gan here schewe * ft to schine bri^t, 
)>e hende & hinde * bi-gunne to a- wake, 
ft maden in-fere ^e mest murj^e * )>at man mi^t diuise, 
wi)? clipping ft kessing ' and contenaunce fele, 
ft talkeden bi-twene * majoi tidy wordes.' 

WiUiam o/Faleme, 1. 3076. 

< He kisseth hire, and dippeth hire ful ofL' 

Chaucer, C. T., L 10,287. 

Mar, ' 0, let me dip ye 

Li arms as sound as when I woo'd.' 

Coriolanus, 1. vi 29. 
A.S. dffppan, to embrace ; clasp ; clip. 


(2) f;. a. to cut wool, as of a sheep ; or hair, as of hones, &a Com. 

* And sleping in Mr barme yp-on a day 
She made to clipve or shore nis heer awey.' 

Chauceb, B. 3257 (Siz-text ed.), Skeat. 

* Clyppyn, Tondeo* Clyppynge, Tontura, A dippynge howse, ion- 
«oriu/7i. — Cath. Ako. In Norfolk to dip signifies now to shear sheep, 
and the great annual meeting at Holkham was commonly termed the 
Holkham clip or clipping. Eorby. — Prompt, Parv. and Notes. 

Icel. klippay to chp, cut ; klippa hdr^ to cut hair. 

(3) sh, the quantity of wool from the shearing of a flock. — Cleb 
Hills. Qy. com. * Whad sort on a dip han 'ee *ad this 'ear ? ' ' Oh, 
mighty middling thank yo\' 

(4) sb. a ' clamp ' of iron perforated at each end. It is app^lied as a 
bandage to a weak or fractured part of an implement ; wire is passed 
through the holes at the ends to draw it up to the requisite degree of 
tightness. — Pulyerbatch. Qy. com. *Tak' them twins down to 
the blacksmith's shop, an' '&ye a bit of a dip put on, or else yo'n be 
losin' the tines.' 

' 1594. It thorns adderton for three dypea of iron for settynge to the 
newe pylpitt "vj*.* — Churchwarden* s Accounta of the Abbeys Shrews- - 

CLIP-ME-TIGHT, sh, the scapula of a fowl, with the coracoid bone 
attached.— Cle£ Hills. Cf Lucky-bone. 

CLIPFHTG THE CHTJECH. See Bk. II., Folklore, &c., ' Customs 
connected with Days and Seasons ' (Shrove Tuesday), 

CLOD [klod*], sb, shale found in the coal-measures. — Colubbt; 
M. T. See Coal-Field. Cf . Clunch. 

CLOD-COAL, sb, one of the lowest coal-seams ; a good smelting coaL 
— Collieby ; M. T. See Coal-Field. 

CLOD-MALL [klod-maull, (1) sb,, obs,'i a large wooden hammer 
employed for oreaking clods. — Pulvbrbatch. 

* Then eyerv man had a nudly 
Syche as thei betyn dotty a withaU.' 

Huntyng of the Eare, U. 91, 92. 

* A dottynge maUe, occatorium,* — Oath. Ano., in Way. 

(2) V. a. chiefly used in the participial form; metaphorically, to 
imply retributive justice. — I bid, *'E11 a 'is day o* dod-malling,* 
said a poor dying woman of one who had done her grieyous wrong. 

CLOG [klog-], (1) V. a, to steep seed-grain in lye or a solution of 
*blue vitriol,' in order to destroy the parasitic fungus {Pucdnia) 
which produces smut. — Glee Hills. Cf. Pickle. 

(2) ab, a strong leather shoe with a wooden sole. Com. "When the 
leather soles of such shoes are worn out, it is a general practice to 
have them replaced with wooden ones. The man who does this is 
called a dogger. 

• Clogga are shooes with thick wooden soles.' — Academy of Armory, 
Bk. m. ch. I p. 14. ^ 


(3) »h, a kind of under-Blioe worn by women to protect their feet 
from wet. Com. This dog consists simply of a thick wooden sole, 
the heel of which is usually *iron-claa.' Two leather straps are 
attached to the sides, which, being tied by a string over the instep of 
the wearer, keep the dog in position. Germ. ^otZy a block, log; 
klotz9ckuh, a clog or wooden shoe. — ^Wedo. 

(4) $h, a billet of wood fastened to the foot of an animal to prevent it 
straying far from a certain limit. Com. ' Clogge, Trunaia,* — Prompt, 
Farv, * TrunctUatiis, Plant. Clogged, or that weareth a dog:-^ 
Did. Etym. Lai. 

CLOG-FAIB-DAT [klog- faer' daayl, sb. S. Thomas's Day.— Bishop's 
Castle ; Clxtn. See Bk. n., FoUuore, &c, * Customs connected with 
Days and Seasons.' 

CLOOOEB. See Clog (2). 

CLOGOnTG. See Bk. II., Folklore, &c., ' Customs connected with 
Days and Seasons' (8. Thomaa'a Day), 

CLOXB [klom-], pret and part, past, climbed. — Shrewsbury; 
PuLyERBATGH ; CoRTE Dale ; NEWPORT. *'E domb up the wuk- 
tree after the ackems.' 

' That Phebus, which that shoon so clere and bryghte, 
Degrees was fyue and fourty dombe on hyghte.' 

B. 12 (Six-text ed.), Skeat. 

' So domb thiB first grand thief into God's f old.^ ^ 

Paradise Lottf iy. L 192. 

Dr. Monis notes the preterite domb as ' obsolete ' in his Historical 
English Accidence, p. 159. See Grammar Outlines {strong verbs). 

CLOVTESnrG rklon'tui'in], part. adj. walking with heavy, clatter- 
mg steps, as if caused by clumsy, ill-fitting shoes. — Shrewsbttry ; 
T^^ITGHTTRCH. *Theer 'e g66a donterin* 55th 'ia clogs alung the 

CLOS' [klos*], sb. a small field near the house. — Pclverbatch ; 
Clun ; Clee Hills. • Whad sha'n we play at P ' * We'n run 'ar* an* 
'oun's three times round Gittins's dos* afore the bell rings ' (Churton 
School). A field at Aston Botterell is called Dove-us-dw. 

' . . . also that John Qwale shall not have Gyns dose nor the 
Chyrche dose, as he has taken them to farm.' — PasUm Letters, AJ). 
1474, voL iiL p. 112. 

CLOSEM [kluzni'm], v. a. to grasp in a close embrace. — Weh. 
' They dosem*d out o' one another, an' wros'led together a good bit 
afore we could part 'em.' 

CLOTH [kloth*], sb. linen, in contradistinction to calico. Com. 
' To' thmk be'appen as I dunna know the difference twix doth an' 
calica, but yo' bin mista'en ; theer^s too many thrids gwun through 
my fingers in linen an' 5511en fur that : an' as to yore fine ** Union," 
it's neither one nor tother.' 

CLOUT [klou-t], (1) sb. a rough patch. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch. 
Qy. com. This term is more especially applied to cobblers' patches ; 
but a rough board nailed on to a wooden paling would also be called 


a cloui, 'Them owd boots binna wutb tappin'; but tak* 'em to 
Bradley an' axe 'im to ptlt a dout under the 'eel, an' then they'll las' 
a bit lunger.' 

' Better see a clout than a hole out. They that can cobble and doui 
shall have work when others go without.' — Ray's Proverbs, p. 89. 

' Spare none but such as go in clouted shoon.' 

2 K. Henry VL, IV. iL 195. 

See also Cymheline^ TV. ii. 214 ; also Joshua ix. 5. 

Glowte of a schoo, Pictasium, Palsgraye giyes the verb ' to cloute, 
carreleTt rateceller. I had nede go doute my shoes, they be broken at 
the holes.' — Prompt, Parv. and Notes. 

Sir Frederic Madden says, 'The verb is presenred in Belgic, 
Mutaen^ Muteren, to cobble or repair.' See Glossarial Index to William 
of Paierne, ed. Skeat, p. 262. As a verb, doui, to mend, to patch, it 
of frequent occurrence in tiie early writers, and some of the later 
ones ; as, for instance. Bums, 

(2) sb, a plate of iron going half way round that part of an axle- 
tree which works within the stock of a wheel. It protects the wood 
and keeps the wheel steady when rotating. — Pttlyerbatch. Qy. com. 

' The CloviBt or Axell-tree Clouts, the Iron plates nailed on the end 
of the Axell-tree to saye it weareing.' — Academy of Armory^ Bk. TTI. 
ch. yiii. p. 339. 

' A clowte of yme, crtMfa, erunta ferrea^ et cetera uhi, plate.' — Cath. 
Ano., in Way. Of. Hurter. 

(3) sh, a doth or rag applied to mean purposes : as a ' babby-e?oti<,' 
a ' diak-dout,* an ' OYerx-dout,* Com. 

' Ycrammed fill of doutes and of bones.' 

Chaucer, C. 348 (Six-text ed.), Skeai 

' And hing our fiddles up to sleep. 
Like hahY'douts a-dryin.' 

BoBEBT BxTBNS, Pocms, p. 29, L 22, c 2. 

' Clowte of clothe (cloute or ragge). Bcrutum, panniculus, pannuctd.* 
— Prompt. Parv. 
A.S. duti a little cloth ; clout. 

(4) sh. a blow. Com. ' I'll gie yo' sibh a doui yo* neyer 'ad*n, if 
Ion that agen.' 

' The kinges sons, kene and proud 
Gkif kyng Richard swylke a ner doui^ 
That me fyr of his heyen sprong.' 

R. Coer de Lion, L 768. 

' And radly raght him a dowte.^ 

ffuntyng of the Hare, L 174. 

({») V. a. to beat ; to deal blows. Com. ' Nancy Smith douted that 
chap right well for 'is imperence ; 'er didna spar "un, an' saryed 'im 
right an' all.' 

' C. Custance. . . . Come hither if thou dare, 
I shall doute thee tyll thou stinke . . .' 

Roister Doister, Act ii^*. so. iij. p. 65. 

Jamieson has, ' To dowt, to beat ; to strike— properly with the handa' 
Ct Du. kloisen, to strike on. 

yo di 


CLOUnVO-irAILS [klou'tin nailz], sh, pi. large square-headed nails 
used for strengthening the heels of heavy boots. — SHBEWSBimY ; 
PuLVEKBATCH. Qy. com. Cf. Clinker (5). 

' Wify his knopped schon * clouted full ))ykke.' 

P. PI, Cr.y 1. 424. 
Cf. Clout (1). 

CLTTHCH [klun'sh], sh, a species of shale found in the coal-measures. 
— Colliery ; M. T. See Coal-Field. Cf . Clod. 

Bailey has, ' Clunch, &Zu0-clunch, a substance which is found next 
the coal, upon sinking the coal-pits at WedTvuhury, in StaffordBhire* 
ed. 1782. 

CLTJT. See Cleat. 

CLUTTERED [klut'ur'dl, part, adj, clotted ; coagulated, as of milk 
or blood.. — Atghah ; Wem. ' That milk's gettin' dutteredJ 

' The dothred blood, for eny leche-craffc, 
Corrumpeth, and is in his bouk i-laft.' 

Chaucer, The Knighiea Tale, I, 1887, ed. Morris. 

' Orumeau de sang, a clot or clutter of coagulated blood.' — Cotobate, 
in Wr. O.Du. kldteren, clotter. CoagularcSTRAT, 

COAL-CAKES [koal kaiks], ab, pi. cakes of dough taken from the 
' batch' and baked in the mouth of the oven before the fuel is cleared 
out. Eaten with the addition of a lump of butter, tiiese cakes are 
excellent. — Cluv ; Clee Hills. 

COAL-FIELD, sb. The ' Shropshire Coal-field' possesses many features 
of peculiar interest, alike to the Geologist and the Mining Engineer : 
for the former there are formations of different 'strata,' beautiful 
sections, faidts and dykes, and effects of denudation,— while for the 
latter there are the varied characteristics of the coal-seams and bands 
of iron-stones. The names of the ' strata ' of the Shropshire Coal-field 
may not inaptly find a place in a Shropshire Word-Book, They are com- 
prised for the most part in the following ' section taken from a cutting 
m the Old Park Colliery, near Oakengates, which contains all the 
coals and iron-stones that peculiarly characterize the field, with the 
exception of what is found m the Madeley section,' added below. 











yda. ft In. 

Soil ... 





Loose Bock ... 





3 1 8 

Blue aod 


Bed Clunch ... 


Top Bock 
White Clod ... 



Brown Clunch 


Bed and Blue Clod 


. > . 



Carried fc 






Brouglit forward 

White Binds ... 

Blue Clod 

Brown Cluncli 

Bed and Blue Clod 

Blue aod 

Thick Bock ... 

Btron^ Blue Clod 

Stinking Bock 




Fire Clay 


Strong Binds ... 

White Bock ... 

Bed Clod 

Brickman's Measure 

Bough Bock ... 

Bough Binds... 

Dark Clod ... 

Dark Bock ... 

Bock Binds ... 

StrongClod ... 

Blind Bass 

Ballstone Clod 

Top Coal 


Slaty Measure 

Half-yard Coal 

Double Coal Bock 

Double Coal 

Yellow Stone Clod 

Yakd Coal ... 


Blue Flat Clod 

Pitdi of Casses 

White Flat Clod 

Bio FLnn: Coal 

Flint Bock ... 

Fenny Stone Clod 

STiNKiNa Coal 

Upper Clunches 

Silk ob Clttngh Coal 


Two Foot aio) Best Coals 

BAin)LE AND Clod Coals ^ 

Little Flint Bock 

LiTTLB Flint Coal 



• •• 







ydB. ft. 


yds. ft. in. 

29 2 


4 2 


4 1 





16 1 








109 8 



1 2 


3 2 




3 2 


8 2 


4 1 





1 1 


191 8 


4 1 







201 1 8 

1 2 






1 2 


1 2 

3 1 



211 2 8 

7 2 

6 2 


1 1 





1 1 


1 1 


240 1 2 




244 2 


244 2 8 


Wat^tct.-rv RwffPTnwa 

jda. ft 


Little Flint Bock 

3 1 

CrawBtone Measure 


Coal ... ... 


Crawstone Crust 

1 2 


Lanaukire Lctdiea CoAL 


Not worked. 

Bock, hard ... 





Wenlock Limestone underlies this at Lincoln Hill. 

NoUs <m the Shropshire Coal-Fidd, by T. Paetow, F.G.S., 1868. 

COAL-HOD [koa'l od], sb, a wooden coal-scuttle. — Pulvbrbatch ; 
Newport. * Bucket, saucepan, and cocU-hod.* — Audioneer^a Oatalogu/e 
(Forton Hall), 1875. 

C0AL-HAME8. The nomenclature of coal-seams is, as a rule, purely 
arbitrary ; but the $ame seam, after being once named, will maintain 
its title right through a coal-field, if properly identified according to 
relatiye position or mineral characteristics. The following list com- 

f rises most of the names given to seams in the N.E. Shropshire 
'ielda Such as haye the * prefixed will be found more especially 
mentioned under their respective letters in the body of the Qlossary. 

Places whebe wosked. 
.. Common. 

.. Donnington, £. of Lightmoor Fault. 
.. Madeley. 
. . Wombridge. 

Donnington, Oakengates, Dawley. 
.. Donnington, Wombridge, Oakengates. 
.. Dawley. 
.. Common. 

.. Donnington, Oakengates, Dawlev. 
.. Donnington, Wombridge, Malins Lee, 

... Donnington, Wombridge, Oakengates, 

Dawley, Madeley, Amies (near 

... Oakengates. 
... Donnington, Wombridge. 
... Donnington, Wombridge. 
... Madeley. 
... Madeley. 
... Madeley. 

... Donnington, Wombridge. 
*.. Oakengates. 

... Donnington, £. of Lightmoor Fault. 
... Donnington, E. of Lightmoor Fault. 

Maddey (not worked). 
... Dawley. 
... Dawley, Madeley. 
... Donnington, Wombridge, Dawley. 
... Madeley. 
... Dawley, Malin*s Lee. 







« Double 


* Flint, Little 

Flint, Big 
Oainey, Upper 
Oainey, Little 
Gainey, Main 

Lancashire Ladies 













Seaicb, Places vhebb worked. 

Sill, Lower „ ... Dawley. 

Silk or Glunch „ ... Oakengates. 

♦Stinking „ ... Dawley, OaJkengatea. 

Stinking, Small „ ... Donnington. 

Stone „ ... Donnington. 

Sulphur „ ... Common. 

*^op „ ... Donnington, Wombridge, Oakengates, 


Tow „ ... Donnington, R of Lightmoor Fault. 

Two-foot „ ... Donnington, Wombridge, Oakengates, 

Dawley, Malin's Lee. 

Three-quarter „ ... Donnington, Wombridge. 

♦Yard „ ... Common. 

COB [kob*], (1) sh. the chief; the leader. — Shrewsburt; Pulver- 
BATCIL Qy. com. ' Tum'a gettin' too big for that job ; 'e*8 bin cob o* 
the walk this lung wilde.' A.S. copp, the head ; top. 

(2) V, a. to surpass ; to exceod. — Ibid, The relation of any sur- 
>n8ing or improbable feat will often call forth, *Well, that cobs 
^oUy, an' Dolly cobbed the devil.' A.S. idem. Cf. Cop (2). 


COBBITS fkob'its], sb. pf., obsols, two iron bars having knobs at the 
upper end to rest upon the andirons : meeting at the opposite extremity 
on the centre of the hearth, they form a kind of cnidle for the fire- 
wood. — Clee Hills. 

* 1 Paire of Cobbita ' is an item of an inventory — of about 1758 — 
found in an old chest at Aston Botterell, in the neighbourhood of 
which place the term still (1873) lingers amongst the old people, 
though the things which it expresses are rarely to be seen. Kay 
gives ' a Cob-iron^ an Andiron,' as aa EsaeJL and Leicestershire word 
(ed. 1768). Cf. Andirons. 

COBBLE-VOBBLE, v, a. to rap on the head with the knuckles. — 
PuLVERBATCH. Qy. com. • 111 cobble-nobble yore yed, if yo' dunna 
be quiet' 

COBBLES [kob'lz], (1) sK pi, stones broken for laying on roads. — 
Shrewsbury. Qy. com. 

* Hie rudue, A" a cobyl-stone.' — Pictorial Vocabulary, xv. cent , in 
Wr. vocabs., vol. i. p. 256. 

A cobbledy road is a rough road. 

(2) tib. pi, small lumps of coal. Com. ' Put tuthree cobUe$ o' the 
fire as'll bum up quick.' Cobbledy coal is coal in small lumps, free 
from slack, and naving no large pieces in it 

COBBLETICTTT. See Bk. II., Folklore, &c., 'Games.' ' 

OOB-HUT [kob* nut], ah, the conquering nut in the game of Cobble- 
ticut, q. V. Com. ' Pll shewn yo' a cob-nut as 'as cobbed twenty ; 
it's as 'ard as bra2dl, an' 561 cob twenty more yet' See Cob (2). 

COCKAMEG fkok'u'meg], sh, a short prop at an oblique angle from 
the roof of the mine to the top of the ' sprag,' used whilst ' holing' 
where coals are tender.— Collibrt; M. T. ^ Sprag (4). 


COCKER [kok'ur'], sb.^ ohsols. a sock ; a short stocking. — Shrbws- 
BX7KY ; PuLVEBBATCH. * How old ifl the child P ' • Oh, 'er*8 on*y a 
little iin ; 'er inna-d-out o' cockers yet.' 

* And cast on me my clothes * ydouted and hole, 
My coheres and my coffes ' for colde of my nailles.' 

Piers PL, Text B., pass, vi 1. 62. 

' Cokeres, short woollen socks or stockings, without feet, perhaps 
worn as eaiters. A.S. cocer, a sheath; Du. koker, 9, sheath; a case; 
a quiver. — Olossarial Index to Text B., small ed«, Skeat 

COCKET [kok-i't], adj\ saucy; pert; petulant. — Shrewsbury; Pul- 
YERBATCH. Qy. Com. * Yo* nee'na be so cockit about it. I toud yo' 
fur yore own good — but yo'n fine it out.' 

COCKHEAD fkok'ed], sb. the top part of the spindle which carries 
the upper mill-stone in a flour-mill ; this stone rests on a pivot on the 
top of the cockhead. Com. The lower mill-stone is stationary on a 
frame of iron or wood : the spindle goes through the centre of it. See 
Bash (1). 

COCKSCOMB [kok-skiim], sb, Ehinanthus Grista-GdUl, common 
Yellow-rattle. — Oltjn ; Much Wenlock. The country folk consider 
that when the seeds of this plant rattle in their capsules it is time to 
mow the hay-grasa C£ Battle-boz. 

C0CK*8 EGO [kok-8 egl, sb, an abortive egg. — Pulverbatoh; 
WoBTHEN. See Bk. II., Folklore, &c., 'Superstitions concerning 
Birds and Eggs.' 

COCKSHUT [kok-shaet], sb. a long, rough, steep field. — Ludlow. In 
the same neighbourhood a wood is often called cockshut. As a place- 
name the term occurs repeatedly in the nomenclature of Shropsnire. 

CODLOCKS Fkod-luks], sb. pi. small pieces of coal or stone. — 
CoLUEBY ; M. T. See Craws of Iron-stone. Qt Cobbles. 

COFEB [koa'fur'], sb. a chest ; more especially one used in stables to 
hold com for the horses. — Shrewsbury; Pulverbatch; Worthen; 
Ellesmere. ' I fund out w'eer the eggs goen ; theer wuz sixteen 'id 
imder the com i' the cofer. Turn may well a the Maister's 'ackney fat I ' 

•Cofur, cisia.* — Prompt, Parv, Capsa, glossed co/er, occurs in a 
Metrical Vocabulary (perhaps), xiv. ceniy m Wr. vocabs., voL i. p. 

O.Fr. co/re, cofin; panier; oorbeiUe; de cophintts. — Bub. Cf. Bin 
(2) ; also Cub (1). 

COiJGLE [kog'l], V. n. to be shaky, as of a rickety piece of furniture. 
— Shrewsbury. Qy. com. * Dear 'eart I 'ow this table coggles ; it's 
Bwilkered my tay all o'er the cloth.' 

COOS [kog'z], (1) the short handles on the pole of a scythe. 

' The koggs are the handles of the sythe.' — Academy of Armory, 
Bk.IILch.Yiii p. 322. 

(2) sh. pi. pieces of iron on a horse's shoe, to raise the heel from the 
ground. — Shrbwbbxjby. Cf. Corking. 


CODT [kwoin*, cmr, kwa'yn'], r. a., vat, pr., ohsA to coin. — Pulvbr- 
BATCH. ' I d^dna '&ye 'im, — nod if *e'd quine *is skm into g^ld — ^no 

COLDFIVCH, $h. the Yellow Ammer.— Whitohuboh. See Black. 

COLLAS-PSOTTD [kol-ui^ pi^oud], adj. restive : said of a hone that 
won't go steady in harness. — ^Newpobt. 

COLLOOTJE [ku'loa'g], v, n. to unite and plot together to the disad- 
vantage of others. — Pulvbbbatch ; Wbm. Qy. com. * No danger o* 
e*er-a-one o' them, tellin*, they bin all collogued together.' 'Aye, I 
dout they bin a bad lot.' 

< Why, look ye, we must collogue sometimes, forswear sometimes.* 

McUcont., O. PL iv. 94, in Nares. 

A blackguard smuggler, right behint her, 
An' oheek-for-chow, a chume vintner, 

Colleagtiing join ; 
Picking her pouch as bare as winter 

Of a' kind coin.' 

BoBEBT Bubns, Poenu, p. 10, 1. 34. 

COLLOW [kol'u'], ^1) sb. soot, such as is commonly seen on a fire- 
grate^ pots, or kottW Com. See Colly, below. 

(2) V. a. to blacken with soot. — Ibid. * Wy, Bessy, 'ow yo'n coHortfed 
yore &oe ! ' * Oh, no 'arm in a bit o' dane collow,* t^eople blade 
themselves with coal, but coUow themselves with soot 

Colwyd (colowde, P.), carbonatuB. ' To colowe, make blacke with a 
cole, charbonner.^ — Palsq. Prompt, Parv, and Notes, 

N. koUiy to black or smut with coal ; holui, smutted. Aasen. in 

COLLT [kol'i'j, ah. and v, a, same as Collow.-— Newpobt. 

* Nor hast thou collied thy face enough, stinkard ! ' 

Ben J 0N80K, Poetaeter, IV. v. in Nares. 

' To see her streaking with her ivory hand his [Vulcan's] collied 
cheekes, and with her snowy fingers combing his sooty beard.' — Ccdwn 
Britan,, B. 4, 1634. Ibid. 

Of. Shakespeare's * collied nigJit,' Midi. Nights Dream, I. i. 145 ; 
also Othello, U, iii. 206. 

COLLY-WEST fkoM' west], adj, and adv. awry ; out of the direct 
line. Com. * lore bonnet's stuck on colly "West, like a mawkin in a 

COME-OV, V, n. to grow; to improve. Com. 'Them yerlins 
eomen-on right welL' 

COME-THT-WAYS, phr. come here; an encouraging form of address. 
Oom. Noticed by Halliwell as occurring in Shakespeare. 

COHICAL [komi'kul], (1) adj. , pec. disagreeable; queer in temper. 
--Shbewsbuby ; Pulvebbatch. Qy. com. "Er^s a good-sorted 
d5man ; but 'er^s got some comical cornels in 'er temper.' 


a mug.' See Dead ICaa'a Fair. 

COMIC-STBirCK [komik str'uk], adj. strack with amazement. — 
Shbbwsbuby; Pttlyekbatoh. Qy. com. 'Dunna stand starrin* 
like summat eomic-9truck ; pi&t yore sliuther to it, an' 'elp 'im.' 

COIQITO-FLDOB [kum'i'n flur'], sb. the floor of a malt-house on which 
the barley is spread to germinate. Com. 

' A Couching Floore, a Floor made of Plaister of Paris, smooth and 
even, which no water will hurt, where the wet Barley is laid to come. 

' The Comeing of Barley or Malt is the splitting of it as if it oast 
out a Boot. 

' Wither it is to cast it abroad on the Kill Floor when it is come, 
that the comeings may wither away, and for the Barley to dry. It 
must be turned every twelve hours.' — Academy of Armory , Bk. HI., 
ch. iii. p. 105. 

See Goucli (1), also Witherina 

OOKR-JTPOiS'COVE, sb. ' peldor/ — see farther, Corlystone,— called 
cone^upon-cone on account of its crystallization assuming that form. 
Coixieby; M. T. Cf. Bog-roof. 

COVQITEA [kong*kar^], ab. a snail-shell. In the children's game of 
pitting snail-shells one against the other, that which breaks its 
opponent is called the conquer. — Shbewsbuby; Ellesmebe; Oswes- 
TBY. Qy. com. Cf. Gob-nut. 

COVSAIT [kunsai't], (1) ab,, var. pr. conceit. Com. 

(2) sh. opinion. Com. ' I hanna much conaait of 'er.' 

(3) V. a. to fancy. Com. 'I couldna eonaait to ate after that 
Mman, 'er looks so grimy.' 

(4) V, a. to conceive ; to ima^e ; to apprehend Com. ' Mother, 
Bessy Leach wuz at school this momin', an' 'er face is all red from 
the maides ; think I shall '&ve 'em ? ' ' Dunna yo' go to eonaait 'em ; 
think nuthin' about it.' 

' If any man conceit that this is the lot and portion of the meaner 
sort onely, and that Princes are priuiledged by their high estate, he 
is deceiued.' — The Tranalatora to the Reader, in Bible Word-Book, 
p. 122. 

COVSABH [ku'nsaaVn], vb. and ab., var. pr. concern. Com. 

COHSASBVEHT [ku'nsaaVnmu'nt], ab. concern ; business. — 
PuLYEBBATCH. Qy. com ' Bichu't wanted me to tell the Maister 
as the turmits wun gwe'in less faster than they shoulden ; but I toud 
'im it wuz no oonaarnment o' mine.' 

COHSABH TO', an expletive; a slight imprecation. Com. Cf. 

COHTBAPTIOVS [ku'ntr'ap'shu'nzl, ab. pi, all odds and ends; 
nnall matters. — Shbewsbuby. * Whad'n'ee lef aU them contrajpiiofta 
theer fur, messin' about P ' 


COODLE [kSSd'l], v. n, to get close together, as a flock of chickens 
does.— SHfiETrsBXTBT; PuLYERBATCH. Of . Coother. 

COOLEB [koo'lar'], sh. a large and somewhat shallow oval tub used 
in brewing. Com. See Tumel. 

COOM [kuom*], sb., var, pr, a comb. Com. A person flushed as 
from anger or drink is said to have ' raddled 'is cSomJ * I should 
think 70^ bin 'ayin' a spot o' rum i' yore tay, yo'n raddled yore cdcm.* 
The metaphor is borrowed from the reddening of the wattles and oomb 
of a cock when excited. Bay has, ' He's raddled,' in his Provtrhial 
PeriphrauB of one drunk^ p. 69. 

COOP [k:oo'p], Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch. [koa'p*], Clun, v. a. to 

tighten ; to draw in : a term of needlework. ' Anne, yo'n got one 

side o' this sem lunger than the other, yo' mun coop it in a bit or else 

unpick it.' 
* ^* 

COOTEB [kuo'tur*], eh., var. pr. coulter ; that part of a plough which 

cuts and forms the furrows. Com. See Plough. 

COOTH [kooth-T, «6. a cold. — Wbm; Whitchurch; Ellesmere; 
Oswestry. *That child's ketcht a oooth somew'eer.' A.S. eo%, a 
disease ; a malady. 

COOTHEE [kuodh'ur'], same as Coodle, q. v. — Glee Hills. 

COOTT [kuot-i'], adj., ohsoU. snug; comfortable; cosy. — Pulvbr- 
BATCH. ' Whad a nice c6oty bonnet yo'n got ! ' ' Aye, it's odds to 
whad a war*n now-a-days Mth thar ears all bar.' Of. Tutty. 

COP [kop*], (1) «&. the highest part of a * but ' in ploughed land. — 
Pulverbatch; Oorye Dale. AS. copp, the head; top; apex. 

(2) V. a, to surpass ; to exoeed.~OLEE Hills ; Ellesmere. ' Well, 
that 8 copped aU as eyer I sid afore.' A.S. idem. Of. Cob (2). 

COPPY [kop'i'l, fh. a wood ; a plantation. Cora. 

' This Oastle [Myddle] stood at, or in, the north-east comer of a 
pretty lar^ parke . . . On the south side there is a place called the 
Lane, which lyes betweene the Coppy (which was part of the parke) 
and Webscott grounds . . . The timber of part of this parke was 
long since falne ; but the timber of those partts which are called the 
higher parke and the coppy were fallne about fifty yeares agoe, and 
sold to Mr. Thomas Atcherley of Marton, and Thomas Wright, of Ihe 
same.' — Gough's History of Myddle, p. 29. 

COPSIL [kop'si'l], (1) sh.y ohs. a wedge for keeping the coulter of an 
old-fashioned wooden plough in its place and at a proper angle to the 
beam. — Wem, Hopton. The copail, or, as it was some times called, the 
cop-wedge, was generally attached to the beam of the plough by a 
shoil chain to prevent its bein^ lost. When it was taken out of the 
hole in the beam, through which the coulter passed, the latter would 
be quite loose and could be removed at pleasure for repairs. The 
copsil in fastening the coulter was vertical, or nearly so, to the beam. 
In modem iron-ploughs a horizontal cramp secured by a screw 
and nut on the opposite side of the beam fulfils the office of the old 
copni. The substance of the foregoing description was given by two 


old fitrm-laboureTS, who made their statements quite independently of 
each other, Decern. 1874. OopeiU of this kind fell out of use when 
iron ploughs became general, about 183d — 1840. 

Mr. Wright's edition of Piers Ploughman has a frontispiece copied 
from a coloured drawing on the fly-leaf of a MS. of Piers, PL in 
Trinity College Library, Cambridge, marked there B. 3, 14, the date 
of which, according to Mr. Skeat, is quite the end of the i4th cent. 
The plough depicted in the drawing has the coulter passing through 
the beam and secured by a wedge— an arrangement corresponding 
exactly with that of the coulter and copail as it obtained in the first 
half of the 19th cent. 

The sense of the term rop«t7 as given above is probably the primary 
one, from A.S. cop, top, apex, and «u7 or eyl^ a plough. A secondary 
meaning may afterwards have attached to it, and the word been used 
for any wedge or peg. * Two pair of Ootterells or Copsoles * are men- 
tioned in an Invnttwy . . . Owlbury Manor-House, Bishop's Castle, 
1625. Cf. Oottril. Handle Holme, after describing the parts of a 
yoke, says, 'He beareth Gules, a Cop-sde and Pin, with the chain 
I^endant, Argent, By the name of CopsoW — Academy of Armory ^ Bk. 
III., ch. yiii. p. 335. 

(2) sb. The term wpatl is given to the cramps on the plough-beam 
which, by means of screws and nuts, secure and adjust the wheels of 
the plough. — ^Ellesmere. An application of the old word to a 
modem usage ; perhaps an isolated instance. 

(3) sh, a piece of iron describing an arc, welded to the end of the 
plough-beam, perforated and furnished with pins, for adjusting the 
width and regulating the draught of the plough. Cf. Buck (1). 
In this third sense of the term copsil reverts to the etymology before 
suggested. It terminates the head of the beam, and is the * cop ' or 
highest part of the plough when working. In Piers Ploughman's 
plough the apex of the curved bea^n where the wedge enters appears 
to be the ' cop ' of the plough. 

COP-WEDOE [kop- wej], «&., oha. See Copsil (1). 

' Intersimfnium, glossed wegge^* occurs in the description of a plough 
and its parts in Metrical Vocabulary (perhaps), xiv. cent, m Wr, 
vocabs., vol L p. 180. Cf. Kay (2). 

COKD [kwur'-d], «&., var. pr. cord. — Church Stretton ; Clun. 

CORDWOOD [kwur'd ood], sh. the medium-sized portions of fallen 
trees cut into lengths, ana ranked in ' cords ' measuring 8 ft. long, 3 
ft. 1 inch wide, and 5 fb. 1 inch high. — ^Pttlterbatch ; Clee Hills; 
Bridgnorth. Cordwood is chieflv intended for charcoal, so when a 
fall of timber takes place the trunks of the trees are sold to a timber- 
merchant, the ' brash ' or small fuel is carted away, the cordwood is 
prepared. Then comes the charcoal-burner, makes for himself a hut 
of poles and turf, and remains on the spot till he has manufactured 
the rordwood into charcoal, — ^a ' ticklish process, wnich requires con- 
stunt attention day and night. 

* . . . Hee became a timber-man, and purchased all the timber in 
K(*nwick*s Parke [about 1600] . . . hee bought all the Oakes at I2d, 
a tree, and had the Ash and Underwood into the bargaine, but hee 
wanted sale for it. It is said that hee would sell wood for fewell at 



4d per waine loade, and because Hee wanted vent for Cordwood liee 
erected a Glasse-hooee to consume some of bis Oharooale, wbicb 
bouse is called tbe Glasse-bouse to this day.'— GouoH*8 History of 
MyddU, p. 140. 

Blount says, < A Cord of wood ongbt to be eigbt foot long, four foot 
broad, and four foot bigb, by Statute.' — OloMographia, p. 161. 

CORKlnO [kaur'-ki'n], sb. a piece of iron on a horse's shoe, to raise 
'the heel from the ground. — ^Pulyebbatoh : Bi8H0P*8 Gastlb. QL 
Coga (2). 

COBMLET Fkaur'Tnlet], «ft., var. pr, a great eater. — Chubch 
Steetton, Le Botiffood, Cormorant is evidently meant 

COSH [kauT'n], sb. wheats in contradistinction to other grain. Com.. 

COSnCEAKE [kau-r'n kr'aik], sh. Ortygometra erex^ the Landrail — 
Shbewsbuby ; Pulvbbbatch. Of. Iiandrake. 

' The bl^sfuU byrdis bownis to the treis, 
And ceisais of thare heuinlye armoneis ; 
The Comcraik in the croft, I heir hir cry; 
The bak, the Howlat, febjll of thare eis 
For thare pastyme, now m the ewinnyng fleia.' 

Sib David LTin>E8AT, Poems, ed. Fitsedward 
Hall, D.C.L., E. R T. S. 

See Bk. 11., FoUdore, Ac, 'Superstitions oonoeming Birds and 

COBVEDy part, adj. full of drink ; intoxicated. — Wellinoton. 

* Or eUes a draught of moyste and corny ale.' 

Ghauceb, G. 315 (Six-text ed.), Skeai 

* Corny, strong of the com or mali' — Olossarial Index, p. 221.— 

COBJfEL [kauT'nell ab,, obsols. 1 a comer. — Shrewsbury ; Pulver- 
BATCH. * Poor owd mon, 'e*s so bad ddth the rheumatic, 'e inna-d- 
able fur a day's work ; 'e's more fit fur the chimley oomW.' Bailey 
calls this an ' old word,' ed. 1782. W. comd, a comer; an angle. 

COEirEL-CTTBBEBT, sb., obeolsA a comer cupboard.— /5i(f. 

COBITISH [kauVnish], sb. a cornice. — Pulverbatgh. ' As theez^s 
two windows, I think it 66d be best to carry the comish all alung.' 

* Gomioe or Cornish is the top and over-seeling moulding on the 
top of a piece of Wainscot.' — Academy of Armory, Bk. III., cfai. iiL 
p. 100. 

COBNUTE [kaur'neu't], v. a,, pec. obs. to correct ; to chastise. — 
Pulvebbatch; Worthed. *'E's gettin' a despert srode lad; 'ia 
faither mun comute 'im, 'e tak's no 'eed o' me^' 

COBVE [kauVv], sb. a large round basket, bulging in the middle, 
and having twisted handles. It holda a bushel or more, and is used 
for general purposes, such as carrying turnips to cattle, chaff, Ac., dec 
— GoBVB Dale. Gf. Kype. 


COSTLY [kos'tli'], sb,, ohsols. a game at cards very similar to 
. 'cribbage.* — Shrewsbitrt; Ellesmere. Qy. com. This game, 
according to Strutt, is mentioned as Costly Cofours in the CompleU 
Oameiter, 1674. See Bk. II., FoUchre, &c., * Games.' 

C 33TBEL [kos'tr'ill, sb. a small keg or barrel for carrying drink to 
the field.— Bishop 8 Castle ; Clun. * The men bin gwine to the fild ; 
fill the two-quert eostrel for 'em.' * Hie colateraltSy a costrille.' — 
Nominah, xv. cent., in Wr. yocabs., vol. i. p. 232. 

* Costred or costrelle, grete botelle. Onopherum. . . . Costerdlum 
or eosteretum, in old French costeret^ signified a certain measure of 
wine or other liquids ; and a costrdl seems properly to haye been a 
small wooden barrel, so called because it might oe carried at the side, 
such as is carried by a labourer as his provision for the day, still 
termed a coatn'l in the Craven dialects.' — Prompt, Farv. and Notes, 

C£ BotUe (1). 

COTE [koat'j, sb. a hovel, frequently made of gorse or ling — erected 
for the shelter of animals out at grass. Com. * Put them yerlius i' 
the cote leasow, an' some dry litter i' the foud ; theer'll be a snow afore 


' 1588. One Richard Reynolds of Barley, near Cockshut in this 
county [Salop], was on the 19th day of July, being the second da^r of 
the assize, put into the Pillory at Shrewsbury, by order of the Privy 
Council, and had both his ears cut off by I&chard Stubbs, then 
appointed by the Bailiffs to be executioner. His crime was setting 
fire to a sheep-cote of one Ghtmmer, his brother-in-law, wherein was a 
great numbBr of sheep, and aU burned.' — PHTTiLip'a History of 
Shrewsbury, p. 200. 

' per sat is ship up-on )>e sond. 
But grim it orou up to \>e lend ; 
And )>ere he made a litel cote. 
To hun and to hise flote.' 

Havekk the Dane, L 737. 

\Qod hath swich fauour sent hir of his grace, 
That it ne semed nat by lyklinesse 
That she was bom and fed in rudenesse. 
As in a cote or in an oxe-stalle. 
But norished in an emperoures halle.' 

CHAT7CEB, B. 398 (Six-text ed.), Skeat 

' And leam'd of lighter timber, cotes to frame. 
Such as might save my sheepe and me fro shame.' 

The ShephearcTs Calender, December, st. xiii, ed. 1617. 

' Sec, Brother, , . . Might we but hear 

The folded flocks penn'd in their wattled cotes,* 

Milton, Comus, 

A.S. cot; O.Dutch, hate; *casa,'* cote. — Strat. 

COTHEB [kudhur'], v, n, to bustle ; to fuss.— Wbm. * Whad's 'er 
come 'ere fur, cotherin* an' messin' about ? ' 

COTTER [kot'ui^], (1) v, a, to mend up old gaiments. — Clun; 



Ellesmebe. * I maun git that owd gownd an' cotter it np ; it*ll do 
for me to war w*en the weather gets warmer, wunna-d-it P 

(2) Bb, same as Cottril, below. — Wbm. 

COTTBIL [kotT'il], (1) sh, an iron pin passing through a shutter, 
and fastened on the inside by a peg fitting into a hole at the end. — 


* . . . tow paire of CotlerelU or Copsoles.' — Inventory . . . Owlbury 
Manor-house, Bishop's Castle, 1625. 
Cf. Copsil (1). 

(2) V. a. to fasten by means of a cottrtl, — Ibid. ' Han yo' made the 
door an' cottrilled the shutter ? ' 

COTTCH [kuoch'], (l) eh. a bed of barley when germinating for malt 

* If the grain be of a dark colour, and many corns haye brown ends, 
we judge them to haye been heated in the mow, and they seldom 
come well in the antch,* — Aubreys WiUB, M8. Royal Soc., p. 304, 
in Hal. 

* Couch the Barley is to take it out off the wet and lay it on the 
Flooer a foot thick, for as large a compass as the Weeting will contain.' 
— Academy of Armory^ Bk. III., ch. iii. p. 105. 

(2) sb, a bed of any kind of grain. — Chubciz Stbettok; Cleb 
Hills. Fr. couche, layer; stratum. — Chahb. 

(3) «5., ohaoU, a fourth swarm of bees from one hiye. — ^Nkwpobt. 
See Bunt (2). 

(4) v. 71. to stoop low down ; to cower ; to crouch. Com. ' I know 
that lad's after the eggs ; 'e wuz dSochin* imder the 'ay-stack isterday.* 

' & |>at witty werwolf * went ay bi-side, 
& kouchid him ynder a kragge ' to kepe l^is two bens.' 

William o/PaUme, L 2240. 

* Sec, Lord, He can come no other way but by this hedge-comer. 

. . . But couch, ho ! here he comes.'— ^^Ta Well that End$ Well, 
IV. i. 24. 

O.Fr. colche; couche, [Lat] de coUocare, mettre, placer, poser. — ^Bctb. 

COTJLIHO-AZE [kau'li'n ak-'sh], sb., chsoU, a farm-labourer's imple- 
ment for stocking up earth. — ^Ludlow. 

COTTBAHT [kiir^an-t], (1) sh, a hasty journey; a quick walk.— 
PuLYEBBATGH. ' A pretty couranl I'ye 'ad for nuthin.' 

O.Fr. corre, courre; courir, se mouyoir, poursuiyre de eurrere. 
Corant, pari pr6s. empL subst. courant. — ^BuB. 

Der. ' oouranting.' 

(2) tib, an assembly ; a social gathering ; a merry-making. — ^Pulteb- 
BATGH. * They'n 'aa a pretty couranl at the christening— aboye twenty 
folks, beside the Gossips.' 

(3) [ku'r'an't], eb. a great fuss or talk about anything.— Cleb Hillb. 
' A perty courant 'er's made about it.' 

COTTBAVIIHO [kiir'anii'n], (1) part. adj. going about from pbuse 


to place gossipping and carrying news. — ^Pulverbatch. ''Er met 
fine summat else to do than gwe'ln courantin* round the parish. * 

(2) [ku'ran-ti'n]. See Bk. II., Folldore, &a, * Customs connected 
with Days and Seasons ' (5. Thomas's Day). 

OOU&TEJD CASD8 [koa-ur'ti'd kaa-Vdz], sh, pi., obaoh. the court 
cards of a pack taken collectively: a 'court card,' but so many 
* courted caids.'— Shbewbbubt ; Pulyebbatch. Of. Faced Cards. 

OOVEBSLUT [kuv'ur'slut], sh. a clean apron over a dirty dress. 

COW-CAP [kou'kap], ah. a metal knob put on the tip of a cow's 
horn. — Clux; Ellesmere. 

COW-CHAIHS, 8b, pL chains for tying cattle by the neck when in 
the stall. — Cbatek Abms. Qy. com. * Three dozen cow-chains in 
lota,'— Auctioneer's Catalogue (Longville), 1877. See Cow-ties. C£ 

COWCOOMEB, COWCTJMBES [koa'k55mur^], Shrewsbury ; Pul- 
TERBATCH. [kou'kumbur^], Com. ; sb,, var. pr, a cucumber. 

COWD [koud*], adj. cold. Com. 

COWESSLOP, COWSLOP [kouhVslop], Shrewbburt; PulveRt 
BATCH, [kou'slop], WoRTHEN, sb,, var, pr. Primula veris, common 
Cowslip. * Frimeveyre ' glossed ' cousloppe,' occurs in The Treatise of 
Walter de BibUsuforth, ziu. cent., in Wr. vocabs., voL i. p. 162. 

COW -FOOT [ki'oufut, corr, ki'uuwfut], eb. SenScio Jaeobdka, 
oommon Bag-wort. — ^Whitchttrch, Tilstock. 

COW-LEECH, same as Beast-leeoh, q. v. — ^Wem. 

COWP [kou'p], 8b. a pen or coop for rabbits. — Craven Arms. Cf. 
Cab (4), also O.Dutch, kuipe, in Strat. 

COWPEB [kou'pur*], 8b., obsols. a cooper. — Pulverbatch ; Clun ; 
WsM. ' Missis, the cowper's comen to 'oop the tub/ 

'Item, to indyte a cotvper at Qeyton wheche slow a tenaunt of 
Danyell at Qeyton.' — Fasten Letters, a.d. 1451, vol. i. p. 190. 

* Hie euperius, a cowper.' — Nominale, xv. cent., in Wr. Tocabs., voL 
L p. 212. 

Couper, O.Dutch, kuiper, cooper. — Strat. 

COW-CHJAXESS [kou' kwaikur*z], sb. Briza media, common 

' Phawris pratensis is called also Oramen tremulum ; in Cheshire, 
about Nantwich, Quakers and Shakers ; in some places Cow-quakes.' 
— QerabdE's Herball, Bk. I. p. 87. C£ Quakers. 

COWS-AE'-CAUTES, ab. the flower-spikes of Arum maculatum, 
Cuckow-pint. — Shrewsbitrt ; Pulverbatch ; Worthen. Cf. Ladies 
and (Gentlemen. 

COW-SHASE [kou shaa'r'n], sb. cow-dung. — Shrewsburt ; Pulver- 
batch. ' The best thing as ever I met 65th fur bad legs is a cow- 
sham pfiltia.' ' Aye ; 'ow dun 'ee mak' it?' < Tak a 'antle o' wutmil 


an' as much eour-«Aam as 'U mix well together, an* pttt it on the leg , 
it'll Kwage the swellin' an* mak' it as com as a oowo5dmer.' 

' They say that ball's sheme is an excellent complexion, forsooth, 
to sot a fresh rosat or vermilion colour on in the ImJI of the cheeke. 
— HoLLAin>*8 Pliny, voL ii. p. 327. 

* Shorn is the Dung of Oxen and Cows.*-^Academy of Armory, Bk« 
n., ch. ix. p. 173. 

A.S. •cearn; O.Ioel. tkam; L.Genn. scham, dung. — Stbat. 

COWSLOP. See Cowertlop. 

COWT [kout-], sb. a colt Com. ' Piit the cowt i' the chains an' 
let *im g66 a bout or two, an' yo'n see 'ow 'e ossea' 

' Tet aft a raeged eowt^s been known 
To mak a noble aiver.' 

BoBERT BUENS, Poems, p. 37, 1. 37. 

COWTHEB [kou-dhur'], r. a. to chase ; to drive. — Church Stbbtton. 
' Hie after 'em, Bover I eowther 'em out, theer's a good dog.' Cf . 

COW-TIES, same as Cow-chaini. — Cleb Hills; Ludlow. Qj. 
com. *25 chain eow-Uea.* — Aiictioneer't Catalogue (Stoddesden), 1870. 

CBABBIT [kr'abi'tl adj., var. pr. peevish ; sour-tempered. Cora. 
* Our Maister's mighty crabbii to-day, 'e's bin on sence daylight.' Cf. 

' Or lee-lang nights, wi' erahhit leuks, 
Fore ower the aevil's pictur'd beuks.* 

BoBBRT Burns, Poems, p. 6, 1. 3. 

CKAB-7ABJI8 [krab vaaT'ji's], sb. the juice of crab-apples : said to 
be good for sprains. Com. * Ow*s Tummas ? ' * Well, 'e's laid by 
66th a kench m 'is ancler.' < Whad'n'ee piit on it ? ' * I pilt a pultis 
made 66th crab-varjis — ^theer's nuthin oetter to swage away the 

CEACKinJTS [kr'ak-nutsl, sb. pi nut-crackers. Com. * Han 'ee 
sid Jack's new cracknuU r ' Whad, 'is tith ? ' * No ; 'e's made a par 
o' cracknuU 66th a 'azel twig.' 

' Then for that pretty trifle, that sweet fool, 
Just wean'd from's bread and butter and the school ; 
CracknuU and hobbihorse, and the quaint jackdaw. 
To wear a thing with a plush scabberd-law.' 

Fletcher's Poems, p. 244, in Wr. 

CEAFT [kr'aft], sb., var. pr. same as Croffc (1), q. v. — Shrewsbury ; 

* For me, thank God, my life's a lease, 

Nae bar^iin wearing faster. 
Or, faith ! I fear that with the geese 
I shortly boost to pasture 

r the craft some day.' 

BoBERT Burns, Poems, p. 36, L 36. 

CBAITCHT [kr'aich-i'], (1) adj. dilapidated ; tumble-down. Com, 
< If s a bit o' good groun' ; but a terrable craitchy owd 'ouse.' 


(2) adj. infinn of health ; poorly ; ailing. Com. * Turn's wife's a 
poor craitchy pieoe-H&l'ays complaimn'.' 

CRAKE [kr'aik'], (1) v. n., to creak. Com. 

(2) V. a. to divulge ; to confess. — ^Wellikoton. 

r3) V. n. to murmur ; to grumble. — Shbewsbu&y. * Now, Polly, 
yo n a to g5d, so it's no use to crake.^ 

' And Craktn a^ejm >e Glergie * Crabbede wordes.' 

Pier9 PLf Text A., pass^ xi. 1. 65. 

(4) V. n. to ail ; to complain of illness. — Shbewsbuby ; Pulyer- 
BATCH. * I've got a despert sick 'ouse — three childern down o' the 
maisles, an' another beginnin' to crake,* This seems to be a yariety of 
eroakj in the same sense. 

CRAHE [kr'ai'm], sb, cream. Com. Quactumf with the gloss. 
crayme, occurs in a Metrical Vocabulary ^ (perhaps) xiy. cent., in Wr. 
vocabs., Yol. i. p. 178. See Piere PI, under Crude. 

CBAVE, CSAWV fkr'ain'], Oswestry, [kf au-n], Bridgnorth, sb. 
Ardea cinerea, the Heron. Cf. Yam. 

0SAHVABESBIE8 [kr'an-u'bae''r'i'z], sb. pi., var. pr. the fruit of 
Vacdnium Oxycdccoe, Cranberries. Com. 

C&AP, CBOP [kr'ap-], Pulvkrbatch ; Wbm. [kr'op*], Shrewsbury ; 
Craybn Arms, $b. the settlings of ale or beer at the bottom of a 
barrel, sometimes used instead of barm. ' Han'ee ever a spot o* barm 
as yo' can gie me, Missis?' 'No; but yo' can 'a some crap.' 
O.Dutch, krappe, crap ; refuse. — Strat. 

C&AP, «6. a crop, as of grain. — Ellesmere. 

' Twas when the stacks get on their winter hap. 
And thack and rape secure the toil-won crap,* 

Robert Burns, Poeme, p. 24, L 26. 

CBAPPIHS, sb. places where the coal ' crops out ' on the surface 
soil — Colliery ; M. T. 

CEATCH [ki^ach*], (1) sb. a hay-rack. Com. 

' )« stumest stede * in hire stabul tei^ed, 

durst no man him nei^he, 

ne be so bold of his bodi * on his bak to come, 
but euer stod teied in ^e stabul ' wi)) stef im cheynes ; 
'& queyntUche to his cracche * was corue swiche a weie, 
^at men nmt ligge him mete * & wateren atte wille.' 

William of Paleme, 1. 3233. 

' OnUches and mangers.' — Judianeef'e Catalogue (Six)dd68den), 1870. 
• Two sheep-erotcftes.' — Idem (Longville), 1877. 

* In stabulo sit presepe,' with the gloss. creecJie, oyer preeepe, occurs 
in The Treatise of Alexander Neekham, xii. cent., in Wr. yocaos., yoL i. 
p. 106. 

In the WicUiffite yersion, the manger in which our Sayiour was 


laid is called a cratehe (Luke ii 7). ' Cratche for horse or oxen, crSche.* 
-— Palsq. * Creiche, a cratch, rack, oxe-stall, or crib.' — Goto. Wat, 
in Prompt, Parv., p. 103. 
Cf. Crib (1). 

(2) »b, the rack-like tail-board of a cart or was^n. Com. ' John, 
turn down the crcUch o' the cart, an' fatch that bit o' trouse down out 
o* the Wite leasow ; an' tine that glat w'eer the ship gotten i' the 

(3) »b, a rack suspended from the ceiling of a cottage or farm-house 
kitchen, where the ' flitchens ' are kept or fire-arms placed. Com. 
' Yo' shoulden al'ays p&t the gun on th^ cratch w'en it's loaded — s'pose 
the childem wun to get out on it ; if s best to pfit it out o' thar raich.' 

(4) V. a, to eat heartily. Com. * Well, Tummas, 'ow bin'ee gettin' 
on ? ' ' I'm despert wek, Maister, but I'm beginnin' to cratch a bit.' 

CRATCHER, ttb. a hearty eater. Com. ' 'Ow does yore new mon 
OSS, YedurtP' 'Well, 'e's a right good cratcher; I dunna know 
much else about 'im yet' 

CBATEB [kr^ai'tur^], «&., var. pr. a creature. Com. 

CBAW [kr'au*], ah. the first stomach of a bird into which the food 
enters. — Shbewsbxtby ; Pulvebbatch ; Newport ; Ellesmerb. 
'Crawe or crowpe of a b3rrde or oJ»er fowlys. Qahus^ vesicula.* — 
Prompt, Parv, Cf. Crop (3). 

CKAWN. See Crane. 

0BAW8 OF ntOV-STOHE, sb. pi, lumps of iron-^tone.— Colliery ; 
M. T. ' Clod mixed with large craws of tron-stone and codlocks found 
24th May, 1867, on the west side of Lightmoor Fault, between Ihe 
Tow coal and the G-ur coal.' See Codlo<^. 

CRAW-STOHE, sh, the lowest vein of iron-stone in the Shropshire 
coal-field. — ^CoLLiERT ; M. T. Craw^stone was described by a miner 
as * a hard, uncouth stone, much disHked by furnace men.' 

* In the ** CrawsUme iron-stone " has been found the fossil Unto or 
Anthra>coaia,* — Notes on the Shropshire Coai-Fieldj by T. Paetok, 
F. G. S. , 1868. See Coal-field. 

CBEEPING SAILOR, (1) sh, Saxifraga sannentosa. Com. Cf. 
Pedlar's Basket. 

(2) sb. Sedum acre. Wall-pepper. — Shrewsbury, Ujffington, 

CBEW [kr^oo'], sb. a pen for ducks and geese. — Pulvebbatch; 
^ Wem. * Dunna loose them ducks out o' the crew afore they'n laid, 
. else they'n dab thar eggs somew'eer as we sha'n never find 'em.' 

Bailey has * Swine-crue, a swine-sty or hog-sty. An old word.' 
ed. 1782. 

CBIB [kr'ib'], {\) sb. a receptacle for fodder u^ed in fields and in 
farm-yards for animals lying out during the winter months. Com. 
' I've put clane litter on the mwd, an' fiUra all the crxbs* 

< Six cattle fodder cribs, in lots.' — Auctiott-eer^s Catalogue (Longville), 

* Let a beast be lord of beasts, and his crib shall stand at the king's 
meeaJ —Hamlet, Y. ii 88. 


Cf. Is. i 3. * Crybhe, or cracche, or manger, Presepium,* — Prompt 

A.S. crihh; O.Dutch, kribhe; O.H. Gterm. crippa, crib.— Strat. 
Cf. Cratch (1). 

(2) «&. a lock-up; a bridewell.— Wellington. 

CSICKER [kr'ik'ur'], {l)sb. an itinerant dealer in coarse, common 
earthenware.— CoBYE Dale. Cf. Crick-man. 

(2) ah, a sorry old horse, such as itinerant vendors of earthenware 
often employ to convey their merchandise. — Pulverbatch. * Wy 
owd Jarvis d5dna own sich a brute as that for a ericker,* Cf. Xeffel. 

CRICKET [kr'iki't], sh a low wooden stooL Com. The cricket 
is rectangular in form, but longer than wide ; it is closed in at the 
ends and sides, and so stands as upon a frame, instead of legs. A 
curvilinear aperture at the top admits the hand for carrying it. PI. D. 
krukstool, a three-legged stool. — ^Wedg. 

CRICK-HOBSE, same as Crioker (2). 

CBICK-MAH, CBICK-WOMAV [kr'ik-mu'n, kr'ik-65mu*n], same as 
Crioker. — Shbewsbuby. C£ Tickney-man, &c. 

CBICKHET-WAEE, eb. coarse, common earthenware. — Corve Dale. 
Cf. Tickney-ware. 

CRICKS, idem, — Shrewsbury ; Clun. Cf. Crocks. 

CRIDBOW [kr'id'oe], sb,, obs.'i a person shrunk or bowed down 
from age, poverty, or sickness. — Pulvebbatch. 'Molly's gwim a 
poor ertddow sence Tummas died, — *e wuz a mighty tidy mon.' 

CRIDBOWED, adj,, obs.'i shrunk; bowed dowa,—Ibid, 'Poor 
owd Ben is criddowed sence I sid 'im. I can remember 'im a fine 
camperin' young chap, an' the best daincer i* the parish.' 

CRIFTER [kr'iftur*], sb. a small croft, q. v.— Worthek. 

CRIH*LY [kr'im'lin, adj, crumbling. — Shrewsbury ; Wbm. ' That 
thoer cheese is all crim'ly ; it'll never 'oud together ti'n yo' getten 
wham.' Cf. Crudly. 

CRIH [kr'in], sb. a small ravine in a hill. — Wem. ' I toud *im if 'e 
went alung one o' them crins as 'e'd be sure to come to it.* There is 
a spot between Lee Brockhurst and Hawkstone — a little ravine in the 
hills close to * Hollow-way-mouth ' — the site of a cottage called the 
Crin — * Morrises o' the CWn.' Fr. cren, a notch. — CoTOBAVE. Lat. 

CRUIJL [kr'ing'kl, sb. a very small, sweet summer apple. — Shrews- 
buby; Clee Hills. Hence a term of endearment to children. 
Mothers say, * Come 'ere my little crink or crinkie.* 

CRnrXS, sb. pi, small apples left on the tree after the general 
gathering. — Shbewsbuby ; Pulverbatch ; Wem ; Ellesmere. 
Alwavs in the plural, exC3pt that children sometimes say they've 
' fund a CTxnk^ or a crink-appW 


CBIF [ki'ip'], V, a. to cut the ends of the hart. — ^Pultibbatoh. 

CBIT [kr'it], 'eb. a cabin or hut on the < bank.'— Coluebt ; M. T. 

CKITOH [ki^ich*], same as Gasp, q. v. — Church Stbbttok. 

CROCK [kr'ok*], sb, a coarse earthenware vessel wider at the top 
than the bottom, haying a loop-handle at the side. Com. 

' And lemed men a ladel bugge ' with a long stele, 
^t oast for to kepe a crokke * to saue pe fatte abouen.' 

Pieri PL, Text B., pasa zix. 1. 275. 

A.S. eroe; erocca, a crock; pot; pitcher. Cf. Stean. 

CSOCK-BUTTES, 8b, butter salted and put down in a crock for 
winter use. Com. 

CB0CK-VEE8T-E0O, sb. an imitation egg of earthenware.— New- 

CBOCKS, sb, pi. coarse, common earthenware. Com. At Newport 
the finer kinds of earthenware come under this designation. A set of 
chamber-ware would be called ' a set of crocks J 

* [>ar ys also whyt cley & reed for to make of crokkes & steenes ft 
o>er yessel.'— JoHif of Trevisa (a.d. 1387), Description of Britain^ 
Specitn, Early Eng., xyiii. 1. 46. C£ Cricks. 

CBOCK-SHOP, sb. a china shop. — Newport. 

CBOFT [kr'oft-], (1) sb. a small grass field. Com. 

* |»enne schul ^e come bi a Cro/t * but cum ^ not ^er-Inne ; 
)ie Cro/t hette coueyte-not' 

Piers PL, Text A., pass, vi L 62. 

A.S. ero/t, idem. See Craft. 

(2) «6. a water-bottle for the table. — Shrewsbury : Ellesmere. 

<Water-cro/t and tumbler.* — Auctioneer'* s CaicUogue (Shrewsbury), 

Cro/t is probably a corrupted form of Fr. eara/e, the same thing. 
Bee Shreds and Patches, 3rd May, 1876. 

CBOODLE [kr^oo'dl], v. a. to crouch ; to shrug ; to draw together, as 
from cold. Com. ' Them cauves wanten thar suppin — ifs a djum 
momin* ; see 'ow they bin croodlin' thar four fit together, poor things.' 

(2) V. a. to cuddle ; to cherish. — Pulverbatch. Qy. com. * Theer 
dunna winnock, darlin' ; come to mother an' 'er'll croodU jo* a bit.' 

CHOP [kr^op'l, (1) V, n. to yield a crop or a harvest. — ^Pultbrbatoh. 
Qy. com. 'Them tatoes croppen welL' 

(2) See Crap (1). 

(3) Same as Craw, q. t. — ^Pulyxrbatoh ; Ludlow. A.S. crop, 

CBOPE [kr'oa'p], pret, crept. — Pulvbbbatoh ; Corvb Dale ; Clbe 

* Ac )h>w ^i-self sothely * shamedest hym ofte, 
Crops in-to a kaban * for oolde of ]fi nailles.' 

Piers PL, Text B., pass. iiL L 190. 


CEOPnr [kr'oa'prn], part, adj, rumbling in the bowels. — Corvb 
Dale ; Wem. ' Jack, what were yoa cracking nuts for in church on 
Sunday P ' < Please, ma'am, theer wuz a lady as sat afore me as wua 
croptV so, — I cracked the nuts as *er shouldna be 'eard.' 

GBOSS-CLOTH [kr'os'kloth], sK, obs. a square of linen folded croRS- 
wise, and laid on a child's head to protect the ' opening.' — ^Worthen. 
The cross'dothf together with the * skull-cap ' and * plucker-down,' 
formed the head-gear of an infant a century ago— 1770 — or thereabout. 
The akull^cap was a tight-fittinff cap of linen which went oyer the 
croBB-dcih; to this was attached the plucker-down — an invention 
designed to keep the child from throwing its head back. It consisted 
of two linen bands, which, beine secured to the cap at one end, were 
at the other fastened to the fidioulders of the child's dress, thus keeping 
the head in position. Cf. Brow-square. 

CB08S DAT, th« Festival of the Hol^ Innocents. — Pulvbrbatgh. 
See Bk. II., Folklore^ &c., 'Superstitions concerning Days and 

CB08S-WAX7HD ^r'os wau-nd], (1) part, adj. cross-examined:— 
PuLVERBATCH ; WEM. * 'E thought to get the saicrit out ; 'e ques- 
tioned an' erosB'Waund me all manner o' ways, but 'e missed it.' 

(2) €tdj. ill-tempered. — Ibid. ' To'n never stop yore 'ear out 65th 
'er ; 'er's sich a croM-waund piece.' 

CBOTJP [kr'ou'p], v. n. to caw. — Pulverbatoh. ' I shouldna *eed 
'im or whad 'e said no more than a crow crouptn'.' 

< Crocio, to erowp like a rauine.' — Duncak's Appendix EtymologuB, 
A.D. 1595, B. ziii. R D. S. 

CBOVSTT [kr'ou-sti'], adj. cross ; peevish ; irritable. Com. ' Yo' 
canna look at the Maister this momin', 'e's that cnmsty^ 

CBOXJT [kr'ou't], v. n. to beg with importunity; to crave. — Shrews- 
BT7RT; Pulverbatoh; Wem: Ellesmere. 'That 56man's never 
satisfied, whadever 'er 'as ; 'er keeps croutin* all the wilde.' 

CBOW-FIO [kr'oa* fig], sb. Sinjehnos Nix-vomiea, the Vomit-nut of 
Bengal. — ^Newport ; Whitchurch. * Somebody's gied the poor dog 
some erow'/ig, an' pisoned 'im.' 

CBOWHEB [ir'ou-nui^], sb. a coroner. Com. 

* Sir Myles Stapylton, knyght, with other yU dysposed persones, 
defame and falsly noyse me in morderyng of Thomas Denys, the 
Crowner.* — Pcuton Lettera/ A.J}. 1461, voLii. p. 27. 

* Firtt Clown. Is she to be buried in Christian burial, that wilfully 
seeks her own salvation ? 

' Sec. Cloum, I tell thee she is ; and therefore make her grave 
straight : the crovmer hath sat on her, and finds it Christian burial.' 
—Hamlet, V. i. 4. 

C&0WHES*8 QUEST, sb. a coroner's inquest. Com. 

* Sec. Clown. But is this law ? 

* First Chum. Ay, marry, is't; crowner's quest law.'— JSTomW, V. 
i. 23. 

CBTJDBIiED [kr'ud-ld], part. acy. curdled. Com. 


< CrtuUe (Job x. 10), to curdle, the form in wliich the word appears 
in modem editions of the Bible.' — Bible Word-Book^ p. 137. 

CSUDLT [kr'ud-li'], adj. crumbling : said of cheese. — Pulverbatch ; 
Wem. Qy. com. * How came this cheese to be broken so P ' * Please, 
ma'am, it wuz crudly, an' it tumbled all to pieces.' Cf. Grimly. 

CBTJD8 [kr'ud'z], sb, pi. curds produced by scalding the whey after 
cheese-making, and adding to it a small quantity of butter-milk. 

' . • . . bote twey grene cheeses. 
And a fewe Cruddes and Craym ' and a |»erf Cake.' 

Fieri PL, Text A., pass. yiL 1. 269. 

Curde (crudde), Coagvlum. ' Cruddes of mylke, matteB,* — ^Palso. — 
Prompt. Parv, and Notes. 
Cf. Fleetings. See Jowtert (2). 

CBJTK [kr'ak*], v. n., obs^ to sprout. — Pulvbrbatch. ^£ad 'arroost 
weather, John ; the corn's cruArtV sadly.' 

CBXTKS 0' HAUT, sb.^ obe.^ malt-dust— /5i^. See Coming-floor. 

CBITPTTIBED [kr'up-tyur^d], part, adj., var. pr. ruptured. — Church 

CBTDTO TEE MASE. See Bk. II., FoUdare, &c., 'Customs' 

CUB [kub'l (1) sb. a chest used in stables to hold com for the horses. 
— Clee Hills. Cf. Gofer. 

(2) $b. a boarded partition in a granary to store com. — Clun ; Cleb 
Hills. C£ Bing (1). 

(3) $h. a boarded partition in a malt-house where the sacks of barley 
are kept. — Clun. 

(4) «(. a pen for poultry or rabbits. It is a low wooden ' lean-to,' 
divided into compartments about two feet wide, each having a door 
and fastening^. — Shrewsbxtry ; Pulverbatch ; Clun. ' Han'ee p&t 
the chickens i' the cuby an' made the doors ? ' 

' A hen-house ; a place where poultrie is kept ; a cub.* — NomencL 
in Wr. 

Nares has ' To cub, to confine in a narrow space.' He takes it to 
be * a familiar corruption of to' coop.' 

* To be cubbed upon a sudden, how shall he be perplexed.' 

Burt. Anat. Mel, p. 153. 

CTOBEET [kub'ur't], *6., var. pr. a cupboard. Com. 

* In the greate Parlor, two CubberU, one Duble virginall upon a 
CuhertJ — Inventory .... Owlbury Manor-House, Bishop's Castle, 

CVCKOO'S BEADS [kuok-ooz beedz], sb. pi Hawthom berries. — 
Ellesmere. * We'n mak' a necklis o' cuckoo's beads if yo'n come 
alung wuth me to them 'awthuns.' Cf. Haws. 

CTTCKGO'S BBEAD AlTD CHEESE, sb. Oxalis acetoseUa, common 
Wood Sorrel.— Pttlyerbatoh; Clun; Wek. See Cuckoo's Meat. 


CVCKOO'S CAPS, sh. Aeonitum napdluSf Wolfs bane. — ^Wem; 
Ellesjcers. Of. Monk*8 Cowl. 

CXTCKGO'S FOOT ALE, sb., ohs, ale drunk by the colliers on first 
heating the cuckoo's note. See Bk. XL, VoUclore, &c., * Customs.' 

CUCKOO'S MATE, sh. Tunx tarquUla, the Wryneck. — Bridonorth. 
This bird appears about the same time as the cuckoo, hence its name 
of Cuckooes Mate. 

CUCKOO'S MEAT, sh, Oxalis aeeiosdla, — Shrewsbury. 

' Wood Sorrell, or Cuckow Sorrell, is called in Latine Trifdlium 
' aedaaum; the Apothecaries and Herbalists call it AlMuva and PanU 
Cuculi^ or Cuckowes meaUy because either the Ouckow feedeth thereon, 
or by reason when it springeth forth and floureth the Cuckow singeth 
most, at which time also AlUluya was wont to be sung in Chunmee.' 
— Gerarde's HerbaU, Bk. ii. p. 1202. 
Cf. Alleluia. 

CUCKOO'S SHOE, sb. Viola eanina, Dog-violet.— Worthbn. 

CUCKOO'S SOUR, ^. Oxalis ore/oseZZa.— Fulyerbatch. 

' Trifolium^ geaoes-sure, vel ^ri-lefe, occurs in Archhp. JSlfric*9 
Vocabulary, z. cent. ; and Mr. Wright says in a footnote, ' Oeaces-sure 
or gceces^Bure, literally cuckoo* s-iour, was the plant we now know by 
the name of wood sorrel, which is still called in some parts of the 
country cuckoo sorrel,* — See Voeahs,, yol. i. p. 30. 

CUCKOO'S SPIT, sb. the frothy substance found upon hawthorn 
twigs, &c„ which contains the small green larva of Cicado spumaria. 
It is popularly believed to be the expectoration of the cuckoo. Com. 

CUCKOO'S STOCKIHOS, sb. Lotus comiculatus, common Bird's-foot- 
trefoil. — Craven Arms, Siokeaay. 

CULLOW [kuol'oel adj.^ obs,1 pale ; wan ; dejected. — Pulverbatch. 
* Poor Betty, the dairy-maid, looks des|)ert cuUow sence 'er's married, 
dunna-d-'er P ' ' Aye, aye, 'er dunna lick the crame-mundle now.' 

CULLIHOS [kul'inz], sb. pL. the residue, as of a flock of fatted 
sheep, of which tne best have been picked out. — Cleb TTtt.ta 
'Maister, them's cullin^s, they ddnna do for me.' 

' Those that are big'st of bone I still reserve for breed ; 
My callings 1 put off, or for the chapman feed.' 

Drayt., Nymph., vL p. 1496, in Wr. 

' CuUynge^ or owte sohesynge. Stperacio, Segregado.* — Prompt. 

CUMMUDOEOH [ku'muj'i'n], arlj., niggardly; parsimonious ; 
closa — Pulverbatch. ' Whad sort o' folk bin them comen to the 
New Farm ? * ' Well, they bin aueer cummudgton sort o' folk ; they 
bin gwetn to get 'arroost in 5dth Dutter-milk, so yo' met'n know w'eer 
they comen from.' 

CXTKOIT [ku^j'it], «&., obs. a road in a mine driven out of the main 
road for the convenience of drawing the coals. — Colliery; M. T. 
Now called a ' drawing^road.' See ^pout-road. 


OuJXJViJlO-MAV, sh. a diviner ; a magician ; a channer. — Shrkws- 
bury; Ellesmere. 

' Smith, Well, Master, are you the Cunning Man f 

* Kitf. I am the Leameil Copernicus. 

* Smith. Well, Master, I'm. but a poor Man, and 1 can't afford 
above a Shilling for my Fortune.' — Farquhab's Recruiting Officer^ 
Act III. Scene. — ^A Chamber [Shrewsbury], 

Of. Wiae-man. See Bk. IL, FoUdort^ &c., 'Charming and 
Charms. ' 

CVBCHET [kur'-chi*], sh. and rft., var. pr. a curtsey. Com. As a 
verb curchey is not much used ; women and girls vtiakt or drop a 

* These moeke folke that meetes you in the streete 
Will curchie make, or shewes an humble spreete. 
This argues sure tkej have in Wales been bred 
Or well brought up and taught where now they dwell.' 

Churchyard's Pofww, p. 387. (* Of Shrewsbury.') 

CTTKLY-COAL, ab. coal which assumes a curly or conchoidal fracture. 
It has no particular position ; a portion of ordinary seams of coal will 
often present this peculiarity. Com. — ^M. T. 

CVALT-STOIfE, sb, 'peldor' or 'cement-stone/ assuming a curly 
fracture. It is composed of lime, silica, and alumina in yarious pro- 
portions, and is found generally in the strata containing the iron- 
stones. — ^CoLLiERY ; M. T. Cf. Cone-upon-cone, also Dog-roof. 

CTTSST [kur'st-], adj, wicked; bad; miBchievoas. — Worthrn ; 
Clun. ' '£'s a little curst chap.' 

• Be she as foul as was Florentius' love, 
As old as Sib^ and as curst and shrewd 
As Socrates' Xanthippe . . . .' 

Taming of tJie Shrew, I. ii. 70. 

' A eurs*d cur must be tied short.' 

Bay's Firwerbs, p. 94. 

See Curst, B. xii., R D. S. Cf. Shrewd. 

CITSH-COW fkuosh' and kush* kou], sb. a cow without horns. — 
Newport ; Wem. Such a cow is often elliptically called a eush. In 
the Swaledale dialect ctuh is a call-word to cows See C. L, £. D. S. 
Icel. kussa, a cow ; ktu, a call to cows. Cf. Moillet. 

CUSTABD-CTTPS, eb. Epilobium hirsdtumy great hairy Willow- 
herb.— WELLnraxoN. 

CITSTTTET [kus-tur't], «ft., var. pr. custard. Com. 

CUT [kut*], Shrehtsbury ; Ellesiterb. [kuot*], Newport, sb. a canal. 
See Cut, C. vi., E. D. S. 

CUTE [keu't], adj. quick ; intelligent ; knowing. Com. 

CUTS [kut's], sb. pi. lots; slips of unequal length, wbich, being 
placed within the hand, the upper ends only visible, are drawn to 


determine any matter at issue : eitlier the longest or the shortest of 
them is decisive, according to agreement preyiously made. — Pulyeb- 
batch; Worthbn. Qy. com. 

' Now draweth cut, er that we ferrer twynne ; 
He which that hath the schorteste schal bygynne. 

Anon to drawen every wight bigan, 
And schortly for to tellen as it was, 
Were it by aventure, or sort, or cas. 
The soth is this, the cut fil to the knight.' 

Chaucer, The Prologucy U. 835 — 845, ed. Morris. 

* Cut, or lote. Sors.* — Prompt. Parv. W. cwtws^ a lot. See Glos- 
sarial Index to Man of Lawt., &c., ed. Skeat. 

* Customs' [fkarvuA). 

DAB [dab'], (1) «& a slight blow, generally with the back of the 
hand. Com. ' If I'd a bin as nigh 'im as yo' wun, I'd a gid 'im a 
doh i' the month.' 

(2) 9h, a small quantity. Com. ' We'n a poor dnh o' butter this 
wik ; the cauves ta'en jest all the milk, an' the Maister says 'e 56nna 
'ave thar yeds broke 56th the chum-staff — so we canna '&ve it both 

(3) V. a. to set things down anywhere but in their right place. 
Com. ' Now dunna £ih that down 'af e way ; piit it in its place at 

(4) «(. an untidy, thriftless woman. ' Aye, aye ! a mon mun ax 
'is wife 'ow they bm to Hve, an' 'e's got a poor dah to 'elp 'im alimg.* 

(5^ tb, any turn of work done out of re^lar course. Com. ' Our 
reg'liur weah is every three wik ; but we bin often 'bliged to '&ve a bit 
of a dah between.' 

(6) adj, slight ; irregular; out of course. Com. ' A dah cleaning ;' 
a dah waah, 

(7) V, a. to do things, such as washing or dusting, in a slight, 
Buparficial manner. Com. ' Mary, jest dab me tuthree cloths through 
as*ll las* liU Monday ; it dunna matter bilin' 'em fur wunst.' 

DAB-CHICK, eh. Gallinvla chlaropus, the Water Hen. — ^Weluno- 
TON. Qy. com. Cf. Douker. 

DAB-HAHD, sb, a skilled band ; an adept. Com. ' I dout as I 
canna manage that job ; yo'd'n better ax Tum to do it — 'e's a dah-hand 
at them sort o' things.' Cf. Don-hand. 

DACKT [dakd'], »h, a sucking pig. — Shrewsbury ; Church Strbt- 
TON ; Ludlow. See Oall-worda, Pigs. 

DADE [daid*], v. a. to lead children when learning to walk.-^ 
Shrewsbury; Atcham; Pxtlyerbatgh ; Much Wenlock; Wem. 
' I'd rather dadt a child six month than it should lam to creep.' 


' Which nourish'd and bred up at her most plenteous pap, 
No sooner taught to dade^ but from their mother trip.' 

Drayt., Polyclh.^ song i., in Wr. 

DADIH0-8TBIH0S, ah. pi. the leading-strings by which a child is 
held up when learning to walk. — Ibid. ' 'Im a mon ! W*y 'a's 'ardly 
out o' the dadin*'8tring$ yit ! ' 

DAFFISH [daf *ish], adj. shy ; bashful. — Pulyerbatch ; Cleb 
Hills ; Wem. ' 'Er^s a mighty nice young ftdman ; a little bit daffish^ 
but that's a djel better than l>ein' too boud.' Compare with this, the 
following : — 

' The word daffte still [about 1200] keeps its old sense, humilia ; it 
has been degraded, like ailly (beatus).'~iSource0 of Standard English, 
p. 103. 

C£ also O.Swed. dof stupid. 

DAITOBOWlSrDILLT [daf -u*dou*'ndiir], sb. Psetido Narcissus, com- 
mon Daffodil. Com. 

' Strowe me the ground with Daffadowndillies^ 
And Cowslips, and Kingcups, and loved Tillies.' 

Spenseb, The Shepheard^$ Calender, April, 1. 140. 

DAO [dag*], (1) V. a. to sprinkle clothes with water preparatory to 
mangling or ironing. — Pxtlterbatgh. ' Send the onder's bajte to 
the leasow, an' dag them clo'es afore yo' go*n to milk.' * Daggen, 
O.IceL doggvay dag ; moisten ; sprinkle.' — Stbat. 

(2) V. o. to trail in the wet or dirt. Com. * Molly, w'y dunna yo 
'oud yore petticoats up out o' the sludge ; yo' bin daggin 'em 'afe way 
up yore legs.' 

DAGKJLE LOCKS [dagl loks], sb. pi. same as Bnrlings, q. y. — 

Ellesmere, WeUhampton. 

DAOOLY [dag'li*], (1) adj. wet ; showery — a daggly day. — Shrews- 
bury; Church Strbttox; Wem; Ellsssiere. Cf. Dag(l). 

(2) adj. scattered. — Oiats. Francis Rawlings, the old clerk of Clun 
Church, said that whereas the old men from the Hospital used to sit 
in a gsdlery by themselves, they * wun now [1873] daggly all about.' 

DAIBTMAID [dae'r'i'maid], sh. a post formed of a bongh, usually 
off an oak tree, with the smaller branches lopped to serve as pegs, 
upon which the dairy vessels are hung in the open air after being 
scoured. — Pulyerbatch. Cf. VeMel-maid. 

DALLOP [dol'up], sb, a quantity not measared — ^as of fruit or 
potatoes; a mass or lump of anything. Com. W. talp^ a mass; a 

DAH Fdan*], eb. a small tub used for drawing coals from the workings 
to the main road where the skips are loaded. — Colliery; M. T. 
Banning is drawing the coals in the dans, which is done by boys. See 

SAHOEB, DAHKEB [dangur'], Atcham ; Ellesvere. [dang'kur'1, 
Clun, an imprecatory expression of a mild type. ' Danger my neck V 
* Danker it wunst ! ' C£ Ko danger I 


9AHGM3WAHO [dang'swang], adv, vigorously; with might and 
znaiiL — ^PULYERBATCH ; Wem ; Whitohttrgh. * N0W9 chaps, gi56 at 
it dan^-noangy an' get the harlej cocked afore the je'ow falls.' 

A fjEirmer, comparing the mihtary prowess of Bliicher and G^eral 
Lord Hill, said to the Rev. E. Neyile, Yicar of Frees, * Lord Hill's so 
oool an' so cute, w^ile Blucher goes diing^vwang at 'em.' 

BAHEQIO [dang'kin], adj, loose; dangling; 'a dankivt coat.'— 

SASKS [dang'ks], adj. dwarfish : said of people. — ^Newfobt. CI 

SAHHIHO. See Dan. 

DAB, SASHA. See Oranunar Onflines verb Dare. ' 'It me if 70' 

<2ar; but yo' dama.' 

' For y doLT nomt for schame * schewe him mi wille.^ 

WiUiam of Paiema, L 038. 

* For which thou art i-bounden as a knyght 
To helpe me, if it lay in thi might. 
Or elles art thou fals, I dar welsayn.' 

Ohattcbb, T?ie KnigUes TaU, L 294, ed. Morris. 

' What's this I — ^I canna beai^t I 'tis waur than hell 
To be sae burnt with lore, yet dama teU ! ' 

Allan Eamsay, The Oentle Shepherd, U, ii. p. 27. 

DARK [daai^k], acf;., ohsolsj blind. — Pulyerbatch ; Wellington ; 

* This Richard Gk)ugh liyed to a great age, and was darhe twenty 
yecures beefore hee <fyed, and yett was yery healthful.' — Gk)UQH^ 
HUftory of Myddk, p. 96. 

Dryden has * a dark old man.' A.S. dearc^ dark. QL Bisson, 

DASKSOKE, (1) adj. dark; obscure; ill-lighted. — Shbbwsbubt; 
PuLYEKBATGH. < I thought the place mighty darlcwme after ours ; 
the windows wun little an the sailin' [ceiling] low, the beams aiunust 
touchin' yore yed.' 

'• . . • thence united feU 
Down the steep glade, and met the nether flood, 
Which from his darksome passage now appears.' 

Paradise Lost, Book IV. 1. 232. 

(2) adj, gloomy ; melancholy ; sad. — ^Pultebbatch. ' Aye, them 
wun darksome days — sorrow 'pon sorrow ; we wun 'bliged to lave the 
'ouse, an' the two poor little childem died'n, — all athin a fortnit.' 

DASH [jaaVn], v. a., var. pr. to dam. — Pulverbatoh. Qy. com. 
' I think yo'd'n better djam yore stockin's than mess at that croohetin' 
all day.' 

DASHBOABDS [dash-bwur'dz], eh. pi. upright boards put on the 
sides of a wagcon for the purpose of enlarging the interior body when 
required for a large load, as of lime, &c. — Ludlow. 

' Broad wheel waggon, with iron arms, thripples, and dashboards* — 
Audioneer*s Coikdogue (Stoddesden), 1870. 



SATTBEB [daa-bnT^, «&., ohsols. a plasterer. — Bishop's Castlb^ 
Walcot. CementariuSf glossed dawbcTf occurs in a Metrical Vocabu" 
lary, (perhaps) ziy. cent., in Wr. yocabs., toL i p. 181. See Way's 
note on dawber in Promj4, Parv^ p. 114. 

DAXTNTED [daan'ti'd], adj., pec, shy ; timid.— Nbwfobt. 

DAW [daa']y ah, fire-clay found on coal, giving it a soft, sticky snr- 
fajCQy and preventing its ready ignition. It has the appearance of 
moidd when dry. — WHrifHuiecH, TiUtock, * I oonna kind that fire 
this momin', the coal's aU over daw an' mess ; I never seed sich a 
thing.' Daw is perhaps merely a variation of daub, 

DAWHT [dauni'], adj, mouldy ; mildewed : said of hay. — Craven 
Abms. ' The 'a^s gettin' mighty datimy ; if s lain out so lung, an' 
theer's bin a power o' rain on it.' 

DAZE XT 'OVHDS [daaz* mi* 5onz], an expletive ; a slight oath. — 

' In the Third period [1260-1850] we find da\>eit, dahd (O.Fr. 
deihaitf dehait, dtheC) = ill betide» In subsequent writers it became 
da^y which has given rise to daat you ! d%9e ycu I da$h you ! ' — Du, 
MoBBis's HUtorical English Accidence [inteijeotions], p. 336. 

DEAD KAIT'S FAIS Pjed* monz faaVI, «5., o&t.? the fair held at 
Church Stretton on 8. Andrew's Day. It acquired this ominous name 
from the dreumstanoe, it is said, of the number of men who in 
attempting to cross the hills on their return home after attending the 
fidr, lost tneir way and perished. 

DEAF-EABS [jef * eer'z], eh, pi, the valves of an animal's heart. Com. 

DEAP-inJT fjef- nut], sh a* nut with an abortive kernel Com. * 'E 
dunna crack many djef-nuts* is said of one who has a well-fed 

' ' Janiieson observes that deaf signifies properly stupid, and the 
term is transferred in a more limited sense to the ear. It is also 
applied to that which has lost its germinating power; thus in the 
North, as in Devonshire, a rotten nut is called dea/f and barren com 
is called deaf com, an expression literally Ang. Sax. An unproduc- 
tive soil is likewise termed deaf.' — ^Way, m Prompt, Farv,, p. 116. 

DEA-HETTLE [dee* net-^l], sb, Lamium alhum, white Dead-nettle.— 


' Arc?ian .... de-netle.' — Semi^Saxon Vocabulary, xii. oent., in 
Wr. vocabs., vol. i. p. 91. 

DEAEN, DEtTEH [jaa-r'n], Pulvbrbatch. [draaVnl, Corvb Daub. 

Sdi*ur''n], Clun, adj.f obsoU, eager ; bent. * I Imowed 1 mun be sharp, 
or 'e wuz djam on it,' — i, e. bent upon having it A fair or market 
term. See Deum below. 

DEAB SOEES [dee-ur' soa'h'r'zl Pulvbrbatch. [dee-h V sur'z], Elleb- 
MERB, interj, perhaps connected with the Sacred Wounds in some fonn 
of adjuration. 

DEATH pcth], the common pronunciation. 


< 'Ere's a toast as the Veel rolls on ; 
Djdh is a thinff we bin all sure on ; 
If life wnz a toing as money could buy, 
The rich ddd live an' the poor ddd die.'^ 

SEATH-PnrCH [jetb- pinsh], sh.,oh8oUA a black mark in the flesh 
which looks as if caused by a pinch, but as a matter of fact arises 
from a diseased state of the blood. — ^Pulvebbatch. Marks of tlus 
kind are believed to foreshadow approaching death. ' Betty, jest look 
at my arm, 'ow black it is I I hanna 'urt it as I know on ; is it whad 
they callen a djeth-^nch f — ^gid me to prepar'.' 

DECK [dek'], (1) eh., obsoh, a pack of carda. — Shbewsbubt; Pul- 
vsBBJLTcn; Ellesmuhk 

(2) 8b. the cards played out; the * board' at a round game.— 
8hbbwsbubt; Pulyb&batgh. 

' Whiles he thought to steal the single ten. 
The king was slily fingered from the de^I ' 

3 K Henry F/., V. i. 44. 

SELF [delf *], sb., ohsoU, a stone quany. — ^Pulvkrbatch. ' Theer 
wuz a skimperin o* snow, an' the poor owd man missed the rack an' 
tumbled into the delf^ an' 'uri 'is-self badly.' 

In the Wickliffite version, 2 Chron. xxxiy* 10, the expression 
occurs, * stonys hewid out of )^ dduu (e)>er quarreris).' — Cott MS. 
aaud. E. iL < AuHfe-ddla, a gold (2e{/«.'— Yocab. Harl MS. 1002.^ 
. Wat, in Prompt. Parv.y p. 118. 

A.S. ddf, a delving ; a digging. Gf. Delve, also Btandelf. 

*I)ELP [del'p], wterf. a contraction of * God help/ used to express 


DELVE [del*v], (1) t?. a. to dig two spade's depth. — Newpobt. Cf. 


' Ck>nscience oomaunded l^o * al orystene to ddue, 
y^Tii^ make a muche mote ..... .' 

Fiera PI., Text B., pass. xix. 1. 361. 

* Where is more love, who hath more happie daies. 
Than those poore hynds, that digges and delves the ground ?' 

Ohttbchyabd's Poems, p. 113, L 8. 

(2) V. n. to dig and turn over the soil in a purposeless way, as 
children do. — Pin:.YEBBATOH ; Wem. ' Let the childem alone, they 
bin on'y ddvirC i' the on-dug groun', doin* no 'arm.' A.S. dilfan ; 
O.Fris. ddva ; O.H. Germ. Ulban, delve ; grave ; dig. — Stbat. 

(3) V. n., pec. to slave ; to drudge. — Pulverbatch. * Fm tired till 
I can 'ardly lug a leg ; I han to delae at them tatoes w'ile yo' bin 
runagatin' about after nuts an' slons, tarrin' yore rags off yore back.' 

DEHIAL [di'nei'hl], sb. detriment ; hindrance ; drawback. Com. 
' Poor Dick*s lost 'is arm i* the throshin' machine ; itll be a great 
d^avUd to 'im, but 'e met as well a bin killed.' 

DEUBH [jur'n], (1) adj., obsols.'i hard; stem; severe. — Pulver- 
batch. ' Yo' mun mind 'ow yo' dailen 65th 'im, for Vs a djum bond ; 

I 2 


to get a bargain onfn 'im is snxDmat like gettin' blood out on a cab- 
bitch stalk.' 

Compare dectm above ; the terms appear to be cognate and to be 
allied to M.E. derf, A.S. dear/^ JceL diar/rp firmns, duros, gravis, 
in St&at. 

(2) adj. , ohacU. ? cold ; biting. — ^Pulverbatoh. * GFood momin', Mr. 
Bromley; if s a mighty djum winde.' * Aw I yo'd'n think so if yoWn 
bin Veer I han— a-top o^ Big Huglith'; it*ll shave a mon clane 
athout lather or razzor. 

DEVEE [devTii^, (1) «6. duty.— Cobtb Dale; Ludlow. TH do 
my ciever, Sir.* 

• To prey Grenefeld to send me feythfully word, by wrytyn, who 
element Fasten hath do his dever in lemyn^. And if he hatiLe nought 
do well, nor wyU nought amend, prey hym tnat he wyll trewly bela^h 
hym, tyl he wyll amend ; and so ded tiie last maystr, and the best Aat 
ever he had, att Caumbi^ge. And sey Grenefeld that if he wyll take 
up on h3rm to brynge hym in to good rewyll and lemyng^ that I may 
verily know ke dotii nj» dever, I wyll geve hym x marcs for hys 
labor, for I had lever he wer fayr beryei than lost for defauteJ — 
Faston L€tter9, A.D. 1458, vol. L p. 422. 

Fr. devoir , duty. 

(2) V. n., var, pr. to try ; to attempt ; to endeavour. — Shrewsbttry. 
Qv. com. ' Fm afeard as I shanna be able to do 'em this wik ; but 
I'll dever to let yo' han 'em.' 

DEVIL [divi], ab, so pronounced when speaking of the devil per^, 
but in composition the word follows ordinary usage. See below. 

DEVIL'S BEDSTEAD Tdevlz bed-sti'd], sb., si the four of clubs, a 
card which is oonsiderea ' unlucky.' — Cles Hills. Qy. com. 

The Blanff Dictionary ^ p. 119, has 'Devil's bed-po8t» the four of 
dubs.' See Oapt. CHAJfiEB's novel of The Arethtua. 

DEVIL'S BIT, df. Scabtosa succisa, the Devil's bit Scabious.— 
Bhbewsbttby. The root of this plant has the appearance of being 
cut off abruptlv, or bitten [radix prsemorsa]. 

Gerarde calls it MoreuB Diaholi, Diueh hit, and sajs :'...• Old 
f antastioke charmers report that the diuell did bite it for enuie, 
Hcause it is an herbe that hath so many good vertues, and is so bine- 
ficiall to mankinde.'— See Gebabde's Herbal, Bk. II. p. 587. ed. A.D* 
Of Bluebeadfl and Gentlemen's Battoits. 

DEVIL'S CHITBJr-STAFF, ab. Euphorbia helioecopia. Sun Spuige. 
— ^Ellesmebe, Welsham'pton, This plant probably owes its name of 
DeviVB Chum-staff to the acrid milky juice contained in its stems. 

DEVIL'S COACH-HOBSE, ab. Ocypua olena, the Bove Beetle or 
Common Black GocktaiL--SHii£W8BUBY. Qy. com. 

DEVIL'S COBN, sb. SteJlaria hdSsfea, Greater Stitchwort.— 
Sheewsbtjby, UffingUm. Called DeviVB Eyes about Wrexham. 

DEVIL'S CUTBBT-COMB [devlz kiir'i' kuom], ab. Ranuncidtit 
arvensis. Com Crowfoot.— WELLmoTON. This plant is said to be 


extremely injurioius to cattle. Some farmers discosaing the merits of 
certain * stifE ' soil, one of them exclaimed, ' It's full o' tiie DeviVa 
Curry-comb.' * Yes/ said another, ' and the feJlows al'ays throw up 
the * * Beggar's Needle." ' 

Banunculua arvensis is a very common weed on all strong soils in 
Shropshire. Its extremely acnd properties have doubtless led to its 
association with the Evil One; his curry-comb being suggested, pro« 
bably, by its comb-like achenium. — Science Qomp, p. 228, Oct 1870. 

See Beggar's N'eedle« 

DEVIL'S OTJTS, eb. Convolvn^uB arvSnsis, Small Bindweed* — 
Shsewsbitby. The name of DemC% Outa is given to this plant from 
the circumstance of its roots running very deep into the ground, and 
being difficult of extirpation. Of. Barbiaie. 

DEVIL'S LOSTOJS, eb., obs. Devil's lantern ; the Ignis /atuua. Ct 

DEVIL^S KES AKD WOMEH, sb. the fruit spike of Arum 
maculatum, — Shbewsbuby. The red berries are men, the green ones 
women, Cf. Ladies and Gentlemen. 

DEVIL'S POST, ab. Allium urdnum^ Broad-leaved Garlic. — Pulveb* 
BATCH, Hanwood. It would seem that the horrible foetid odour of this 
^ant is thought by the rustic mind to be a fitting * bouquet ' for the 
Prince of Darkness. 

DEVIL'S SVITFF-BOZ, sK same as Blind-ball, q. v.— Welling- 
ton. This appellation may, no doubt, be ascribed to the snufE-like 
powder with wiiich the fungous is charged in its mature state, and to 
which very baneful properties aie popularly attributed. See Tuaz- 

DEW [dyou*], Shrewsbury; Worthbn. [ji'ou-], Pulverbatoh. 
[doo-], Newport, $b. * We'n 'ad a big jVou; i' the night, Yedart.' 
* Aye, a mighty big un ; we sha'n a a wnot day.* 

' And all the day it standeth fall of deow, 
Whidx is the teares, that from her eyes did flow.^ 

Spenser, Astrophd^ 1. 192, p. 561. 

DHTT-STOHE [deu'stone and joo*stwun], ab. basalt, of a black or 
very dark colour, quarried at Titterstone Clee. Dhu — ^the local 
speUing—is a mistake. Dhu =: W. du, black ; sable. 

DIBBDf-STICK [dib'in stik], ab. a setting-stick. — Shrewsbury; 
Graven Arms; Ellesmere. 

• Ferdifa. Til not put 

The dibble in earth to set one slip of them.' 

WifUer^a Tale, IV. iv. 100. 

DICHE [dei-chl, ah a ditch by a hedge^de. Com. ' It'll be no 
sich a job to clane that dicJie out, it's so o'er-growed wuth brombles.' 
' The Boll of the Court Leet of the Manor of Bromfield, Shropshire* 

for the 2nd October in the 4th year of King James 1^1607) 

At this court for avoydingj of conlroversies betwext Wm. Lane and 
Rich. Bevan : It is now with the Lord's consent, and assent of Wm 
Lane, ordered, that Bi^iard Bevan, who hath broken the lord*s formor 


order botwext thorn, akaXL hensforih hsYe and lepossede two Bidgee 
hitherto in oontrouersye, and so save the sayd Lane from harmes 
with 8n£Scient hedge and dicJke of his lande adionyning. And this 
Tnder peine of x«, a curia in curiam.* —J^n^^M A Qilda, their StaivitB 
^nd Customs, R E. T. S. 

< To l^are diche *-'(hDl and NigUingah, L 1239. 

A.S. die; O.Frifl. dtk; OJoeL dSk; £ki: ditch; dika— Strat. QL 

BICHE-BOVK, sh. the embankment on the hedge-side of a ditch. 
Com. ' To* can eee the mark o* the wil fwheel] 'afe way np the 
diche-hank ; iVs a 56nder they wunna boath kQled.' 

DICHEB [dei'chin^, sh, a ditcher: generally used in oonjonction 
with hedger — a hedger and ditcher. Ck)m. *The fellow^ a i>erty 
good 'edger an* dicker; but as to stack-makin' an' thatchin', w^ *o^ 
no better than an owd o&man.' A.S. dioerej a ditcher. 

DIBSTAFF [did-stn'f], sh,^ oba., var, pr. a distaff. — ^Pulyebbatch. 

DIMMEST [dim-urT], (1) sb, a dark, ill-lighted room or passage. — 
Shbewsbxtbt ; Pulykebatch. ' Whad a duMnertf this place is ; Vy 
yo' canna see from one end to the other» an* it inna that big.* A.&. 
dym, dim ; dark. 

(2) sh. a building or shed in a buildei^s yard where tools, moitar» 
and odd things are kept. — Shrewsbtjbt. 

(3) »h,, obs, a place attached to old ohnxches where the graTe- 
digger's tools were (perhaps) kept — Ibid. 

'Underneath this churcm [S. Chad*s], on the north side, is a Tanlted 
room, called the dimery; whidi place probably has been used as a 
repository for the bones and skulls of the dead, and mi^t receiye its 
name from the Saxon word dwimora, ghosts, which in times of ignor- 
ance and superstition were supposed to haunt such places ; or more 
likely from the common word dim, dark ; a dimery, or dark room or 
place.' — ^Phillips's History of Shrewsbury, p. 89. 

BIMMT-SIMltT [dimi' sim'i'], cidj. conodted; languishing. — 


PIBBEKS [din'dur'z], sb. pi. Eoman coins found at Wbozetbr 
[Urioonium]. Si>elt dyndera by Kennett, in Hal. 

'The Eoman coins found here (Wroxeter) are a proof of the 
antiquity of the place ; the inhabitants call them dinders, a corrup- 
tion of {he Boman denariusJ — Phillips'b History of Shrewsbury, pp. 
199, 200. 

BIHO [ding-], (1) v. a. to dash down with violence. — ^Whitchurch. 

* But Do-wel shal dyngen hym adoun, 
And destruye his myghte.* 

Piers PL, pasa xx. L 6273, ed. Wb. 

O.N. dengia, to hammer ; dengia einum nidt, to ding one down, in 

(2) V. n., obsols. to impress forcibly: chiefly used in the way of 
taunting.— PuLVEBBATOH ; Clxjn. ' The Missis 'as bin dingirC at me,* 
said l/Lixj Dayies, ' about Bessey knittin* the Maister a stockin* in a 


day ; so I toud 'er if I couldna Imit a stooldn' in a day, I could mak' 
*im a shirt, an' I went at it dang-swang an' did it.* Mary Davies and 
Bessey Coxall, two servants of the 'old school/ lived with Mrs. 
Bromley, of Castle Pulverbatch, about tiie year 1817. Workers such 
as they, may be considered like many of the words of their time, to 
have become ' obsolete/ 

(3) rding*g], tib. a buznng ncnse in the eara — Skrewsbubt. 
* Dear eaix I I've sich a ding V my ears, jest like a swarm o' bees.' 

SnrOE [din-zh], (1) v. a. to dint; to knock in. — Shrewsbury. Qy, 

■ com. * Dun 'ee know who's dinged the tay-pot athisn ? It looks as 

if it 'ad bin fell o' the flur.' O.N. dmgia, to hanuner. Qt Bulge. 

(2) 8h, a dint. — Ihid. 

SnrHEE-WHILE, 8b. dinner-time.— CoLLiBRT. < Fve bin workin' 
i' my dinner-to'ile, Sir.' 

DIP [dipj, ^1) adj., var. pr. deep; canning ; crafty. Com. 'Dip 
as the North ' is a proverbial phnMO current in Shropshire, signifying 
very crafty. 

(2) sb. the part of a mine below the level ; the part above the level 
is called the baeaet, — Golubby; M. T. 

BIPHESS [dip'ni's], sb., var. pr. deepness ; slyness. — Pulverbatoh. 
Qy. com. "Ow yo' cropen oft to the wakes athoat sayin' ever-a 
word; I'll remember yo' rar yore dipnesB,* 

DIPPER, sb. AlcSdo Fspida^ the Kingfisher. — Bridonobth. 

DISAHlir UL ~[difl*u'nul], v. a., pec. to inconvenience; to disturb; to 
turnout. — PULVERB ATCH ; CoRYS Dalb; Wrm. (1) 'To' can come 
in, yo' 55nna disannul the ladies.' (2) ' 'E thought to end 'is days 
theer, but this new lan'lord's disannulled 'im altogether.' 

DISCOBDEDEE [diskaur^'di'du'n], pret. disagreed.— Cleb Hills. 
' Well, I met a bin 55th 'im now, on'y w© discordeden a bit.' O.Fr. 
discarder, disputer; quereller. — ^BuR. 

DIBOEST [dizgest-], v. a. to digest. Com. < Fm a sight better than 
I wuz ; ^[arb-tay did me most good of anythin'. I could aumust 
disgest a pimple-stwun.' 

' Sowre whey and curds can yeeld a sugred tast 
Where s weete martchpane, as yet was never knowne : 
When emptie gorge, hath bole of milke embrast ; 
And cheese and bread* hath dayly of his owne, 
He craves no feast, nor seekes no banquete fine, 
He can disgest his dinner without wine.' 

Churchyard's Poems, p. 113, L 18. 
* Disgestive Faculti/ assimilates the nourishment, into the substance 

of that part where it iaj— Academy of Armory, Bk. IL chap. xvii. p. 


DI8H-WASHEB, eb. MotaeUla yarrdlii, the Pied Wagtail.— Brdkh 


DISTSES8 rdistres*8], sb., pec. strain ; stress ; application of force. 
— ^Wem. 'Theer wunna be no distress on that theer 'edge tin after 


'arrest,' — ». e. tOl after the com is cut, and animalR are turned into 
the field, who will strain, or try, the strength of the fsnoe. 

PITHEB [didh'ur^l, v. n. to tremble with cold ; to shiver. Com. 
' Tm starved till 1 dither^ an' my tith chatter.' * Xhaf s a pity, for 
yore tongue can chatter £Eut enough/ Of. Acker. 

SiVJJiINO-BOD, 8b., obeols. a rod made of Hazel or twigs of Wycb 
Elm, ns^ for purposes of divination. — Oobye Daus; Ludlow. See 
Bk. IL, Folklore, &c^ < Charming and Charms.' 

SL&JtSAJJl' [diz'h'ninl sb, a 'dressing;' asoolding. — ^Weh. ^'Ergive 
'im a fine aizemn' yren 'e did come wham.' CI Dizen ^ to dress. 

DO [doo'l, sb. a festivity ; an entertainment. Com. * I s'pose as 
theer's to be a fine do at the Squire's Veil the weddin* comes off.' 

DOCK [dok'], (1) t;. a., obsols. to cut off the tails of horses to the stamp ; 
also to cut close the ears of dogs. Com. The latter jMuctioe is made 
criminal under the Cmelty to AniTnals Act. 'That dog 5M look 
better if 'is ears wun dockt, but we dama now.' 

'He [Sir Charles Qrandison] seldom traveb without a set, and 
suitable attendants; and, what I think seems a little to savour of 
singularity, his horses are not docked. Their tails are only tied up 
when they are on the road 

' But if he be of opinion that the tails of these noble animals are 
not only a natural ornament, but are of real use to defend them from 
the vexatious insects that in summer are so apt to annoy them (as 
Jenny just now told me was thought to be his reason for not depriving 
his cattle of a defence which nature gave them), how tar from a dis- 
praise is this humane oonsideratiMi I And how in the more minute 
as well as we mav suppose in the greater instances, does he deserve 
the character of the man of mercy, who will be merciful to his beast.' 
— Sir Charles Orandieon, vol. i. p. 257, ed. 176fi. 

* Dcikky^, or smytvn' a-wey the tayle. Deoaudo.^ — JPtompt. Parv. 
O.N. dokr, a short, stumpy taiL — ^Wedo. 

(2) V, a, to cut off, in any general sense, so as to shortoD. — ^PuL- 
TERBATOH. Qy. oom. 'I dunna know whad folks wanten 65th a. 
yard o' stuff 'angin' at thar 'eels; I ehould like to tak' 'em to the 
choppin'-block air dock 'em.' 

' His heer was by his eres ful round i-shom. 
His top was docked lyk a preest bifom.' 

Chaitoeb, The PrcAogue, L 590, ed. Morris. 

* DokkyrS or shortyn. DecuriOy dbbrevio* — Prompts Tarv, 

(3) V, a. to shorten : as of a baby's clothes. — Wbm ; Eixesmebb. 
'We maun dock the child's clothes nex' wik, the weathei^s gettin* 

(4) V. a., pec. to put off: as of apparel. — Shkewsbxiby. *It^s no 
use, I mim dock this gownd off, ifs swelterin' me to d^eth.' QL Dofll 

POCTOB'8 MOH, ab. a medical man's assistant Com. ' I shoul<l 
think theer^s somebody very bad at the shop ; I sid the Doctor theer 
this momin', an' the bocUtre man this onder.' 

DOCTOB'S STUFF, 6b. medicine. Com. 


DOBDEBItrO [dod'hVi'nJ, part, adj. trembling 3 shaking : as from 
age or sickness, like palsied people do. — Cobye Dale. Of. Dither. 

SODOEB [doJTir'], ah, Sherardia arvensis, creeping Plume-thistle. 

SOFF [dofj, .V. a. to put off; to do off. — Shrewsbubt; Pulvbb- 
BATCH ; Newpobt ; Wem. * If yo* mainen work, dof that jacket ; 
yo* bin like owd Jack Jones — ate till yo' swat, an' work till yo' 

S . . • . do as ioh >e rede, 
c2q^bliae ]>i3 bere-skyn ' & be stiUe in fi clones.' 

WUlicm o/Faleme, L 2343. 

' Shee also dofte her heavy habeijeon, 
Which the fure feature of her hmbs did hyde.' 

Sfenseb, F. Q., Bk. III. c. ix. si xzi 

SOO [dog'], eh. the link at the end of the chain fastening it round 
the coVs neck. — Clee Hills. Qy. com. See Cow-chains. 

D00-DAI8T [dog'dai-'zin, sb, AnthSmis cotida^ stinking Chamomile. 
— ^Whitghubch, TiUtodc, Cf. Maise. 

BOOGIE [dogi*], ^5., sL the overlooker at the pit's mouth. — Collieby ; 
M.T. Of. &eeve(l). 

SOO-HAHOnr, ah, a large social gathering. — Gobvb Dale. Mr. 
Halliwell says a do^-hanging was a wedding feast where money was 
collected for the bnde. 

SOG-MEH' [dog-men], ah, pl,y oha, church beadles. — Bishop's Castle ; 
Clun. Countrymen coming into church were often followed by their 
dogs, which were driven out by the beadles, who thus acquired tha 
name of dog-men. This office ceased to exist about 1830. 

* July 17**, 1741. Then agreed with Henry Ho wells to give "^^rn Ten 
shillings nntill Ladv Day next for Whiping tkedoggs out of the Church 
serviss Time, and keepmg people from Sleeping in Church During 
Divine service, and to be paid lum by the Churchwardens that are in 
Office for the time 'B^axig,— Churchwarden* e Accounta, Clun. 

BOO-BOOF, ah. same as Cnrly-fltone, q. v. The miners give it this 
name from its fancied resemblance to the roof of a do^s mouth. — 
Coixieby; M.T. 

BOO'S 'LEKVEyphr.y «Z.) without permission. — Shbewbbubt. 

SOLLIES [dol'i'z], ah. pi, bolsters of straw put under the eaves of a 
stack to make them project, and so throw the wet off better.— -Pulveb- 


SOLLT [doH'], (1) ah, a washing implement. — Shbewsbttbt; Elles- 
ICEBE. Qj. com. The lower |)art of the doUy is made of a solid block of 
wood, 8 mches deep and 6^ inches wide ; it is of circular shape, and 
so cut through at Ihe two opposite diameters as to form fonr wedge- 
shaped feet 4^ inches in depth. Into the centre of this block is fitted 
an upright handle 2 ft. long, having a cross-bar at the top 15 inches 
lon^ ; held by this, the dcliy is worked with an up and down motion, 
which pounds the dirt out of the clothes. 


(2) V. a. to deanse the clothea with the doUy or the ' doUy-peg.*— 

DOLLT-PEG, sh, an implement similar in intention to the dolly, but 
differing from it in form and mode of action. A circnlar piece of 
wood 1^ inch thick and 8 inches in diameter has inserted into it six 
stout pegs about 7 inches in length ; on the upper side of it is an up- 
right nandle 2 ft 2 inches long, having a cross-bar 7 inches long, 
a^ut 4 inches below the top ; the operator holds the doUy-peg by this, 
and with a strong twisting motion shakes and rubs the dothes in the 
water, so as to deanse them yery effectually. — Ibid. Gf. Peggy. 

DOLLY-TUB, eh. the deep tub adapted to the purpose, in which the 
dothes are < doUied.' — Ibid. 01 Washing stock. 

DON [don'], V. a., obsols. to put on : as of clothes — more especiallv 
gay attire ; to dress up. — ^Pitlyekbatgh. < Did'n'ee see Bessy Leach 
at the dub P wunna-d-'er donned off P ' See Donninga. 

' And costly yesture was in hand to dan.* 

TwrbviU'8 Ovid, 1567, f. 145, in Hal. 

' What, should I don this robe, and trouble yon P ' 

Tittu AndronioM, I. L 189. 

* Do on clothys, or dothyn*. Induo, watio,* —Prompt. Parv, Gf. 
Bofll • 

BOHCASS [dong'kn's], v. n. to saunter. — Clbb Bius. * Weer bin 
yo* off donoa$$in' to now P * 

DOHET-WAGOOH [doa-ni* WBgni'n], ah. a waggon with skeleton 
sides. — Atgham. 

BOH-HABD, sh. an expert ; an adept. — ^Pulyerbatoh ; Clee Hills. 
< Tummas, they tellen me as yo' bin a don- and at staok-makin' an' 
thetdiin' ; can 'ee spar' us a wik P ' Cf. Dab-hand. 

DOHVISrOS [doni'nz], sh. pL, obsol8.% fine clothes. — ^PuLyERBATOH. 
'Sally Price 'as got on all 'or donnin*s I should think; Vy 'er's 
'anged 65th ribbinte like a pedlar's basket.' See Don. 

POOR^CHEEKS, sh. pi door-posts.— Wbm. See Exod. zii. 22, ed. 
1640.— Hal. 

DOOBnJAWHS, sh. pi, var. pr. door-poste or jambs. — PuLyEBBATCH. 

SOBOME [doa'sum], adj. hearty ; thriying : said of animals. — ^Wem. 

' Loik dangling of a babby, then the Huntsman hoye him up, 
The dugs a bayin' roind mm, while the gemmen croid, ' * Whoo-hup ! ** 
As doesome cauyes lick fleetm^ out o' th' piggin in the died. 
They worried eyery inch of him, aw but his teil an' yed.' 

Farmer Dobbin : ' A Day wi' the Chedure Fox Dugs.* 
B. E. EoEBTOir WABBTTBTOsr'a Hunting Songs^ y. 
xyiii. p. 94. 

A.S. dugan, to thriye (= Genn. iaugen). 

DOSSIL [dosill, sh. a satisfying quantity.— Wem. "Et giye 'im a 
good doasU o* oumplin'.' 


DOUBLE-COAL [dub'l koal], eh, a good coal for manufacturing 
purposes, much used. — Colueby ; M. T. See Coal-fleld. 

DOUBLE COUPLE [dubl kup'll ah, twin lambs. Com. Bedupli- 
cation of this kind is very general in Shropshire — two tivina, for twina 
Betty Roberts of Castle Pulverbatch, speaidng of her daughter, said, 
'To remember Saa*ra, Ma'am; well, 'er got married, an' in a twelve- 
month er wuz p&t to bed of a double birth o' two twins,' Betty's 
auditor computed these to be eight children ! On a gravestone in 
Edgmond churchyard (Salop) is the following epitaph (date A.D. 
1800) :— 

* They were Two Twins in Birth both join'd ; 
Great is their gain in Hopes to find.' 

Cf. Two-double. 

DOUGH. See Duff 

DOUK [dou'k], V, a. to stoop or lower the head. Com. ' '£ douka 
'is yea like a gonder gweln under a barn-door' is a current Shrop- 
shire saying. 

' M. Mery, Curtsie . . ,dovke you and crouohe at euery worde.' — 
RoitieT Doister, Act. j. Sc. iiij. p. 26. 

DOUEEB [dou'kur'], sb, Podicepa minor, the Little Grebe. — 
Wellington. Qy. com. Bewick calls this ' The small Do%ukerJ See 
British Birds, vol. ii. p. 171, ed. 1832. ' Hie Tnergulus, A", a dokare.' 
— ^Wr. vocabs., vol. i. p. 253. Ct Dab-chick. See Jack-douker. 

DOUBT [dou'stl, (1) ab. dust. — Shrewsbubt; Pulverbatoh; Church 
Stbetton. 'Them up-stars rooms bin in a fine mess o' dowl an' 
doust, tkev wanten a right good frotin'.' 
< LL Also, that no Sadeler, Boche', Baker, ne Glover, ne none other 

Sersone, caste non Intrelle ne fylth of Bestes donge, ne doust, over 
eveme brugge, ne beyond the seid Brugee in the streme.' See 
' Ordinances of Worcester,' temp. Ed. IV. (1467), in English Oilds, 
their Statutes and Cust<ms, E. E. T. S. 

(2) V. a. to beat — ^Pulvebbatoh ; Wem. < Doust 'is jacket for 'im, 

DOUSTEBy (1) ab,y var, pr, a duster. — Shrewsbury. 

(2) sb. a heavy blow.— Fulvebbatoh ; Wem. <It fell sich a 

DOUT [don't], v. a. to extinguish ; to do out. Com. ' Dout them 
candles, SaUy ; theer '11 be light enough to talk by then, if that's all 
yo'n got to do.' 

* Boon* owte, or qwenchyn' (li3th, Z ; lyth, H. ). ExtinguoJ— Prompt. 

DOUTEB, ab, a candle extinguisher. Com. 

DOWL [doui], (1) ab, the downy fibres of a feather ; down. Com. 

* Ariel. You fools I the elements^ 

Of whom your swords are temper'd, may as well 
Wound the loud winds, or with bemock d-at stabs 
Kill the still-closing waters, as diTnim'sh 
One dowle that's in my plume.' — Tempest, JU. iii. 65* 


' Young dowl of the bearcL' — ffotoeU, sect. L, in Hal. 

(2) ah, the light downy substance which collects under beds and 
about bedroom floors, &o. Com. 

(3) v. a., d,? to abuse: as big boys do little ones, too often. — 
Shbewsbtjby. ' G^rge Davies &wlea poor little Joe Gartri't shame- 
j^ gwein to school; a great lungeous lout 'e is I ' 

(4) V. a., ohsoU. to mix or knead up in a hurry : as of bread or 
dumpling. — ^Pulvkrbatch. *We bin gettin' short o' bread, I see; 
I mun diwl up a pot-cake for tay, an' tne men can 'a cake an' drink 
fur thar supper.' 01 Blunge. 

DOWLEB, sh.y ohsoU. a cake or dumpling made in a hurry. — Ibid, 
' Look sharp an' mak* a bit of a dowler to 'elp out the men's diimers.' 

DOWH-FALL [dounfaulj, ah. a fall of rain, hail, or snow. Conu 

* It's despert coud ; we sna'n a a doum-fdll afore lung.' 

SOWHY [douni'], adj., ah crafty. Com. * A downy trick.' 

BBAO [dr'ag*], ah. a timber bar used for drawing timber out of 

* workings.*— Collibby; M. T. 

BSAGOEB [dr'ag-ur'l, ah, advantage; start — Oswbstrt. Dragger 
is a term used by boys when nmning a race : the known good 
runners give the inferior ones a ' start,' yarying in distance aocoraing 
to their powers ; this they call giving dragger ^ a simple mode of what 
racing men would term ' handicapping.' 

A writer, Edeimion, in Byeg<me$, March 4th, 1874, p. 29, says, 
' I femcy the word dnigger is confined to the Weh^ border, and I take 
it to be a corruption of the Welsh word rhagor. Ehag = before ; 
difference; precedence, with tiie termination '*or." Suppose one 
Welsh boy challenging another to a race, and the following dialogue 
to ensue : *' A redi di r&s hefo fi P " '* Gwnaf, feint o rctgor a gaf n P* 
« Wei cymer haner can llath." This would be exactly synonymous 
with the term drcLgger as used by Oswestry boys.' 

PBAOOH'S-BLOOD, eib. Geranium Eohertianum, Herb Bobert — 


BRAnr [dr'een' and dr'ih'n], ah. a large, deep, wide, open ditch 
for draining the Wealdmoors. — ^Newport. A gutter is a small, 
narrow ditch for the same purpose. Gf. Diclie, also Sough (1). 

SBAW [drau'], (1) v. a. to tak^ bread out of the oven. Conu 
' Han *ee drawed ttxe bread P ' 

' Draw the Bread when it is well Baken ; then it is taken out of the 
Oven.' — Academy of Armory , Bk. m. ch. iiL p. 86. 

* Drawe forthe owte of >e ovyne. Effumo.' — Prompt, Parv, 

(2) V, a, to take cattle out of meadow-^d that the grass may erow 
for nay. — ^Pulvebbatch. 'Yo' mun see to the 'edges round mem 
meadows, they mun be drav;ed an' dressed nex* wUl' See Dress. 

(3) V, a, to let off water from wet fields bv means of aids. — Glee 
Hills. * Han 'ee drawed them aids P ' See Aid. 

BBAW-BOHE [dr'au-boan or bwun], ah, the ' merry-thought '((^t^icZe^) 
of a fowl. — PnxvEBBATOH ; WoBTHEN. This boue gets its local name 
of draw-bone from the custom practised by young people of dravnng 


or puUing it in order to determine which of them will be soonest 
married. The bone, held at each extremity by two persons, is pulled 
between them till it breaks ; the one in whose hand the shorter piece 
remains wUl be the first to enter the marriage state, but the other 
will have * the lungesi cubbert I ' 

DKAWnrO-KOAB, 8b. same as Cnngit, q. y.— Collikbt ; M. T. 
Cf. Spout-road. 

DBAWT [dr'aut'], eh. the full balancing range of steelyards ; that 
which is weighed at one balance. — Pulyeabatch. Qy. com. ' My 
stilyuds 55na weigh more than 56 [lbs.] at a drawtJ* 

SSAWT-HOBSE [dr^aut* aur's], sh. a draught-horse, i. e, a waggon- 
horse.— Pxtlyebbatgh; Bbidoi^obth. 

SBAWTS [dr'auts*], eb. a pair of dentist's forceps. — ^Pulverbatch. 
Qy. com. * The las' tuth I 'ad out I suffered a martidom ; the drawia 
shpt twize, an' it 'ad to be punched out.' * Drawte or pidle. TroctiM,' 
in Prompt. Parv. See Draht in Stbat, 

BBAT [dr'ah-y], sb. a squirrel's nest. — ^Chuboh Stretton*, 

< The nimble squirrel noting here. 
Her mossy dray that makes.' 

Dbaytoits Quest of Cynthia, p. 626, in Nares. 

SEATTOV SIRTT PAIB» eb. The fair known in the north of 
Shropshire by thiB name is a long-established cattle fair, held at 
Market Dra3^n in the end of October. The bad weather usually 
preyaiUng at the time has given it its name. Formerly the old- 
m^oned farmers of the district were much exercised in uieir minds 
if their winter wheat was not sown by the Dirty fair. 

DBEEP [dr'eep'], v. n., var. pr. to drip. — Shbewsburt. 

BBEVCH [dr^en'sh], (1) eb. a draught or potion for horses or cattle. 

' DrencJies ; Drinks or Mashes g^yen to Horses to cleanse them.' — 
Academy of Armory, Bk. HI. ch. iii. p. 89. 

* if the sleepy drench 

Of that forgetful lake benumb not stilL' 

ParadiM Lost, Bk. 11. L 73. 
A.S. drene, a drink ; drench. 

{2^ V. a. to administer the potion. Com. A.S. drencan, to make to 

SSEHCHnrCh-HOBir, eb. a horn into which the drench is put, as a 
oonyenient means of pouring it down the animal's throat. Com. 
' Look sharp an' &tch the drenchin'-om out o' the shad, an' 'elp mo 
to drench the cow, or else 'er'll be 4ied.' A.S. drenc-hom. 

DBB8S [dr'es'1, t;. a. Applied to meadows, this term signifies to break 
and scatter the dung upon them ; to pick off stones, sticks, &c. See 
Draw (2). 

SBESSEL, DRESSEB rdr'es-el], Shbewsbubt, Ufflngton. [dr^esnurH, 
Com. (1) eb., obeoU. an old-&8hioned piece of kitchen furniture, oondst* 
ing of a long, narrow table, haying a row of drawers to the ^nt, and 


Buimounted by a high range of shelyee for diflhes : the sidee of this, 
reaching abont half way to the top, are enclosed and made into a 
cupboard for smaller pieces of crockery. A dres9er of this kind and 
a tall dock wore formerly considered quite indispensable to 'tidy' 
Tonng people about to begin housekeeping. * Aye, it begins to look 
like marr'in' w*en the clock an' dresser^* bought; I s'pose the nex' 
thing 561 be the axin's.* Fr, dressoir, a side-b^urd. 

DBES8EB, (2) sh. an implement which combines hammer and ^pick ;' 
being a hammer at one end, and very sharp, like a ' pick' at the 
other : strong iron clamps secure it to the handle. It is used for 
setting props and general heavy work. — Collieby ; M. T. 

SBSTEH [dr^evn], sh, a person or thing in a state or condition of 
dirt. — ^Wem. * Look at that child, whad a drevm 'er is ! 'er mus* a 
bin i' the slurry.' 

DRIBBLE [dr'ib'l], (1) v. n. to ndn slowly; to fall in drops. — 
Shsewsbury; PuiiYESBATOH. Qy. com. 

(2) V. n. to do anything in a feeble kind of way. — Shbewsbuby ; 
Atcham ; Ellesmebe. Qy. com. ' Now, Sarah, if yo' bin gwein to 

* milk the cow, milk 'er, an' dunna dribble at *er.' 

(3) V. a. to let fall drop by drop ; to leak. — Shbewsbttby ; Pulveb- 
BATCH. Qy. com. ' The rayn-tub^ lost a *oop, an's dribUin* all the 
waiter out 

' ton thousand casks, 

For eyer dribbling out their base contents.' 

Oowpeb, The Task, Bk. IV. L 605. 

(4) V. a, to deal out in very small quantitiea — Atohah ; Wem ; 
Ellesmebe. ' Dunna dribble the barley out athatns — ^gie me a good 
feed for the fowl at wunst' 

DBIBLETS [dr'ib'li'ts], sb, pi, veiy small quantities. — ^Atchak; 

DBIBLIHOS [dr'ib'linz], idem. — Ellesmebe. 

beginnin' to shew in *er for'yed.' (2) 
i' the child's shirt as wuz 'urtin' 'im made 'im so fretchit.' 

DBIFT-HOTTSE [dr'if -t u'sl, sb. the lofty covered way out of a farm- 
yard under which a loadoa waggon can be drawn. — ^Wem. Qy. com. 

DBIFT-WAT. The same. 

BBIV K, sb. ale. Com. * Whad sort o' drink dun they keep at that 
public P ' ' Well, nuthin' to brag on ; it wunna much beUer than 
fresh-drink the las' time as I wuz theer.' Very strong old * October* 
ale is called beer ; ' old 6eer,' ' harvest beer,^ See Fresh-drink. 

DBIHK-HEAT [dr'ing'k mait], sb. ale boiled, thickened with oat- 
meal, and spiced. — Pulvebbatch. Qy. com. ' The cowman's got a 
despert bad coud ; Fll mak' 'im a stodger o' drink-mate fur 'is supper, 
an' gie 'im a good swat.' 

DRIP [dr^ip*], V. a. to take the last milk from a cow. — Newfobt; 
Wem ; Whitciittbch. Cf. Strip. 


BBIPPnrO-BOWL, Bb. a wooden bowl naed to drip the cows into. 

SEIPPIHOS, 8b, the last milk drawn from a cow. — Ibid, Cf. 

Afterings, also Btrippings. 

BBIVE A HEAD, phr, to effect an entrance into the solid stratum 
of coal, mineral, &c. — Coluebt ; M. T, 

DBODSOME [dr'od'su'm], adj. dreadful ; alarming.— Bridgnorth. 

DBOP OUT, V. n. to quarrel ; to fall out. — Pulverbatoh ; Clun ; 
Wem. ' If that shoot o' do'es inna done a^n the club, yo' an' me 
sha'n drop out.* 

DBOPPnrO-TIME, 8b. a showery time.— Pulvkrbatoh ; Wklling- 
tok; Wem. 

DEOUPEB' [dr'oup-h'n], part, adj., obsola. drooping. — Pulverbatoh ; 
Ellesmere. 'Yore cabbidge plants looken rather droupen, John.' 
* Aye, they want'n a drop o* rayn ; but they'n prink up to rt night.' 

' But true it is that, when the oyle is spent, 
The light goes out, and weeke is throwne away : 
So, when he had resignd his regiment, 
His daughter gan despise his drouping day, 
And wecuie wax of his continuall stay.' 

Spenser, jP*. Q., Bk. n. o. z. st xzx* 

O.Icel. drUpa^ droup (droop). — Strat. 

BBOVIEB [dr'oavyur'], «6., var.jpr. a drover. — Pulverbatoh ; Wem. 
' Who'd a thought on a fine camperin' yoimg fellow like that comin' 
to be a drovier K* 

* Robert Mather was a stranger in this country ; hee came hither 
to serve Sir Humphrey Lea as his Bayly. Hee was a person very 
expert in bujing and selling of Catle, and had a oomnussion, to be 
one of the King^a purveyors, which was an office to buy fatt beasts 

for the King's houshould These purveyors were likewise 

drovyera, who bought catle in this country, and brought them into 
Kent to sell again.' — Gouoifs History o/Myddle, p. 74. 

S&ITDOEB [dr'igair*], «&., a cook's flour-dredger. — Shrews- 
bury; Pulverbatoh; Graven Arms; Clun; Wem. 

DEVKBLE [dr'um'bl], (I) v. n., obsoh. to be sluggish ; to dawdle. 
— ^Pulverbatoh. * Come, pluck up yore fit, an* dunna g65 drumblin' 
alung, as if yo' wun 'afe asleep.' 

'Mrs. Ford. What, John! Eobert! John I Gk> take up these clothes 
here quickly. Where's the cowl-staff P look, how you drumUe/* — 
Merry Wives of Windsor, III. iii. 156. 

(2) a&., obsols. a dull, inactive person.— /&fi. ' The poor owd men's 
aumust done now; an' 'e wuz aTays a poor drumble.* 

(3) sb.f obsols. a rough wooded dip in the ground; a dingle. — 

DBXWBT-EOLE [dr'um-bi' oal], sb. same as" Dmmble (3).— 
Ellesmere. ' I sot to g66 to Lm^a' to-neet, an' I dunna know 'ow 
to pass the drunCoy^'ole near the Cut bridge, fur tiiey sen theer's 
frittenin theer.' Cf. Dumble-hole. 


BBTTMHIL [dr'umil], (1) ab. a worn-out hoise. — ^Pulvebbatoh ; 


(2) th, a dull, sluggiflh person. — ^Pulyerbatch. 'I dmma know 
Vich is best, mon or 'orse, fur they bin b5ath poor drtunmiUJ Cf. 
Droinble (2), also Seffel. 

DBXrMMuiO [dr'umin], ab. a sound beating. Com. 

DBTJV [dr'uv], pret and part, past, drove ; driven. Com. * I 'ear 
Medlicott*8 lost the cow 'e bought at the feu-, an' I dunna 55nder at it ; 
'er milk 'ad bin pounded so lung, an' 'er wuz o'er-c^uv, an' it brought 
on the milk fiEuver.' See Bid (1). 

DBT [dr'ei'l, (1) adj. thirsty. Com. 'Weer^n'ee got the bottle, 
. lads r fur rm as dry as a ragman's 'prentice.' * Be'appen yo'n 'ad a 
red yurrin fur yore dinner.' 

' And now my conclusion FU tell, 
For, faith, I'm confoundedly dry.* 

BoBEBT BiTBNS, PoemM^ p. 50, 1. 26. 

(2) adj. having no milk : said of cows. Com. 

(3) V. a. to cause a cow to lose her milk ; to disperse it medicinally. 
Com. ' Tve done gwel'n to market now ; ^e Maister's drenched six o' 
tiie cows to dry 'em fur feedin'.' 

' Leaue milking and drie vp old muUey thy cow, 
The crooked and aged, to fatting put now.' 
Txtbseb'b Fiue Hundred Pointer of Good ffwhandrie [Augpist]. 

DTTBBDf [dub*in], sh. soft grease, such as is produced from the 
boiHng of tripe : it is used for the purpose of softening and preserving 
strong leather. — Shkewsbitey; I^ulverbatoh ; Wem. Qy. com. 
*Maister, we'n got no dtibbin for the gears; mux^ I do 'em 66th 
g66ze-ile P ' f 

DITBBnr SHEAB8, eh. shears used to trim closely-cropped hedges. J 


STJBBIT [dub-rt], adj. blunt ; dull ; * a dubbit axe.'— Wbm. 

DTTBOTTS [joo-bus], (1) adj,, var. pr. dubious; doubtful) not very 
sure. — Shbewsbury; Pulvebbatch; Wem. Qy. com. 'Aye, I 
'ear they bin gwein into business, but I'm rather juhouB Vether it 11 
answer. An undecided person is said to be 'yu&oua-minded.' 

(2) adj.^ pec. suspicious. — Pxtlverbatoh. .*I dunna like to '&ve 
anythin' to do 66th that 66man, 'er^s of sich VLJubous turn ; 'er thinks 
everybody's robbin' 'er.' 

DTTCK'S-FBOST, sb. a slight frost.— Cleb Hills. Cf. Ketoh o' 

DUFF [duff-], (1) «6., var. pr. dough. Com. * As busy as a dog in 
duff' IS a proverbial saying heard in some parts of Shropshire. 

(2) sh. the stomach. — ^Ludlow. ' *£ t66k me duf,* said a man in 
evidence at a police court. On being asked to ezphun, he said, ' *E 'it 
me i' the stomach.' Cf. Nanny. 

SXJKBLE-HOLE [dum*bl oal], sh, a pit-fall ; a dangerous hollow. — 



PuLVEBBATcn. ' Thee'st better mind them dumUe-oles ; ifs a comical 
road, Surrey.' Cf. Drumby-hole. 

BXnrCE-HOLE [dun-8 oal], sb, same as Bing (1). — Wellington ; 
Wem. * Yo'd'ii better get the dunce-^ole diered out ; we sha'n want 
it w'en we throehen to-morrow.' 

DXTHCHED [dun-sbt], part, adj., obs. knocked ; bruised. — Wobthbn. 
* Look, 'ow that drawer's dunched ; that wimna done by no far manes.*' 
* Dunehyn* or bunchyn'. Tundo,* — Prompt Farv, 
Dan. dunke ; Swed. dunha^ dimch ; * tundere.' — Stbat. 

BTJH EABTH, ab. a stratum of earth, said to be so called from its 
colour. — COLUBBY, Donninffton ; M. T. 

BUN OEVIL [dungh'vi'l], sb. a garden-fork. — Cbaven Abms ; Cobye 
Dale. Cf. Bhsrevil. 

BTJH-ITETTLE [dun-net-'l], sb. Labium purpiireum, red Dead-nettle. 
— ^Cbaven Abms, Stokesay, Of. French-nettle. See Tormentil. 

BTTHBUK [dun-u'k], «fe. a dung-fork. — Shbewsbubt. A corruption 
of dung-hook. Cf. xummy-swk. 

BUJIJIY [dun'i*], adj. hard of hearing, and stupid, as a consequence. 
— Pulyebbatch ; Clttn ; Clee Hills. * Wy, Dick, thee bist as 
dunny as a pwust! Fye 'ooted till they coulden 'a 'card me at 

BTJBOY [dur'-gi'], adj. dwarfish. — Pulvkbbatch. Generally used in 
a contemptuous way. ' Dun yo' think as I'm gwem to be bate by a 
durgy chap like that ? ' A.S. dweorg, a dwarf. Cf. Banks. 

BTJTCH [duch'], adj. fine, affected, in language. — Shrbwsbuby; 

PuLVEBBATCH ; Wem ; Whitchubch. * Sally's got so mighty Dutch 

sence 'er's gwun to the paas'n's, 'er dunna know ow to tidk to poor . 

folk.' * 'E talks as Dutch as Damford's dog : ' proverbial saying heard 

in the neighbourhood of Whitchurch. 

* Duich =. DetiUch = Oemian. Compare the following: — 

' The word Dutch is an adjective signifying national, and was the 

name by which the old Teutons called Uiemselves, in contradistinction 

to other people whose language they were unable to understand.' — 

Db. Mobbis S Historicai English Orammar, p. 4. 

BTJZZT [duz-i'], adj. deafish; stupid; confused. — Whitchubch. 
(1) *'B's lother duzzy ; 'e doesna'ear very well.' (2) 'I'm mighty 
duzzy this momin'.' Duzzy = dizzy. A.S. dysig. Cf. Bunny. 

BwinBEBEB [dwin'dur'd], part. adj. wasted in appearance. — 
Wem. * Dear 'eart alive I 'ow bad an' dtvindered 'er looks sence I 
seed 'er.' See below. 

BWlUJfi [dwein, corr. dwah-yn], v. n. to waste away : chiefly used in 
the participial form, dwining, but not common. — Newpobt. 

' but duelfuUi sche dwined a-waie ' bo>e dayes & ni^tes, 
ft al hire clere colour ' comsed for to fade.' 

William of Palerne^ 1. 578. 

A.S. dwinan ; O.Dutch dtmnen ; O.Icel. dwinn, dwine; waste. — 
Stbat. Ber. *dwindered.' 



XAO. See Ag^. *Wj 'ow can I blame the lad w'en yo' bin 
al'ays eaggin 'im on ? * 

EAR-APPABV [ee-hV ap'or'n], ab. an apron tamed np at about 
half its lene^ and stitched at the sides, thus forming a pocket, into 
which the gleaner puts the short ears of oom as she gathers them. — 


EAS-BAO, same as Ear-appam. — Pulvsrbatch. ' Theer wuz prettj 
pickin' i* the Mare^-fild, I got fiye 'antle an' my ear-bag swag full ; 
theer's a sight o* short ears—the straw's so despert brickie.' 

EAK-BRAT, sb. a child's pinafore sewed up in the same way and 
for the same purpose as the Ear-appam, above. — ^Ellssmebe. 

EABJTEST [yaaVnist], «&., obsols. deposit money given to bind a 
bargain, as on hiring a servant — Pxtlverbatch. Qy. com. ' Jack, 
I thought yo' wun 'ired at the Bonk.' ' Aye, so I wuz, but I send my 
yameet back ; they bin too yarly for me, they wanten the night as 
well as the day.' 

* . . . and from his coffers 
Received the golden earnut of our death.' 

K. Henry F., IL ii 168. 

'This simple token or poore eameti peanie.' — BibL EHoUb^ 1559 
ded., in EUi*. 
W. emea. Cf. AmeM. 

•RAfl'RirKWT [ai'zmunt], sb. ease; relief. — Shbbwsburt; Pulvsr- 
batch ; LxTDLOW. Qy. com. ' It's a great aisement to my mind as 
the Maister's got that com lugged at last.' 

' ... & so for esement of a man himsUf, & for esement of his nei^- 
bour, it is not expressid in holi scripture l^at a man schulde singe. & 
^it goddis forbode, but l^at, into esement of him-silf ft also of his 
neiibour, a man mai singe, pleie, & lau^e vertuoseli, ft ^rfore mery- 
tonli'— Ebqinald Pecock, The Repreuor (a.d. 1449, circa). Spedm, 
Eng. Lit, v. a. IL 76—78. 

EABIV OS [ee'zinz], same as Aisin, q. v. — Wbu. 

* The out sides of an House . . . The Eaves or EaseingBj — Academy 
of Armory, Bk. III. ch. xii. p. 451. 

Saves = O.E. yfes, e/ese ^ margin, edge. 

' We sometimes find e«en-droppers = eaves-droppers ; eaen z= O.E. 
efeaeny eaves.' — ^Dr. Morris's Historical English Accidence, p. 100. 

EASnrOS-SPABBOW, same as Aisin-sparrow, q. v., of which it is 
a more refined pronunciation. 

EAST HELCBXD [aizi' mel-sht], part, adj., obsols, f said of a cow 
that yields her milk easily. — Pttlverbatch. ' I like to milk Daisy, 
'er's so aisy melched, an' gi'es aumust a cantle o' milk.' Of. Soft 

EBB [eb'], adj. shallow; near the surface. Com. 'Will this dish 
do to m^e the lite hock pie in P ' * No, it's too ebb ; we sha'n be 'ftvin' 
the jessup runnin' ull under the bread i' the oven.' 

• 1794, Nov*. 1 — Sowed what they have plowed these 2 dayes. I 


am oonTinced that it is too ebb ploVd. Will tells me it's deep enough 
for any plowing.' — BailijjT* Diary, Aston, Oswestry. Byegonea, 1877, 
p. 342. 

* Nothing ** ebbs," unless it be figuratively, except water now ; but 
** ebb," oftener an ac^'ective than anything else, was continually used 
in our earlier English with a general meaning of shi^ow. There is 
still a Lancashire proverb, ** Cross the stream where it is ebbest.*^ 

< « This you may observe ordinarily in stones, that those parts and 
sides which lie covered deeper within the groimd be more firm and 
tender, as being preserved oy heat, than those outward faces which 
lie ebb, or above the earth." ' — ^Holland, PluiarcKs Morals, p. 747. 

'"It is all one whether I be drowned in the ebber shore, or in 
the midst of the deep sea." Bishop Hall, Meditations and Vows, 
cent ii'— Abohbp. Tbxstoh, SeUct Glossary, p. 67. 

BCALL [ek*ul], ah. OSeintts vlridis ; the Green Woodpecker. — Clbb 
Hills. Drayton calls this bird 'the laughing Jiecco.* Folyolbion, 

xiii. p. 915. G£ Laughing bird, also Yockel. 

^^ • 

EDDISH [edish], sb. the after-growth of clover. — Pulvbrbatch. 
Qy. com. Cattle are liable to iigurious distension from eating eddish, 
* The young beas han broke into the clover eddish — ^run for yore life ; 
we sha'n '&ve 'em sweUed as big as 'ogshits ' Jliogsheads]. See Way's 
note (1) in Prompt. Parv., p. 135; a&o E. D. £, B. xv. A.S. edisc, 
aftermath. Of. Edgrow. 

EDOE [ej '], sb. the ridge of a hill. As a compound form this term is 
often met with throughout the county ; as Wenlock-i^d'^e, Benthall- 
Edge, Yeo [View] -Edge, &c. 

EDO£-0'-VEET, sb. twilight ; night-fall. — ^Wbh. See below. 

EDOBOW [ed'gr^oaj, sb. a second crop of grass after the hay-crop. — 
PuLVBEBATCH ; Wem; Ellesmbbb; Oswbstbt. 

* Becidiva, ed-growung.' — Archbp. jEl/ru^s Vocabulary, x. cent., in 
Wr. vocabs., voL i p. 39. 

Edgrow, greese (edgraw, herbe, E. ete growe, greese, H. P.). 
Bigermen, regermen, 

• The Medulla explains bigermen to be the mixed grain called in 
the Promptarium IfESTLYONE, but it seems here to siniiffr after- 
mss, or after-math, still called edgrow in some parts of England.' — 
Prompt, Parv, and Notes. 

Cf . Eddish, also After-math. 

EDWABD [yed-ur't], Com. [[yed'ud], Bmdonobth. [yed'ut], Clun. 
[yedh'ur'tj, Whitchubch. 

' E before a vowel at the beginning of words, as Eadweard, Eoforwic, 
was dearly sounded like y or the High-Dutch y. Thus we stiu write 
York; and Yedward is foimd in Shakespeare^ [1 K. Henrif IV., I. iL 
140] ; and Earl is in Scotland sounded lerl, like the Danish JarV — 
Fbsemak'b Old English History, p. xviiL 

K 2 


EECLE [ee'k'l], sh. an icicle. — Shrewsbury; Pulvkrbatch; 
WoRTHEN ; Clun. * It's bin a snirpin* fros* sence it lef off rainin' ; 
theer*8 eecles at the aifiins a yard lung.' * Ikyl (iekyll, W.), SnVia.'— 
Prompt. Farv. • A.S. ises-jicel, glacialis $Uria,m Way. Cf. Aigles (3). 

EEO. See Agg. 
EEL. See Ale. 

EGO, V. a. to incite ; to provoke. — Wem. 

* bumee be sent 

enuiously to )>emperour ' & egged him swi>e 
bi a oertayne day ' bataile to a-bide.' 

William of Paltrne, L 1130 

' Adam and Eue * he eaged to ille, 
Oonaeilled caym * to kullen his brother.' 

Piers PI, Text B., pass. I L 65. 

' HI egging makes ill begging.' — Bat's Proverbs, p. 101. 

A.S. eggian, to egg; to excite. Cf. Agg. 

EGOS-AFB-BACOH', sb. Narcissus incomparibilis bicoloratce, — 

EH, 00B1E8 ! [ai'goniz], interj. a corrupted form of Romish oath = 
' o^ontca.*— Colliery ; Newport. 

ELDED [eldi'd], part. past,, var. pr. ailed. — Pulvbrbatch ; Clun. 
'I 'ad the Club Doctor to 'im, but 'e didna seem to know whad elded 
'im, so I 'suaded 'im to g6d to the Firmary, an' they maden a cure on 
'im direc'ly.' See Elding, below. 

ELDER [el'dnr^], sb. the udder of a cow, mare, or other large animal 
Com. ' The mar* ninted alung t6ert wham at a pretty rate ; 'er wuz 
glad to see the cowt, for 'er elder wuz as 'ard as a stwun.' 

ELDEB-WIEE [el'dur' wein'd], sh wine made from elder-berries. 
Com. * I made a spigot-stean o' elder^winde las' 'ear, an' fund it very 
useful— the Maister's so subject to ketch cowds ; an' I mull a good 
joram fur 'im, an' piit 'is fit in warm waiter, an' 'e's as right as a 
triyit i' the mornin'.' 

ELDnrO, part, pres., var. pr. ailing. — Pulverbatch. * So poor owd 
Molly's ended up at last, as one met say, for 'er's bin eldin' a Itmg 

ELDEAKE [eldr'aik], same as Ell-rake, q. v. — Newport. 

ELLKBTT [el'ur'n], sb. SamMcus nigra, the Elder. — Clun ; Corve 

* ludas he lapede * with {je lewee seluer. 
And on an Ellerne tree * hongede him after.' 

Piers PI, Text A., pass. L L 66. 

Hyldyr, or eld3nr (hillemtre, K ellemetre, Harl. MS. 2274; ellome 
tre, v.), Sambucus. 

' It was supposed that Judas hanged himself upon an Elder tree, 
and Sir John Maundoyille, who wrote in 1356, speaks of the tree as 
being still shewn at Jerusalem. Voiage, p. 112.* — Prompt. Parv. and 



SambticiMj suey, tllame; occurs in a Vocabulary of the Names of 
TlanU, of the middle of ziii. cent., in Wr. yocabs^, yoL i. p. 140. 

ELLFIT [el'fit], sb,, obsols, the crested foam on. alQ when fermenting 
in open vessels. — Pulvebbatgh^ 'I think we sha'n be lucky in 
'Hyiir plenty o* barm this time— theer's a beautiful ellJU,* It seems 
probable that the cUe-vat or fat, from haying held the drink while 
fermenting, has giyen its name in a corrupted £orm to the result of 
the fermentation itselt 

ELL-BAKE [el'r'aik], «5. a large rake with long iron teeth used in 
clearing the field.— tPulyerbatoh. Qy. com. ^Theer*!! be mighty 
little lef fax the laisers ; they'n bin draggin' that ell-rake oyer sence 
daylight, yery different to the poor owd Maister — ^'e never 'ad it raked 
but jest after the waggin.* The eU-rake follows at the heel of the 
person using it, and may therefore be a corrupted form of heel-rake, 
the h being an absent element of the word. Gi. Eldrake, above. 

EM [em*]y pers, pron, them. Com. Em is not a contraction of 
them, though usually printed as if it were— 'em — ^but it represents the 
old Jiecm, hem, 

' But criste kingene kynge * knitted ten, 
Oherubyn and seraphin * such seuene and an-othre, 
And ^ai hetm my3te m his maieste * l^e muryer hem >0U3te ; 
And ouer his mene meyne * made hem archangeles, 
Tau^te hem bi )>e Trinitee * treuthe to knowe. 
To be buxome at his biddyng * he bad hem nou^te elles.' 

Piers PL, Text B., pass. i. H 107—110. 

' Pros, Being once perfected how to grant suits. 
How to deny mem, who to advance, and who 
To trash for overtopping, new created 
The creatures that were mine, I say, or changed 'em, 

Or else new form'd 'em ' 

Tempest, L ii. 82, 83. 

Mr. Oliphant says that, * in the Bushworth Gospels, the English 
version of which is dated by Wanley at A.D. 900 or thereabouts, we 
find in S. Matt. iL 4 Aeom employed for hig, just as we say in talking, 
** 1 asked 'em"* And a^in, speaking^ of the changes which were 
taking place in the English language about A.D. 1120, he says, ' The 
Old English heora and him now change into Aere and hem. This last 
we still use in phrases like, **gtve it 'em well ; " and this Dative Plural 
drove out the old Accusative hi,* — Sources of Standard English, pp. 
42, 44, 58. 

[eem], adj, near; direct. Com. *Yo' bin gooin a mighty 
lung way round; cross them filds, it's the emest road a power.' 
Erne, regularly declined in every decree, obtains throughout the 
county,b ut is in most general use in the northern parte, whereat is 
constantly heard. A.o. anemn = anefen = onefen = on-eme. C£ 
Anunst = anemn = anefen = on-eme-s + t (excrescent). Of. 
Ghiin (1). 

EKPASSY ON, sb, the symbol & = and. Com. Empa8»y on is a 
corruption of and per se. The s3naibol & expresses and by itself (». e. 


in a single sign), and "was read as ' and per »e; * it originally meant 

et, and is merely 6)t9 written with one stroke of the pen. Compare 
&o. = et caetera = and the rest. 

'The letters A, O sometimes meant words, yiz. the words "a" or 
" oh ! " They were then called A-per-$e-A and O-perse-O, or simply 
A-per-M, &c. "A-per-M'* also meant "excellent."' — Romance of 
Parimay, 1148. 

See Grammar Outlined {alphshe^, 

EHD [en*d], v. a. to kill ; to pat an end to. Com. ' Why dunna 
yo' end the poor thing out on its misery P ' 

* For ho so wone|> in Hs word ' & wol nouhftj y-knowe 
pat him is domed to deie * & doom schal abide, 
Hit is riht )>at ^e rink * be reufuUy tnded,^ 

Alexander and DindimuB, L 1062. 

' Doug, The Lord of Staflbrd dear to-day hath bought 
Thy likeness, for instead of thee, King Harry, 
This sword hath ended him.' — 1 K, Henry Iv,, V. iiL 9. 

A.S. endian, to end. 

EHDWATS-OH, adv. endways^ Le. with the end abutting upon, 
as, ' the house standing endwayS'On to the street.' — ^Newfobt. 

ENEMT [enm'mi'l, «&., oheois^an insect. — Pulvbrbatch. 'Theer's 
a enemy o' the child^s night-gownd I ' ' Whad a good job yo* sid'n it 
afore 'e went to bed! ' 

EUTMES [ernni'z], sh. pi, obsols. enemies. — Sbrewbburt, Uffington, 
It is interesting to find this old form, which is found in the writings 
of the blind monk of Haughmond, still [1878] lingering amongst the 
aged folk who liye imder the shelter of Haughmond HuL 

^ O Jhesu, so I the beeeche, 
By^t withi her f ulli speche 

Thou graunt m3m enmes grace. 
Here mysdedis here to mende 
Out of this word or thai wynde 
Fader, thou ^ham space.' 

John Atjdelat's Poems, p. 62. 

EBCLE [ur'-kl], sib, a watery blister. — Pulvbrbatch. * Our John's 
^t a despert bad leg ; theer come a little erde on it, an' 'e scrat it, an' 
it turned to the ^sipelas, an' it's swelled as big as my middle ' [waist]. 

EBRTJ [aer'-i'n], eh., var. pr, urine. Com. An old man at Build- 
was, working in a garden under the superintendence of a young 
mistress, obseryed of a certain plant that ' it 66d be better fur some 
errin.* * Bed-herring or fresh ? ' naYvely asked the lady. * Wy n^erun. 
Miss,' replied the man with some emphasis ; ' errin sich as yo' an' me 

EBBIWIO [aer'-i'wigl, sb, an earwig. — Shrewsbury ; PuLyBRBATCH. 
Qy. com. ' Looks lite a throttled erriwig ' is proyerbially said of one 
who has a startled appearance. Of. Arrawig. 

ES-HOOK [es'uk], eh, a hook at the extremity of a wa^n-hoise's 
traces, in the form of the letter S. A hook of this kind is also used 
to unite the two ends of a broken chain. Ck>m. 


on my inion bed.' 

< EssB, Ashes. Chesh, Sheer the EssB, t . e. separate the dead Ashes 
from the Embers. Cheah,' — Bailbt, ed. 1782. A.S. cesce, ashes. 

ESS-BALLS, sb. pL, obs. balls made of the ashes of wood or fern 
damped with water; they were afterwards sun-dried. — Pulvee- 
BATCH. Qy. com. These balls were used for making * huck-lee,^ q. y. 
^ Molly, put a couple o' them eu-haUa i' the furnace an' fill it up 66th 
waiter fmr the lee, an' mak' 'aste to yore V^l, or that slippin' 66nna 
be done to-day/ EsB-halla were sold in Shrewsbury market in 1811, 
and probably much later on, as huck-waahing was practised for many 
years after uiat date. See Buck-weah. 

SSS-HOLE, sb. the ash-pit in front of a kitchen grate. Com. 

ESS-BOOK, sb, a dog or cat that likes to lie in the ashes. — PulveBt 
BATCH. 'This kit&n' inna wuth keepin'— it's too great a ess-rookJ 
Of. Book (1). 

ETE [ee-tl, pret. and part, past, ate ; eaten. — Pulvbbbatoh. Qy. 
com. ' lis there any o' that rearin' o' pork left P ' ' No, Missis ; tiie 
bayly eie it fur 'is supper las' night.' 

* par >ai oflerd, praid, and suank, 
Thre dais no|>er ete ne dranc." 

Cursor Mundi (a.d. 1320, circa), 
Specim. Early Eng,, viL 1. 42. 

ETHEB [aedhmr*], Com; [aethnir'], Obwestry; sb. Pelias beruSj 
the Adder, or common Yiper. Shropshire rustics say — 

' If the etJier 'ad the blindworm's ear, 
An' the blindworm 'ad the ether^a eye. 
Neither mon nor beast could safe pass by.' 

They also say of a person out of breath that * 'e blows like a ether,* 
It is popularly belieyed that the ether can only die at sunset ; even if 
apparently killed in the morning, it will retain life till the going 
down of the sun. See Etker'a-xuld, below. 

ETHEBINOS [aedhnir'inz], sb, pi, pliant boughs, as of hazel, inter- 
twined through the upright stakes of a hedge to bind the top and 
keep it eyen. Com. * I see they'n bin tarriir the 'edge above-a-bit ; 
the etherins bin gwun, they'n a the stakes next.' A.S. edar, what 
bounds, or defenos ; eSer, a hedge. 

ETHEB'S-KOE, sb, Cordulegasier annulaius, a large, long-bodied 
Dragon-fly. — Wbm ; Ellesmbbs. See below. 

ETHEB'S-EIU), the same as above. — Pulvbbbatgh. It is believed 
that this Dragon-fly indicates by its presence the vicinity of the 
Adder, whence its local names — Eiher^a-mon and Ether^a-nild [needle]. 
In some parts of Scotland it is called the Flying Adder, and in 
America it is said to be known as the DeviCa Darning-Needle. 

EVEN [ee'vn], sb. a dull, slow, stupid person. — Clun. ' 'Ow does 
yore girld ause P ' ' Oh ! 'er's no good, 'er's as big a even as ever wuz 
m a 'ouse.' Cf. Avon, and Avenless. 


EVEHIHO [ee*vni'n], sh., pec. the afternoon of the day. The day is 
divided into morning, middle of the day, and evening. Night hegina 
about six o'clock. — Siibewsbuby ; Much Weni/>ck. Qy. com. 

' 10*^. August 1788. The meeting held on Monday evening last 
was adjourned to be holden to-morrow Evening at three of the Clock. 

27^. March 1808. Diyine Service wiU bee:in here this evening at 
half past two of the Clock.' — Churchwardens* AccountSy Much Wenlodc 

Cf . Onder. 

SVEBrA. ' Is there ever-a wisket as I could 'ave 1 ' 

* Now tell me wha was your father,' she says ; 

' Now tell me wha was your mother. 
And had ye ony sister P ' She says, 
* And had ye ever a brother ? ' 

Fair Annie, a Scotch Ballad, first printed in 
Herd's Collection of Scotch Songs, 1769. 

See Grammar Outlines {indefinite pronouns), 

EVEB-A-OHE, either of them. Com. A good many years ago, 
Mr. Tho8. Morris of Burley — who was a* wag,' and deaf to boot — 
laid a wager that he would get * summat to dnnk ' at a certain house 
which * proved the rule' of Shropshire hospitality by being its 'ex- 
ception. He went there accordinglv, and was met with the usual 
greeting — * 'Ow bin 'ee this mornin* r ' not, however, followed by the 
equally usual, * Whad'll yo' tak' ? ' * Drink or cider,' he replied, * ever- 
a-one, I dunna car' Vich.' "Ow's the Missis?' he was asked. 
Again affecting not to understand the question, he repeated, ' Drink 
or cider, ever-a-07i6, I dunna car^ Vich.' He gained his wager. 
* Ever-a-one ' tapped his neighbour's barrels 1 See Grammar Outlines 
{indefinite pronowis), 

EVEE-SO, oflv, however much ; in any case. Com. This term is 
constantly heard in such expressions as * I'd as lief walk as ride if Td 
a 'orse ever-so* * I couldna ate that if it wuz ever-so.* 

EVE'S SCOBK, sb. Pamum Adami, the larynx. — Pulverbatoel 
' Daddy, whad's this lump i* yore neck P ' * W'y it's Eve's scork, child — 
owd Mother Eve ete the apple 'erself, but 'er gid the scork to Faither 
Adam, an' all men's 'ad'n tnis lump ever sence.' See Scork. 

EVIL [ee'vl], v. a. to turn the ground lightly over with a sharevil 
[fork] — Chttrch Stretton, Leehottoood, *Get a sharevil an' evil 
them bods o'er.' See Sharevil. 

EVIL-EYE, sh. an eye that charms. Com. ' 'E's a nasty down- 
lookin' follow — looks as if 'e could cast a nev'Ueye upon yo'.' See Bk- 
II., Folklore, &c., * Charming and Charms.' 

EXCISE [eksei'z], v. a., pec, to extort ; to exact. — Ellesmerb. 

EXPASST AKD = ef-per-se-and. See Empassy on. 

EXPECT, V, a. J pec. to think ; to imagine, without reference, neces- 
sarily, to the future. Com. * I e^ect they'd'n rar' raps at owd Peggy's 
Cakin', an' kep'n it up till daylight ; Jack never come to fother till 
seven o'clock.' 


ST£ [ei'], sb. the germ bud of a potato-tuber. Com. See Eyen, 

JSYlfiABLE [(^i'u'bl], adj. pleasing to the eye. — Pulverbatch. Qy. 
com. 'This ffownd's ptit together despert sHin; jest made eyeahle, 
an* nod to laer too limg.' 

ETEBBIOHT [ei'br'eit], ah. Veronica Chamcedrys, Germander 
SpeedwelL — Pulvekbatch. 

' Blue eyebright ! loveliest flower of aU that crow 
In flower-lored England f Flower whose hedge-side gaze 
Is like an infant's ! What heart does not know 
Thee, clustered smiler of the bank where plays 
The sunbeam on the emerald snake, and strays 
The dazzling riU, companion of the road.' — Ebenezeb Elliott. 

Cf. Bird's Eye. 

ETELET-HOLES, sK pi. small holes worked in the material of a 
garment, &c., to admit hooks or cord for fastening purposes ; a term 
of sewing craft. Com. * I dunna like 'ooks air eyes, they comen 
ondone ; eyelet-'oles bin best for fastenment.' 

< OeiUety petit trou qu'on fait & une 6toffe pour passer un cordom 
SyeUt* — Chamb. 

ETEH [ei-n or ei-h'n], sb. pi. eyes. — Corve Dalb. ' They'n the 
frummest tatoee as be, an' more'n that, they'n the ebbest eyen.* 

' Thanne ran repentance * and reherced his teme, 
And gert wille to wepe ' water with his eyen.* 

Piers Pl.y Text B., pass. v. 1. 62. 

' With that adowne out of her christall eyne 
Few trickling teares she softly forth let £Eill, 
That like to orient perles did purely shyne 

Upon her snowy cheeke. 

Spenser, F. Q., Bk. HI. o. yii. si ix. 

ETES [ei'z], sb. pL holes in bread and in cheese, caused in the 
former case by the fermentation set up by the yeast ; in the latter by 
defective management in the process of cheese-making. — ^Wem; Whit- 
GHUBcn. ' I l3:e,' said a young farmer, * bread fuU of evea, cheese 
without any, an' ale as *11 make yore eyes star* out o* yore ead.' 

* Bad Cheese, That is . . . White and dry, the Butter of it being in 
the Market when it is making ; too Salt, full of Eyes, not well prest, 
but hoven and swelling.' — Academy of Armory y Bk. III. ch. v. p. 244. 
Of. BuU'a eyes. 

PA' [fau], V. w., var. pr. to falL — Newport. * Tek keer ye 
dunna /aV 

' Nae mair then, we'll care then, 
Nae farther can we /a',' 

BoBERT Burns, Poems, p. 57, 1. 23, c. 2. 

See LI in Grammar Outlines (consonants). 



FACED-CABSS [fai-zd kaaVdz], sb, pi tbe court-cards of a pack.~ 
PuLYBRBATCH. Qy. conL C£ Cottxted-cards. 

FAD [fad], (1) sb. a whim ; a fancy ; a speciality. ' Full o' /ads' 

(2) ah, one who is di£BcTilt to please in trifles ; a tiresomely par- 
ticular person. Com. ' ETerybody toud me as I should never stop 
66th sicn a noud fad, but I stayed 66th 'er seven 'ear, an' a good 
Missis 'er wuz to me.' 

FAD-ABOXTT, v. n, to look after affairs in a quiet way. Com. 
' The poor owd Maister canna do much now— on'y /ad^about a bit; 
but, as the sayin' is, ** one par o' eyes is wuth two par o' 'ands.'* ' 

V, a. to pay minute attention to a person ; to be 

solicitous about — and complying with— /ad». Com. * Bessy's a rai' 
plack up at the owd 'aU ; nuthin 'ardly to do but faddle-after the 
Missis, draw the drink, an' sich like.' C£ Taddle. 

FADDY, adj. particular; fanciful; fussy. Com. 'I 66dna mind 
doin' twize the work, but the Missis is so dreadful faddy yo' never 
knowen w'en a thing's right.' 

FAOOIT [fagi't], (1) sb., var, pr, a bundle of sticks, or of heath, for 
fuel. — Shbewsbttry ; Clun. Qy. com. < Dun 'ee want any yeth this 
evenin', Missis ? ' ' Yes ; how much have you ? ' ' On'y about *afe a 
dozen faggits ; yo'd better tak' 'em alL' 

* Fagott, Fassis, strues. Cath.' — Prompt Parv, W. ffagod, a 
£Eiggot ; a bundle. Cf. Kid (1). 

(2) sb. a term of opprobrium for a fiilse, hypocritical woman. 
Com. ' That 66man's a reg'lar owd faggii — *er imposes on the paas'n 

FAGOITS, sb. pi. a kind of sausages made of the liver and lights of 
a pig, boiled with sweet herbs, and finely cho]>ped; then covered 
with the ' veil ' of the pig, and baked on an oven-tin. The faggits are 
oblong in form, and about an inch and a half thick. — Shbewsbubt r 
PuLVERBATCH ; WoRTHEN. Cf. Splce-balla. See Veil. 

FAIBEBEY [fai-br'i'], sb. Ribes Grosstddriay common Gooseberry. 
— PiTLVERBATCH ; CoRVE Dale ; CoLLiERT. Generally used in the 
plural form Faiberries. Cotgrave has this word in v. Groisvlles. — 
Hal. Bay, in South and East Country Words, gives ' Feabes or Fea- 
berries. Gooseberries, 8uff. Leicestersh. Thebes in Norf. Ash has 
' Feaberries, a local word,' and Grose has it as N. = North. 

FAIBEBBY-BVSH, sb. a gooseberry-bush. — Pulverbatch ; Corve 
Dale ; Colliery. < Hie awav to the faiVry-bush an' fatch my 
'ankercher as I Pttt theer to wtt n.' 

* In English Goose-berry bush, and Feorherry hush in Cheshire, my 
native coimtry.' — Gerarde's Herball, Bk. 11. p. 1324. 

FAIOH [fai'l, sb. iron-stone measure with iron-stone' ore in it. — 
Colliery, Maddey ; M. T. 

FAIV [fein* corr. faayn*], adv., obsolsA gladly.' — Pulverbatch. 
' rd/ayn g66 to the far o* Thursday on'y fur geUin' them turmits in 
afore theer comes rayn.' 


< & fayn ache wold ^an in tei\> * haue fold bim in hire amies 

to haue him dipped & kest ' 

William of PaUme, L 858. 

* Lear, Dost thou know m©, fellow P 

' Kent No, sir ; but you have that in your oountenanoe which I 
would fain call master. 
'Lear, WhafsthatP 

* jBTen^. Authority.' — K. Lear, I. iv. 30. 

' For I am sixteen and my time is a-wastin' ; 
Ifain would get married if I knew the way.' 

Old BaUad. 

A.S. fcegen, fcegn, fain ; glad. loeL feginn* 

FAISISHES, sb, pi., var. pr., oba. fairies. — Bridgnorth. 

"FALL [fsMi'\ (1) V. a, to let falL Com. 'I should never trust 
that child 6oth a lookin'-glass, 'er'U be sure to/aU it' 

* 8eb, , . . Draw thy sword : one stroke 

Shall free thee from the tribute which thou payest; 
And I the king shall love thee. 

Ani, Draw toother ; 

And when I rear my handy do you the hke, 
To fall it on Qonzalo.'—Temjpest, U, i. 295. 

(2) V, a. to fell trees. *0om. 

(3) eh. the act of felling trees. ^ Com. ' The young Squire says 
Ven 'e comes of age 'e'll faU a sight o' timber ; an' a grand^ fall 
theer'U be, fiir 'is poor owd nuncle 56dna '&ve a sprig touched in 'is 

(4) $b, the autumn. — Kewfobt. 

' What crowds of patients the town-doctor kills, 
Or how, Ia8t/a22, he raised the weekly bills.'»DBTDEN. 

Cf. Fall o' the leaf, below. 

FALLAL [fallal], sh, nonsense; jocoseness; exaggerated civility; 
'humbug.' — Shbewsbuey; Pitlvbkbatoh. Qy. com. 'I canna 
b^eve a word 'e says, 'e's so xxmcli fallal about 'im.' 

FALLEB, sb, a feller of timber. Com. 'The fallers bin on 
Esridge [Eastridge] coppy agen ; I thought they fellen a pretty good 
shar' hist 'ear.' 

FALL 0* THE LEAF, phr. the season of autumn. — Shrbwsburt ; 
PuLVEBBATCH ; Wem. Qy. com. *Ah! poor fellow, *e's despert 
' wek ; VU 'aidly see o'er the faU o' the lef 

FAVCICAL [fan-si'kul], adj., obaolsA fanciful — Pulvbrbatch; 
Wem ; Ellesmeee. 'I want a plajn dacent bonnit— none o' yore 
faiidcal finery fur me.* 

FAHO [fangg-], (1^ v, a. and v. n. to lay hold of. — Pulverbatch. 

* W'y didiuk yo^ fang out o' the 'Ind-bwurd* [hind-board] *o' the 
tumbril Ven yo' sid'n the turmits tumlin' all alung the lane P ' 


V ' Wlieither sliolde /on^e the tmjt, 
The fend or hymselye.' 

Fiera PL, pass. xri. L 10992, ed. Wb. 

' Destruction fang mankind ! Earth, yield me roots ! ' 

Tim&n, of Athens, IV. iii. 23. 

* Fangyn or latchyn (lachyn or hentyn, K BL). Apprehendo, To 
fang or seize, A.S. fang, cajptura, fangen, capius, is a verb used by 
B. Brunne and yarious writers as late as Shakespeare.' — Frompi. 
Parv. and Notes, 

(2) sb, the prong of a fork, of any kind. — Shrewsbuky; Fulvbb- 
BATCH. ' Look 'ere, Sally, this sort o' clanin' 66nna do fur me ; jest 
see *twizt them/a9a^« — ^theer*s dirt enough to set garrits in.' 

FAVOED, part. adj\ furnished with fangs. — Ibid. ' Axe Tummas 
to len' me 'is Bre^anged sharevil ; the groun's so fine it runs throu.' 

PAKOLED, part, adj.^ obsols. showily trimmed, as with ribands or 
* bugles ; ' bedizened. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch. * 'Er bonnit 
wuzf angled all o'er 6oth ribbints like a pedlar's basket' 

'..... A book ? O rare one ! 
Be not, as is onif angled world, a garment 
Nobler than that it covers.' — Cymbdine, V. iv. 134. 

Of. New-fangled. 

PAH-PEGSIiES [fanpek-'lz], «ft.pZ. freckles. — ^Wem; WrarcHURCH. 
Perhaps a corruption of faumnepecldes, to which freckles may not 
inaptly be likened. Grose has, * Fam4ickled, freckled. N. Of. 

PAHTEAO [fantai'gg and fantee'gg], ^5. a fit of ill-temper ; a pet. 
Com. * The Missis is in a pretty faniaig ; the Maister's gwun to the 
tsiX an' took the kay o' the flour-r56m ooth 'im — an' the fire i' the 
oyen fur bakin'.' 

PAHTOM [fan-tu'm], (1) adj. flimsy. — ^Newport. 'It's poor/antom 

(2) soft; flabby.-— New^rt; Wek. "fir's bin that poorly 'er 
arms han gotten quite /antom.' 

' Fantome Flesh, when it hangs loose on the Bone.' — ^Ray INerth 
Country Words], p. 29. ' C*est un yrai fantome se dit d'un homme 
maigre . . .' — Chamb. Of.O.Yr.fantosmedefantasma. — ^BuR. 

PAB [faa-r'], sb., var. pr. a fair. Com. * Far indeed ! theer's too 
many fan 
f ortnit, an' 

PARE [faer^-], (1) sb. a track, as of a rabbit. — Oswestry. A.S. 
faru, a journey. CI Muse. 

(2) adv. far; distant. — Shrewsbury ; Pulyerbatoh; Wbm; 
Ellesuere. ' How far is it to Longden ? ' * Well, if s a mile alimg 
the lane, but it inna-d-'afe Sisfare across the filda' 

' Fingered ladies whose womanlike behayiour and motherlike house^ 
wifry ought to be a lighte to al women that dwell aboute you, but is 
so fare otherwise, that, unless ye leaye them landes to marye them 

many fara — ^they wun used to be eVry month, then a oomen ey'ry 
' now they'n got 'em eVry wik ; Pm farred to djeth ! * 


wytball, no man wyll Bet a puine by ihem when you be gone.' 
—Robert Crowley's Select Works (a.d. 1649), ed. J. M. Gowper, 
E. E. T. S. 

FAB&IK' [faaVi'n], sb., var, pr, a fairing ; a present from a fair. — 
PuLVERBATCH. Qy. com. * See wbad a perty 'ankercher Jim bought 
me for a May/ornV, an' these papers o* JDorri'fn gingerbread.' 

PAEEOW [faar'-u'], (1) v. a. to bring forth a litter of pigs.— Pulver- 
BATCH ; Ellesmere. Not a term of frequent use in the first-named 
locality, and is perhaps an imported word. 

* A Swine or Sow, Farroweth : the young ones are called a Farow 
of Pigs.' — Academy of Armory ^ Bk. II. ch. vii. p. 134. 

(2) «&. a litter of pigs. — Ihid. 

' Firtit Witch, Pour in sow's blood, that hath eaten 
Her nine /arrow . . .' — ^JlfoctefA, IV. i. 65. 

A.S. fearh ; O.H. G^erm. farh ; Lat. porcua ; &rrow. — Strat. 

F ABTilLN 0-B AO, sh, the second stomach of a cow. — Pulvbrbatch ; 
Clun. * 'El's bund i' the/ar<Ain'-%.' 

FASTEHMEHT [fas-nmu'nt], sb. a fastening of any kind. Com. 
'If yo' go'n as fare as Stepit'n [Stapleton], tell Jones to come up 
an' put ^kfainmeftd o' the brew-'us door.' 

• I)oor-/a«<«»in€n<«.' — AwiifyMefi's Catalogue (Church Stretton), 1877. 
See below. 

FASTIfESS, sh, a fastening, as of bolt, bar, &c.y to door, gate, or 
window. — Wem. ' That theer bull's bin llin the dur o* 'is place, an' 
bruk the/(M'neM.' See Hile. 

FAT, pret, and part past, fetched. Com. * 'E fat up the 'ackney 
mar* out o' the leasow to tak' the owd Maister wham.' 

Among the borough accounts of Shrewsbury for the year 
the item — ' For ale that was fat in the chambvr and that serraunts 
dranke bytwixt melys ^'s viijd.' — Owen and Blaeewat's History of 
Shrewsbury, yoL i. p. 280. Cf. Fot. 

FATCH, V. a. 'to fetch. Com. * Run an' fatch me the sharevil, 

' Many wedous with wepyng tears cam to fache ther makjrs A- way.' 

Vhevy Chase, Specim. Eng, Lit,, yii. 1. 118. 

FATHEBrLAW [fai'dhur* lau], «&., obsols. a father-in-law. — Pulver- 
BATCH ; Weh. ' Dimna yo' think as Pm gwein to be married to live 
doth Toj faither-law — ^if 'e 55nna tak' a 'ouse, I stop awham.' 

FATO , part, past, fallen. — Newport. 

* O Woman lovely, Woman fair I 
An Angel form's /aun to thy share, 
'Twad been o'er meikle to gien thee mair, 
I mean an Angel mind.' 

Robert Burns, Poems, p. 205, 1. 4, c. 2. 

See LI in Grammar Outlines (consonants). 

FAVSE [fau'ss], adj. artful ; deceitful. Com. * Thoy'n got a new 
'ouBekeeper at the 'all, I 'ear ; dun'ee know anythin' on 'or ? ' * Well, 


nod much — *er manages tiie Squire's lady; bat from wbad folkB sen 
on 'er, I should think 'er's as/auae as/atwe/ 

* Wr lightsome heart I pu'd a rose, 
Fu sweet upon its thorny tree ; 
And my/atMe luyer stole my rose. 
But ah I he left the thorn wi' me.' 

BoBEBT Burns, Poems, p. 206, 1. 19. 

(2) y. a. to coax * to wheedle. Com. ^ ' I want a new gownd agen 
the W aJces ; I m\is try an* fauae my Maister o'er to get me one.' 

PAXJT [fau-t], {1) eh, fault ; error. Com. 'Oh no ! yo' bin never 
i' nofaut; yo' bin the lily-Vite 'en as neyer lays astray, yo' fain.' 

' Bot t^at o)>er wrake >at wex * on w^^e^ hit lyjt 
pUT) ^faut of a freke * l^at fayled in traw)^'' 

AUiterative Poems, The Deluge (aj), 1360, circa). 
Specim. Early Eng., ziii. L 236. 

'Then never range, nor learn to change, 

Like those in hi^h degree ; 

And if ve prove futhful in love, 

You'U mid nae /atit in me.' 

Allak Eahsay, Skmg XIV,, p. 51. 

O.Fr. fatOe. 

(2) sh, the imputation of a fault ; blame. Oom. ' They laiden the 
faut o' Joe, but I dunna think as the poor bwoy wuz to blame.' 

' I haue yherde hiegh men * etyng atte table, 
Carpen as ^ei clerkes were ' of cryEro and of his mi3tes. 
Ana leyden /au^ vppon )>e fader * )>at fourmed us alle.' 

Piers PL, Text B., pass. x. L 103. 

(S) sh, a defect Com. 'Theer^s a faut V that beSm; I doubt as 
ifll never bar Jack-tiles.' 

< penne he s^ a newe ohaumbre-wouh * wroujt al of bordes^ 
a dore honginge >er-on * haspet fol faste, 
A child cominge \>otw ' his come was nout seene, 
Si^en lenges a- while ' and a-^ein lendes^ 
wij^-outen /au^ o)>er fans ' as )>ei fore seiden.' 

Joseph of Aritnaihie, L 208. 

^Fawte^ or de£awte. Defedus* — Prompt, Parv, 

(4) sh, a dislocation in the seam of coal or ore in a mine. — ^IC. T. 
'Comin' to a faut' is a metaphorical phrase frequently employed to 
express ' let or hindrance * in any of the ordinary affairs of Me. 

JAUTT, (1) adj, guQty ; blameworthy. Com. * I knowed 'e wuz 
fauty as soon as I sid 'is foce, for all 'e denied it, but I plankt it on 
"im,' «. e. convicted him of the oflfence. 

* And if they [the byshoppee] be f ounde nedigente or fauty in theyr 
duties oute with them.' — IjAXIMX!^ Sermon ii. p. 66. 

* r\KE diligent seruiture, skilfull to waight ! 

yj more oomelieth thy table than other some eight. 
That stand forto listen, or gaonj^ about, ^ 
not minding their dutie, withm nor without. 


Such waiter ia/auUe that standeth so by, 
ymnindful of seruice, forgetting his ey. 
If maister to such giue a bone for to gnaw, 
he doth but his office, to teach such a daw.' 

TusssB, Fiue Hundred Faintes of Oood Htuhandrie, 
ed. E. D. S., p. 189. 

(2) adj. defective ; imperfect ; in bad condition. Com. ' My shoes 
bin getbn'/auty, an' this snow ^1 find 'em out.' 
• Favjiyt or defawty. De/ecHvus.* — Prompt Parv, 

TAYOTJB [fai'vurl, v. «. to bear a family likeness. — Shrewsbury ; 
PxTLVERBATCH ; WBM. Qy. com. * Tha^s a pretty babby o' Matty 
Wigley's.' ' Aye, 'er's a good-lookin' ddman, an' it favours 'er family 

' Good faith, methinks that this Toung Lord Chamont 
Favours my mother, sister, doth he not ? ' 

Ben Jonson, Ccue is aUet'd, iii. 1, in Nakes. 

Mr. Nares* note on the foregoing is^ ' The Mother had been dead 
some time.' Of. Feature. 

PEAK [fi'Ti'k or fi'aek*], (1) sb. a sharp twitch or pull. — Shrews- 
bury ; PULVEEBATCH ; WOBTHEW. Qy. com. 

(2) V, a. to eiye a sharp twitoh or pxUL-^Ihid. 'I know w'en our 
Maister's in a l>ad 'umour, fiir 'e bI^ajb fedka 'is weecut down.' 

7SABH [fi'aaVn], »&., var, pr, fern. Com. ' Theer wuz a power o' 
feam cut on Huglith, an' burnt to make ess-balls on.' This was said 
in reference to a circumstance dating about 1805. AS. fearn^ fern. 
See Ess-balls. 

FEATTJBE [fai'chu/], v, a, to resemble in feature. — Shrewsbury ; 
PuLYERBATCH ; Wem. Qy. com. ' Ben faichurs 'is feather, but all 
the rest favour the mother's sida' Of. Favour. 

FEBSIWERBT-FUL-BICHE, sh, the month of February, which is 
usually a wet one. — Pulyerbatoh. Qy. com. *Now Chri8*ma8 is 
tumea we sha'n be glad to see the end of owd Janniwerry-freeze-the- 
pot-by-the-fire an' Fehritaerry-JUUdiche — thaf s like a tuthless owd 
d6man as 'ad three nuts to crack, an* *er said, '' If I could crack this 
an' another I should on'y a one lef to crack." ' 

« Feb, fia the dike 
With what thou dost like.' 

TussER, FehruarieB husbandries' 

* February fill dike, Be it black or be it white ; 
But if it be white, Ifs the better to like.' 

Bay's Proverbs, p. 33. 

FEED [fee'd], sb. food ; pasture. Com. ^ I hanna sid more feed o' 
the groun' mr many a 'ear than is this time, an' now jest 'allantide.' 
Shakespeare hBafoMing in the sense of pasturage, tract of land. 

' Shep, They call him Doriolee ; and boasts himself 

To have a worthy /eecitfi^. ' 

Winter^s Tale, IV. iv. 169. 
Gf. Kesp (3). 


FEEDIHO-TIIEB, sb. warm, showery weather. — Shrewsbury ; 
Pttlvebbatch. Qy. com. ' It's a fine feedifC-iime for the com an* 
tiirmits, but it males the *ay lag.* 

JTISKJilHOS [fee'h'r*mzl sh, ph spaces of ploughed land from eight 
to more yards in width. — Shrewsbubt ; Pulverbatch. Qy. com. 
FeeringB differ from ' huts ' in being made as level as possible ; ' buts ' 
are high on the ridge, and correspondingly low in the ' rean : ' ' bnta ' 
are on wet lands— /(;mn^« on dry lands. Cf. But (1). See Veerings. 

FEO [fog*], ah, long, rank grass, which cattle refuse to eat unless they 
have no other. Com. 

PEL* [fel*], pret, and part, past felt. Com. ' I feV so bad all o'er as 
if I wuz gwem to '&Ye a faiver, but I tddk a good jorum o' drink-mate 
an' it throwed it off.' See T (3) in Grammar Outlinea {conaofiianta). 

VlftT.T. ^1) pret and part, past, fallen. Com. 'They sen as poor 
Jack* B /ell off the stack an' broke 'is leg.' 

* Ten masts at each make not the altitude 
Which thou hast perpendictdarly/e//.' 

K, Lear, TV, Ti. 54. 
Cf. Faun. 

(2) i;. a. to hem down the inside of a seam : a sewing term. Com. 
' Bun that sem up an' fell it down.' 

FELLEV, V. n., pret, pi. felL Com. ' We feUen, the par on us, as 
we wun runnin' down the bonk.*^ 

* Firste )H)rw \>e we/ellen * fro heuene so heighe ; 

For we leued ]>i lesynges ' 

Fiers PL, Text B., pass. XTiiL L 309. 

FELLIES [fel'iz], sb, pi, the curved pieces of wood which form the 
circumference of a wheel. Com. The number of /eUies in a wheel 
Tary according to its size, but there are two spokes m each. 

' The Fellees or Felloes are the pieces which compass the Wheel, the 

Wheel Bim, which are in number.' — Academy of Armory, 

Bk. ITL ch. viii. p. 332. 

' Felwe of a qwele (whole, P.). Circumfermcia — Frmnpt. Parv, 

A.S. felge, — Idem. 

FEVDIHO AFB FBOVnTO, phr.^ obsoh.'i disputing; arguing for 
and against. — Pulyrrbatgh. ' Han they settled about the fii^way . 
yet ? theer's bin a sight o* fetiHrC arC prcvxrC ; it wuz to be settled at - 
the Court Leet.' Grose giYes this phrase as ' common ' in his FrO' 
vincial Glossary , 

* To fend and prove, i. e. to wrangle ; Yitilitigo, alteroor.'— Adam 
LnTLBTON's Lot, Did, 1735, sub voc, in £. D. S., C. yL 

FESCTTE [fes'keu], sb.^ obs. a pointer used in teaching children to 
read. — ^Pulvbrbatch ; Worthbh". *I see yo' binna-d-in a 'umour 
to lam this momin*; lave the fescue an' the Psalter an' run to 
Churfn fur me, yo'n do it better Ven yo' comen back.' 

' Lowed men may likne 30W ]>ub ' >at )>e beem lithe in ^ure eyghen, 
And pefestu is &llen * for )owre defiiute.' 

Piers PL, Text B., pass. x. 1. 277. 


Mr. Skeafs note on the foregoing is — Qt * Quid oonfiideras/e^fuca??!,' 
at 1. 262, above [Matt. yii. 3]. 

Mr. Way refers to this same passage in Piers. Phy and adds, 'The 
Medulla likewise renders '^/esiucay festu, or a lytel mote.*' The name 
was appUed to the straw or stick used for pointing, in the early 
instruction of children : thus Palsgrave gives *' festue, to spell with, 

{estev.^^ Occasionally the word is written with c or k, instead of f, 
lut it is apparently a corruption. " FestUy a feskue, a straw, rush, 
little stalk, or stick, used for a fescue. * Touche, a fescue ; also, a pen 
or a pin for a pair of writing-tables." Gotgb.* — Note in Prompt, 
Parv., p. 158. 

FETCHES [fech-iz], sb, pi, vetches. — Pulvbrbatoh; Oswestrt. 
< Everall's got some &mous winter fetches i' the Fut-way fild — they'n 
'elp ^ fother out.' 

< This is said by hem that be not worth two fetches J 

Ohauceb, Troil, and Cres, , iii. 887, in Bible Word-Book, 

*Fetche^ come, or tare (fehehe, K). Ft'cui, UQ-. in vtticto, crobus, 
C. P.'— Prompt Parv. See Fitches. 

FETTEEIH' [fet-hYin], part. adj. pottering about. — Clun ; Wem. 
* The warden wuz al' ays fettering i' the churchi' said Francis Bawlings, 
of Clun [1873]. 

FETTLE [fet'l] (1), t;. a. to put in order ; to repair; to make ready. 
Com. A pansh clerk of Cound [Salop] gave notice— -during the time 
of Divine Service— of a vestry meeting, in the following terms : * This 
is to give joM all notice that theerll be a meetin' in the vestry nex' 
Toosay wik — 'ould, Pm wrune — ^nex' Toosd'y as ever ccmies I mane— 
to fettie the pews and so forth.^ 

' Wen hit wat^ fettled & forged ' ft to ^e ftille gray^ed, 
penn con drattyn hym dele * dry3ly )>yse worde^ ; 
'* Now Noe, quod oure lorde ' art )k>u al redy P 
Hal^ ^u closed pj kyst * with day alle aboute P " ' 

Auiterative Poems, The Deltige (a.d. 1360, circa). 
Spedm, Early Eng., xiii. L 343. 

' John bent vp a good veiwe bow, 

& ffettded^ him to shoote : 
the bow was made of a tender boughe, 

& feU downe to his footee.' 
Ouye of CHsbome, 1. 60. Percy Folio M8., vol. iL 
p. 230, ed Hales ana Fumivall. 

* 'ffeHded, prepared; addressed him.' — Verbum SaJcpiense. Note 
by Bp. PBECfY.— /Wd. 

The only instance of Shakespeare's use of the word feHU occurs in 
the foUowmg passage :— 

' Oaptdet. How now, how now 

Thank me no thankings, nor proud me no prouds, 
But fettle jaai fine joints 'gainst Thursday next. 
To go with Paris to Saint Peter's Church, 
Or I will drag thee on a hurdle thither.' 

Borneo and Juliet, HE. v. 154. 



* Prov. En^. fettie, to set in order ; Mcdso-Gotli. fdjan^ to adorn, 
make fit; allied to A.S. /etel, a fetter, and R fii. See Diefenbach, i. 
373/ — Glouarial Index to Specim, Early Eng. 

(2) »h. state; order; condition. Com. 'To'n fine the lanes in a 
despert/e<t^ now, ddth the snow gwe)[n away.' 

FEW [fyou'], adj\, var, pr. few. Com. * Tbeer wunna but a /yeow 
pars on that tree — they met*n a lef 'em alone.' 

* If hops look browne, 
so gather them downe. 
But not in a deaw, 
for piddling with /eaw*r/*«Moe, ed. 1677]. 

TirsSBlfc's Fine Hundred Poinie» of Oood 
HuBbandrie, ed. E. D. 8., p. 427. 
A.S. fedxoty few. See Grammar Outlines {indefinite numerals). 

FID [fi'd'j, V. a. to chew fodder and eject it from the mouth, when, 
from bemff imperfectly masticated, it cannot be swallowed. — Glee 
Hills. ' Maister, that owd mar^ fids 'er fother— 'er's got no tith 

FIDDLE-FADDLE [fidi fieul'l], t;. n. to trifle ; to dawdle.— Pulver- 
BATCH. Qy. oom. *I canna think whad yo*n bin fiddle-faddUn' 
about all momin' — 'ere if s jest bayte time an the milk things neiver 
done up.' 

FIDOE [fi'j'], (1) 8h, a fidget; a restless person. 'A r^lar owd 
>W^.'— Shbkwbbttby. Qy. com. Of. Fad (2). 

(2) V. a. and v. n. to be fidgety or restless. — Ibid, ' 'Er^s al'ays jCci^n' 
about — ^"er canna be still 'melf nor let otiiier folk be.' 

* In gath*rin votes you were na slack ; 
Now stand as tightly by your taok ; 
Ne'er daw your lug, an' fidge your back. 

An' hum an' haw ; 
But raise your arm, an' tell your crack 

Before them a'.' * 

BoBB&T BuBNS, Poems, p. 10, 1. 21. 

FIERT-BBAV'-TAIL, ab. the Eedstart.— Pulvxrbatoh, Hanwood. 
See Brand-tail. 

FIFT [fi'f -t], fifth. Qy. com. An old form. 

* & Bwiohe duel drow to hert * for his dedus ille, 
pat he deide on pe fifte day * to talke \>e so)>e.' 

WiUiam of PcOeme, 1. 1322. 

'Eing Henry the Fifty too famous to Hue long.' 

1 K Henry VL i. 1 [ed. 1623], in Bible Word-Book. 

AdnepoB, fifte sune ; Adneptis, fifte dohter, occur in Sujmlemeat to 
Archbp. ^l/ric's Vocabulary, x. or xi. cent, in Wr. vocabs., voL i. 
p. 51. See Grammar Outlinea {adjectives of numeration). 

FIOABIES rfi'sae-r'i'z], sb. pi fanciful attjar^ ; fantastic ornaments, 
as of ribands, bows, flowers, &c. — SsJiewdBUBX: ; Atchah ; Pulvbb- 
3AT0H; Clun; Wbm. Qy. com. "Br's ^all manner o' figaries 
about 'er.' Perhaps vagaries == whimseys is meant. 


TIOlBntEVTS [fi'gaer^i'mu'nts], sb, pL same as Figaries. Qy. 
com. ' I should like it made nate an' plain — no figdriments about it.' 

FIOOETTT-DTIMPLIHO [fig-i'tr dura-pli'n], sb, a pudding made by 
lining a basin with paste and then filling it with figs cut in pieces, 
currants, a little candied peel, treacle, and water, coyerins it with 
paste, and boiling it for some hours. It is said to be ' nod afe bad.' 
— Ellbsmebe. 

FIOHTIHO-COGKS, ab, pi PlarUago lanceolata,—(iy. com. It is 
a fayourite amusement with children to try to strike gS. the head of 
one plantain-stalk by hitting it with another, whence the name 
Fighting-cocks. See Mack Jacks. 

irl LBEATIP [fil'bi'u'r'd], sb, a filbert. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch. 
Qy. com. Pilbeard is found in Tusser, p. 75, ed. E. D, S. 
*Fylberde, notte. Fillum, Dice' — Prompt Parv. See below. 

FILBEABD-TEEE, sb. the cultivated Corylus Avellana, filbert-tree. 
--^Ibid, * I never sid the filbyard-trees covered 66th lamb-tails [cat- 
kins] as they bin this 'ear * rft79]. * Hic/uUWf a fylberd-tre,' occurs 
in a Nominale, xiy. cent, in Wr. vocabs., yoL i. p. 229, and Mr. Wright 
has the following note upon it : * The Latin should be fiUis. Filberde- 
tree, Phillis,* — Prompt Parv, Gk)wer, Con/es. Amant, vol. ii p. 30 
^ed. Pauli), has misrepresented the story of Phillis and Demophoon, 
m Ovid, in order to give a derivation of this word. 

* ** And Demephon was so reproved. 
That of the Goddes providence 
Was shape suche an evidence 
Ever afterward ayein the slows, 
That Phillis in the same throwe 
Was shape into a nutte-tre, 
That alle men it mighte se. 
And after VhiUis phiUiherde 
This tre was cleped in the yerde." ' 

FILS rfi'1'4]' ^^' ^ ^^^ Com. The curious expression, ' a fild of 
land, is often heard. 

* By occasion of thys texte [Bom. xv. 4] (most honorable audience) 
I haue walked thys Lente in the brode filde of scripture and vsed my 
libertie, and intieated of such matters as I thought mete for this 
auditory.' — Latimer, Sermon vii. p. 182. 

Tusser has fildes for fields, ei 1557. A.S. /dd; JUd, a field; 
pasture; plain. 

FILDEFABE [fi'l-di'faa-'r*], sb. Turdus pUdris, the Fieldfare.— 
Shbewsbxtby; Pulverbatch. 

FILDFASE, sb. same as above. — Ludlow. 

' he com him-self y-charged * wif^ conyng & hares, 
wil^ fesauns A/dd/ares * and of'er foules grete.' 

William of Palerne, 1. 183. 

A.Q. feala'/or, — Idem. See Blue-back^ also Shredcock. 

JFlim [fci'nd], V. a. to provide for ; to supply — more especially with 
food. Com. * I call three shillin' a day big wages, an' Jlnd 'em in 
mate an' drink.' 

L 2 


' Then hayest thow londes to lyre by, 
Quath Beson, '* other lynage ryche 
That /yndcn the thy fode ? ^ * 

Pier$ PL, p. 614, ed. Wb. 

* By housbondrye of such as God hire sente, 
Sohe/cmd hireeelf, and eek hire donghtren tuo.' 

Chauoek, The Nonne Prestes Tale, 1. 9, ed. Morria. 

By an 'Assessment of the Corporation of Canterbury,' made in 
1504, the following were the rates of wages declared payable:— 
' Every labourer ft^m Easter to Michaelmas, with meat and drink, 
4c2. per day, finding himself, lOd, ; and from Michaelmas to Easter, 
with meat and drink, 4(2.; without, Sd, Mowers per day, with meat 
and drink, M. ; finding themselves, 14d By the acre, witii meat and 
drink, 4d ; without, 8(i. Beapers per day, with meat and drink, 6d.; 
finding themselves, lOd.; by the acre, with meat and drink, 14(2.; 
without, 28d''-HA8TBD's Jntiquitiea of Canterbury, 1801, yoL iL, 

A.S. findan, to find. 

FDIOESS-AFB-T0B8, sb. a diseased form of turnip-— caused by 
the attacks of an insect — ^where the root has departed from the natural 
growth and become branched and clubbed. Com. See Fingers and 
toes, E. D. S., C. vL 

FDFOEB-STALL, ah. a covering — ^usually the finger of a glove — ^for 
a sore finger or thumb. Com. 'We 'ad*n a busy day o* Friday, 
whad 66th chumin', bakin* pork-pies, an' renderin' Lard ; an' to mak* 
amends I cut my finger,' but I clapt a finger-stall on an' went at it as 
if nuthin' wuz the matter.' Mr. Halliwell says, ' Finger-stcUl does not 
appear to be in the dictionaries. It is in common use, and occurs in 
FUmo, p. 139.' 

JfJJIlSHED, part, adj. weak of intellect is expressed by ' not quite 
finished.* — WoRTHZX, Cherbury. Cf. Half-soaked. 

FimflKIH [fin'i'kin], adj. over-nice; mincing; finical Com. 
' I dunna know whad the fellow wanted 66th sich a finnikin piece as 
'er — 66th fingers too fine to keteh out o' the pig-trough.' 

FnUBALLS, sb. pL fir cones. — Shrewsbury ; Clun ; Wkm. 

7I&-B0BS, idem, — Pulterbatch. 

FIE-BBTTSHES [fur'-br'aesh-Tz], sb. the needle-foliage of fir trees. — 
Cltjw. Of. Way's note on Fyyre in Prompt. Parv., p. 162. 

FntE-BBAH'-TAIL, same as Fiery-bran*-tail, q. v.— Clun, TtcUchm; 


FIBE-70KK, sb. a long-handled, two-pronged fork for stirring up 
the fuel in a bricik-oven. — Pulvbrbatch. 'Sally, yo' should'n a 
brought the fire-fork an' the slut afore yo' putten yore 'ands i' the 

* The Kytchynge , . . one fire/orke two wodden peeles.' — Inveniory 
. • • Owlbury Manor-House, Bishop's Castle, 1625. C£ Oven-pikel. 

FIEXABT [fur'-muVi'], sb. an infirmary. Com. ' Well, I hanna 


much consate o' them dub Doctors ; if yo'd send 'im to the Firmary 
Vd get tiie best *elp as could be 'adr' 

' Chambers wit chymneyes * & ChapelLs gaie ; 
And kychens for an hyje kinge ' in castells to holden, 
And her dortour y-dijto ' vri^ dores ful stronge ; 
Fermery and firaitur * with f ele mo houses.' 

F. PL Cr.yX 212. 
• Fermerye. Infirmaria,^ — Prompt. Parv. '• 

FIBST-BEOnrHnrO, ab., pec. the beginning. Qy. com. 'The 
first-heginnin' on it wuz a little pimple no bigger than a pin's yed, an' 
it filmed an' turned to Tantony's-fire, an' the poor owd chap's gotten 
a despert leg.' 

FIB8T-F0LE, sh. the ridge piece of the roof-timbers. — Glun. 

FISOIO [fiz'gig], (1) sK this term implies a kind of loose ^shagginess,' 
as of fiizzy hair, or of the ill-connectod garnish of a dress. — ^PuiiVER- 
BATGH. ' Whad 5$th frills an' furbelows, 'er wuz all of Bkfisgig.* 

(2) sh.j al. ? sharp, small beer. — Shbewsbttbt ; Pttltebbatch. Qy. 
com. ' A drop o' fisgisi to cut yore throat.' 

FI8K [fi's'k], V, n. to wander ; to roam about idly. — Shrewsburt, 
VffingUm. ' Mother, owd Eitty James wuz at the 'arves'-wham at 
Upton Magna/ 'Bless me! 1 never sid sich a 5oman as 'er fur 
fiikitC about ; no matter whad's gwein on, 'er's sure to be at it.' 

' And what £rek of f^ys folde * fitketh )>U8 a-bouto.' 

Piers PL, Text 0., pass. x. L 153. 

Mr. Skeat's note on this passage is: — *Ftsketh, wanders; roams. 
As this word is scarce, I give all the instances of it that I can find. 
In Sir Oatoayne and the Orene Knight , ed. Morris, 1. 1704, there is 
a description of a fox-hunt, where tho fox and the hounds are thus 
mentioned : — 

**& he fyskez hem by-fore • |>ay founden hym sone" — i.e. and he 
(the fox) runs on before them (Uie hounds) ; but they soon found 
him. " Eyscare abowte ydylly ; Discursor, discursatrix, vagulus vel 
vagator/vagatrix." — Prompt, Parv,, p. 162. ** Fiskin abowte yn ydil- 
nesse ; Vago, giro, girovago." — Ibiai 

" Such serviture also deserveth a check, 
That runneth out fishing, with meat in his beck " [mouth]. 

TussER, Five Hundred Points, &o., ed. Mavor, p. 286. 

'*Then had every flock his shepherd, or else shepherds; now they 
do not only run Jwcing about from place to place, . . but covetously 
join living to livmg." — ^WHiTGiFr*8 Works, i. 628. 

** I /y^e, i. e. fretille. I praye you se howe she fysketh about." — 
Palso. * ' Trotiere, a raumpe, fisgig, fisking huswife, raunging damseU." 
— COTO. 

" Then in a cave, then in a field of com. 
Creeps to and fro, andfisketh in and out." 

Duhartas (in Nares). 

'* £[is roving eyes rolde to and fro, 
He fiskyng fine, did myndng go.** 

KENDAUi's Flower of Epigrammes, 1677 (Nares). 


" Tom Tankard's oow .... 
Flinging about his halfe aker, fideing with her taiL**^ 

Oammer GuriofCB Needle, i. 2. 

** Fieaka, to fi»k the tail about ; to Juk up and down.*' — 8wed. Did,, 
by J. Serenius. •* Fjeska, v. n. to fidge ; to fidget ; to fiak'* — Swed. Diet. 

To the eKamplee of the word fisk cited in the fcyregoing note may 
be added the following : — ' But whan a stronger than he commetn 
vpon hym, whan the light of goddes word is ones reueled, than he is 
busi, then he rores, then he fyekes a brode, and styrreth Tp erroniuB 
opinions^ to sclaunder godds word.' — ^Latuisb, Sermon, iy. p. lOi. 

FI8KT, adj. frisky, as of a kitten, &c. — Shrkwsbubt, Uffington, 
Qt Flak, above. 

FITCHES [fich-i'z], sh, pi. vetches. Com. 

' Some countries are pinched of medow fbr hay, 

yet ease it with JUchis as well as they may. 
Which inned and threshed and husbandlie aight, 
keepes laboring cattle in yerie good plight. 

In threshine ouifitchis one point I will shew, 

first thresn out for seede of the JUchia a few : 
Thresh few fro thy plowhorse, thresh cleane for the cow, 
this order in Norfolke good husbands alow.' 

TussER, Fiue Hundred Pointea of Good 
Huahandrie [December]. 

FITCHET [fich-i't], sh. Puforius fopAidus, the Polecat. — Shrewsbury ; 
Wem : Ellesmebe. In the last two of these districts ^tch is some- 
times neard instead of fitchet. The ionn. fitchew occurs in P. PL Cr., 
1. 295, and in K. Lear, IV. vi. 124. 

FITCHET-PIE, sb. a pie made of apples, onions, and bacon : some- 
times cheese is substituted for the bacon, but it is a departure from 
' old usage.' This pie gets its n&aie— -fitchet — ^from the strong, un- 
savoury odour it emits in baking. 

FITCHOCK [fich'u'k], same as Fitchet, ahoye. — Shrewsbitry ; 
Pulvebbatch ; Oum ; Corvb Dale ; Ltjdlgw. It is worthy of 
remark, as showing the decay of provincialisms, that some words 
linger on with a wrong meaning ; thus in Oorye J)ale some there 
begin [1874] to call a hedgehog a fltchock. 

FITCHOGK-PIE, same as Fitchet-pie, 'made after the original 
receipt.' The form fiichock-pie follows fitchock in localities. 

FITHESFEW [fidh-ur'feu], sh. PyrSfhrum PartfiSnium, common 
Feverfew. Com. 

* ... In English, Fedder/ew anri Feuer/ew It is vsed 

both in drinks, and bound to the wrists with bay salt, and the ponder 
of glasse stamped together, as a most singular experiment against 
the ague.' — Gerabde^s Herball, Bk. ii. p. 053. 

* Fedyrfu or fedyrfoy, herbe. Fehriffuga.^ — Prompt Parv. 

A. 8. fe/er/uge, f'everfew, a herb. See Feather/eio, E. D. 8., C. ix. 

FITHEES rfidh-ur'z], ab. pi, var. pr. feathers. Pom. * Look sharp 
an' strip them, fithera, I want 'em to put in a bouster.' 


FITS AHD &IBDS, phr, fits and starts. — Pulverbatch ; Welling- 
ton ; Wem ; Ellesmebe. ' Theer^s no 'eed to be t^k o' that chap, 
Vs all by fiU wC girds,' 

< Bjftta and gtrds^ as an ague takes a goose.' 

Rat's Prwerhs, p. 272. 
Of. Hobs and Oirds. 

TITTIES [fit-i'z], 8h, pi little feft : children's term. Com. 

tUTLB, ah. victual. — Corte Dale. See Y (2) in Grammar Out- 
lines {eon/BonanU), 

FLABBOXTS [Bab nisi, adj, a term applied to a slovenly, loose, iil- 
fitting garment. — ^lluoH Wenlook. A coined word probably. 

TLhSt [flag-], V. n. to fade. — Shbewsbubt ; Pulverbatch. ' If yo' 
laven them flowers i' the sun they'n^Io^.' 

FLAO-BASKBT, eh, a soft, flexible basket, made of flags — a generic 
term for reeds — chiefly used by workmen for carrying their tools in. — 
Shrswbbuby ; Pttlvxbbatch. ' I've bought satchels an' made bags 
fur school till Fm tired, an' now Fll get a flag-baaket, an' see if that'll 
las' 'em.' Of. Frail, also Budget. 

FLAKE [flai'k], v, n. to bask in the sun. — Clun ; Ellesmebe. — ' I 
seed a ruck o' lads an' dogs fldhirC o' that sunny bonk o'er-anunst the 
pentioe' (Welahampton). 

FLAKY-SPAB [flai'ki' spaa'r'], eh. Calcic carbonate^ Calc-spar. — 
PuLVERBATOH, Bnailbeo/ih ; M. T. The local name given to this spar 
is very likely due to the manner in which its beautiful rhomboidal 
prisms sever ox flake. 

FLAHHEV [flani'n], sh., var. pr. flannel Com. 

' I wad na been surpris'd to spy 
Ton on an auld wile's flainen toy.' 

BoBERT BiTRNS, Poenu, p. 74, I 19, c. 2. 

W. gwlanen, flannel ; from gwlan, wool, 

FLAHS, sb. pi. stony pieces of coal that won't bum. — Clee Hills. 
' No o8nder theer's no fire, that coal's nuthin' i' the world but flans.* 

FLAP, sb, a tearcrumpet. — Shrewsbury; Pulverbatch; Wem. 
* I went to see the poor owd Missis las' wik, an' fund 'er busy makin' 
flaps, so I buttered 'em off the bak'stwun, an' we'd'n a rar* joram, an' 
a good bit o' cant into the bargain.' Molly Preece of Church Pulver- 
batch, who followed the calung of a crumpet-maker [1838], was 
generally known in her neighbourhood as Pally Flap. See Flap-Jack, 
below. Of. Pikelets. 

FLAP-JACK, same as Flap, above. — Colliery. 

' First Fisherman Come, thou shalt go home, and we'll 

have flesh for holidays, flsh for fasting days, and moreo'er puddings 
and flap-jacks ; and mou shalt be welcome.' — PerideSf II. i. 87. 

Flap-jack appears to be generally glossed pancake. Bee Narss and 


FLASH [flash'], ^. a shailow pool of water left after heavy rainB (x 
flooda.--CLUv; Ellbsicbrb; Oswsstrt. 

* Fl<u$he, watyr. Lacuna, Cath. Plasche, orflasehe, where reyne 
watyr stondythe (or pyt).' ' . . • . IJhe following distinction is here 
made : Plasche, flascne, or hroke : Torrens, lacuna, Plasche, or fiaach 
after a rayne : Colluvio, colluvium,' — Prompt, Parv, and NoU$, 

YLhM, sb. pi. same as Feelings, q. v. — ^Whitchurch. 

FLAT-STOVE^ a measure of iron-stone.— Colliert ; M. T. 

FLAX, sb. Curruca cinerea, common Whitethroat. — ^Nbwfort. Cf. 
Jack-straw. See Hay-tick. 

FLAT [flai*], (1) v. a. to pare the turf off grass land. Com. See 
Flaying-spade, helow. 

(2) ab. part of a plough : it goes hefore the coulter, and pares off 
the surface of the ground, turning it under the ftirrow which the 
plouffh makes, and so hurying grass or weeds more effectually than 
could otherwise be done. Com. ' Be sure an' pfit the flay dip enough 
to cover it under.' 

' Iron wheel plough withyZay.' — Audicneer^a CataJogtie (Stoddesden), 
1870. Cf. Skelp. 

FLATDIO-SPADE, #&., oba. Y an implement for paring off the surface 
of rough grajas land for bumine. — Whitchttrch, Tilatock. The 
flaying-apade is about nine inches broad and three inches deep ; it is 
slightly curved and ' dishing ' in shape. The handle, which is about 
four feet in length, is made of a rude stick naturally formed for 
adaptation to the purpose of working the implement, that is, after 
the manner of a ' breast plough.' See Betting-iron. 

FLEAK [flek-], sb. a hurdle. — Oswestrt. ' Hec cratis, a fleL' 
Ncminate, xv. cent., in Wr. vocabs., vol. L p. 234. 

* Fleyke, or hyrdylle, Pleda^ flectay cratis,* — Prompt, Parv. See 
Way's note. <O.Icel fleki; O.Du. vlaek, fleak (flaik), hurdle,' in 

FLECKED [flek't], part, adj.^ obsols. spotted ; streaked. — ^Pulver- 
BATCH. * Ah ! it wuz pretty down i' the Glibe IGhbe] ; I could a 
stopt theer all day to watch the little prill, an' look at the grafls 
fledced 66th sunshine through the trees, an' think 'ow we wun used 
to swingle theer.' The QUbe here spoken of is the beautiful wooded 
dell — ^through which a brook * flows on, for ever, ever' — situated 
between Churton and Castle Place. 

' and wonderful foules, 

With flekked fetheres * and of fele coloures.' 

Piera PL, Text B., pass. xi. 1. 321. 

' The ^;rey-eyed mom smiles on the frowning night, 
Chequennff the eastern clouds with streaks of light, 
And y7ecA:ea darkness like a drunkard reels 
From forth day's path, and Titan's fiery whoels.' 

Bcineo and Juliet, U. iii. 3. 

Cf . Du. vUk, a spot ; whence vlekken, to spot. 

FLED [fled-], (1^ pref. and part. past, flew; flown. Com. *The 
'en fl^ across tno path.' * The cork's fled out o' the bottle.' 


' And than anone one of the byrdes fledde fro the tree to saynt 
Brandon.'— TAc Oclden Legend^ ed. Wynkyn de Worde. Publications 
of Percy Society, 1844. 

(2) vo^fi' pati' taken ; gone : as of crops — ^roots or cereals— that 
from fly, worm, or other causes have failed either wholly or in part. 
Com. ' They'n be a poor crop o' turmits ; they bin most on em fled, 
an* the rest looken despert simple.' 

(3) part, past, gone ; fSeided : as of colour.— Shrewsbubt ; Pulveb- 
BATCH. Qy. com. ' I doubt it 5onna be sarviceable ; Pd a gownd 
Bummat like it wunst, an' the colour all fled afore oyer it wuz wesht.' 

FLEETDTOS Fflee'tinz], ab. pi, same as Cruds, q. y. — Whitohurch, 
Cheshire Border. In tiie process of preparation, the fleetinga rise to 
the surface of the whey, and are then skunmed off, whence the term. 
' To fleet, or skim the cream, is a yerb still commonly used in East 
Anglia, and the utensil which seryes for the purpose is termed a 
yleettn^-dish. " I flete mylke, take away the creame that lyeth aboye 
.it whan it hath rested. — Palsg. ** Eahurrer, to fleet uie creame 
potte ; laid esburrS, fleeted milke ; maigne, fleeted milke, or wheye." 
— ^HoUyband's Treasurie. '* EscreiTiS, fleeted, as milke, uncreamed." 
— Goto. A.S. flet, flos ladis.'—'WAY, in Prompt, Parv,, p. 166. 

FLEX [flem*], sb. a mill-stream, i, e, the channel of water from the 
main stream to the mill, below which the streams reimite. — Shrews- 
BTJRY; PuLyERBATCH. * We wenten smack into another "trap" 
[yehide] jest on the flem bridge at the Hook-a-gate ; if s a great 
ddnder £nem or us didna g55 o'er into it.' Flem is a corrupt form of 
flum, an old word found in the early writers. The expression * the 
flum Jordan ' occurs in the Story of Genesis and Exodus [a.d. 1230, 
circa"], ed. Morris, L 806, E. £. T. S. Flum also occurs in Layamon, 
1. 542, and Ormuium, 1. 10342 (both about A.D. 1200). It is probably 
O.Fr. flum, from Lat. flumen, a riyer. Of. Flam in E. D. S., B. ziy. 
See Bylet. 

FLEH [flen*], sb, pi, Heaa, — Shrewsburt ; PcLyERBATCH ; Bishop's 
Castle ; Clun ; CoRyE Dale ; Glee Hills. Qy. com. in S. Shr. 
* I oouldna sleep for the flen ; I wuz scroutin at 'em all night.' 

' Awake, thou cook,' quod he, ' god yeue the sorwe, 
What eyleth the to slepe by the morwe ? 
Hastow hadyfeen al nyght, or artow dronke P' 

Chattcer, H. 17 (Six-text ed.), Skeat. 

Old Munslow of the Thresholds, Salop, a well-known local * char- 
acter ' in his day-— about 1820 — ^was wont to say * as Gk>d made the 
d5nt8, but the deyil made the rots an' flen,* He held a singular per- 
suasion that the Supreme Being created only what was* good and 
useful ; and that to the Prince of Darkness might be ascribed the 
existence of all that was the reyerse of these. Hence his dictum 

upon the ' roU an* flen,* A.S. fle&, pi. fl^n, Cf. Fluff See Odnt. 

FLESH-FOEK, sb, a long, two-pronged, iron fork for getting up 
meat out of a pot or caldron — the prongs are curyed at the end. — 
PuLyERBATCH. Qj. com. 'Dick s'ore 'e could ate more poncake 
than we could'n stick the flesh-fork throu'.' Compare 1 Sam, ii. 13, 
14, where the flesh-hook is said to haye ' three teeth.' Flesh-hook 
occurs in Chaucer : — 


* Ful hard it Ib, with iteUchhok or with cwdes 
To ben ydawed, or brend, or i-bake.' 

Sompnaur^B Tale, 7312, in BiUe Word-Book. 

FLESH-MBAT, sh. butcher^fl meat. Com. * Piiddin' an' pancake's 
all very well wunsi an' a way, but theer's nuthin' like a good dinner 
o* flesh-mate for satisfyin' the stomach, as I 'eard a lickle girld say 
Ven 'er wnz stuck d6th 'er pancake—" Ok dear I throat foil an' belly 
empty I " ' 

FLIGOT [flig*in» (1) OL^J' ^urds whose down is changing to feathers 
are said to be fliggy. — Clbe Hills. 

' . . . . it is reported, the seid sone hath geye gret sylver to the 
Lords in the nortn to bryng the matier a bowte, and now he and alle 
his olde felaweship put o^ their fynnes, and am rjght flmge and 
mery, hopyng alle tnyngis and shalbe as they wole mtye iw-^Pcuton 
Letters, A.D. 1461, yol. i.p. 644. 

* Flygge as bryddis. Maiurus, volatilis. ** Flyggenesse of byrdes, 
plumevset^" — Palso. A. 8. fliSgan, yolare; flyge, fuga.' — Ptompt. 
Parv. and Notes. Cf. Flush (1). 

(2) adj. birds when imperfectly pludced are said to be fliggy* — 
Glee Hills. 

(3) adj, yery light in the crop and small in the ear ; said of grain. — 
Pulverbatch; Cleb Hills; Wem; Elleshbre. *Wy it 55nna 
stond to the scythe, ifs so nation ylt^^y.' Cf. Iiathy (2). 

(4) adj, soft, as from saturation. — WWM. * Trapsin' about i' the wet's 
made my boots as fliggy as con be.' 

FLIOHT fflei-t], (1) sb. a crop. — Clbb HiLiiB; Clun ; Ludlow. 
' Theer'll DC another >If^^ o' mushrooms after a bit.' Of. Hit. 

(2) a family. — Pulybbbatch ; Glee Hills; Wem. "£ married 
agen, an' now theer's a second ^f^^t.' 

FLIVT-COAL, sb. It will be seen by reference to Coal-field and 
Ckml-namea, pp. 90, 91, that there are two seams of Flint-coaly whidi 
are distinguished as Big and Little : the former is a ' good burning cool,' 
the latter a ' good smelting coaL' 

;<*The Big Flint" has no characteristic fossQ, but the "LitUe 
Flint " has imbedded in it the stems of Stigmaria, composed of sand- 
stone. The rock oyerlying it also contains similar i^ecimens.' — 
From Notes on the Shropshire Coal-Field, by T. Pakton, F.G.S., 1868. 

FLISBIET [flis'ki'], sb, a sloyenly, ill-pressed woman. — Whitghubch. 
' 'Er's an owd fliskey as eyer wuz seed.' 

FLIT [flit'], V. n, to remoye from one house to another ; to change 
the abode. — Shbewsbuby; Newport; Whitohubgh; Ellesmbkb. 
Qy. com. 

* Thow sail haiff leiff to fysche, and tak the ma ; 
All this forsuth sail in our flytiyng ea. 
We serff a lord ; thir fysche sail till him gang.' 

Hekby the MmsTREL (A.D. 1461, circa), Wallace, Bk. L 
Specim. Eng, Lit., 1. 396. 

* To fliite from place to place is no poyncte of lightenesse of man ; 


but an euident oigne of the diaritee, that suche as folowe tha steppes 
of the Apostles ought to haue.' — XJdal's Erasmus [1548], Luke, foL 
51 b, in mhk Wwd-Bock, 

• Wi' tentie care 111 flii thy tether 

To some hain'd riff, 
Whare ye may nobly rax your leather, 
Wi' sma' fatigue.' 
EoBXRT Bufiira, Pcmvim, p. 54, 1. 15, a 2. 

• Fluttin OP remeyyfi (away).' — Prompt. Pare, Dan. fi^ftte, — 
Idem. Of. Shift (4). 

FLITCHEH [flich'i'n], (1) d). a flitch of bacon. Com. < I shall 
tak' a flikhen an' a couple o' 'ams to the nex' far ; they'n sell well 
now that the green nase bin oomen in.' 

*Yower flitchins m bacon and Martlemas beef.' — Invefniory^ Stnit- 
ford on Avon MSS., in Wb. 

(2) Bh, a fa,t child, or over-fed person. Com. ' Inna-d-e gotten a 
great yfttcAen;' 

niTTER-MOVSE, eh, PleiStm communie, the Long-eared Bat — 

* And giddy flitter-mice with leather wings.' 

Bev Jonson, Sad Shepherdy ii. 8, in Nares. 

C£ Bit-bat, also Leather-bat. 

FLOAT, t;. a. to irrigate meadow-land by means of sluices and flood- 

fates. Com. ' Owd Mrs. Byuman [Beamond] wuz a reg'lar m&nikin ; 
'ye eid 'er 56th a noud red cloak on, fioatirC the Bam meadow Ven 
it wunna fit fur no 55man to be out.' 

FLOATIHO-SHOYEL, ah., ohsdUA a long, narrow spade used for 
draining purposes : it is about three inches longer, and two and a half 
inches narrower, in the blade than an ordinary spade is. — PuiiTSK- 
BATCH. Cf. Orafting-tool (2). 

FLOllAUUJLY [flum-u'ki'l, adj. slovenly ; ill-dressed. — Sh&ewbbubt ; 
WoRTHBiT. * A flommucky sort o* 55man«' 

FLUES [Aoo'e], sb.pL farriers' lancets. Qy. com. This term is always 
used in the plural form. The fluea consist of several lancets, varying 
in size, which close into a * haft ' like the blades of a pocket-knife. — 
See Blood-stick. 

FLUFF ffluf], (l)8b.8L flea. — Chubch Strbtton ; Wbm ; Ellbsmere. 
Generally heard in the plural form fiuffa. A S. fledy a flea. Cf. Flen. 

(2) v. a. to clean from fleas, as dogs and cats do. — Ibid, * The dog's 
flujin' 'imself.' 

FLUMBBrY [fium'brT],^^., var. pr. flummery made from oats — thus : 
the oats, having been kiln-dried, are ground, husks and all ; they are 
then soaked in water for three or four days till they become sour, 
after which the water is strained from them and boiled to a jelly. 
This is eaten with milk or beer, and even with wine ' amongst the 
betterly people.' — Shbewsbtjbt ; Cluit. Flumbry seems to have been 
introduced dv the Welsh, with whom, in many places, it is a staple 
article of food. W. Llymru, flummery. 


FLUBy sh. a floor. See Oo (8) in Orammar Ouflinei {vatoels, &c.). 

FLTTSH rflush'], (1) adj\ fledged. Com. < Turn knows to a thrustle'g 
nist odth five young uns, but they binna flush yet.' Cf. Tliggy (1). 

(2^ sh, a ahow, as of early grass. — ^Pulyebbatch ; Weh. ' I call 
it a iat spring, now close upon May-Day, an* no gniss — on'y a bit of 

(3) a sudden rise in a stream, such as would be caused l^ a 
thunder-storm a few miles up : it n^idly subsides, and thus differs 
from a flood. — Shrewsbuky ; Pulvekbatch; Worthen; Cluk; 
Wem. ' Theer's a fine flush V the Sivem ; they'n ketcht it among the 
Welsh *ills someweer.* Compare Spenss&'s * flushing blood,' that iS) 
flowing rapidly.-— 1*. Q., Bk. lY. c. tl st zzix. Of. Shut (4). 

(4) adj\ liberal; lavish. Com. "£'s more flush odth 'is money 
than sense.' 

(5) sh. a hand of cards all of one suit. Com. See for this, Hal 

FLU8XEB [fluskur'], (1) v, n. to hurry. Qy. com. « Ifluskered to 
get all done an' be ready for church,* Flusher would seem to be a 
corrupted form of fluster, O.Norse, flaustr, precipitancy ; oyer-haste, 
in Wedo. 

(2) sh. a state of confusion. Qy. com. 'I warrant if we bin in 
a flusker somebody's sure to come.' 

FLUTTER [flut'ur'], v. a. to agitate ; to confuse ; to make nervous. 
Qy. com. ' I tell yo' whad — it inna a good thing to live athin crow 
o' the lanlord's cock, fur on a busy day the Squire's aumust sure to 
come in, an' it flutters me till I dunnaknow whad I'm sayin' to 'im.' 

(2) sh, a state of agitation, &a Qy. com. ' It p&t me all of a 

FLY-FLAP, sh. the ' clapper ' used by butchers to hit flies with.— 
PuLYERBATCH. Qy. com. ' I toud 'im whad wua the matter ; I come 
dab on 'im jest like a butcher's fly-flap.* 

FLT-OANO; sh. a band of labourers who engage to do harvesting of 
other work for the farmers, and take it by the piece. The fly-gang is 
headed by a gaffer. — Newport. See Oaffer (3). Cf. Taskera. 

VOLLOWf sh., var. pr. a fallow. — Ludlow, Bur/ord. 

FOLLOWEB, sh. a dairy utensil : it is used for pressing the curd in 
the cheese-vat. — Clee Hills. 

* Cheeae-YfiiBf followers^ and suitors.' — Auctioneer^ s Catcdcgue (Sto^!^ 
desden), 1870. 

FOOT [fut-], (!) sh. feet (of measure). Com. *I want a bwurd 
about four/ut lung pCit by the back-dur far the men's bottles.' 

' Made hem to huppe * half an hundret footer 
forte seche bo|>em * )>er \fei non sei^en.' 

Joseph of Aramathie, L 14. 

(2) sh. the body of a plough. — ^Whitghttrch. Qy. com. 

' My plow-fote shal be my pyk-staf * and pioche atwo ^ rotes, 
And helpe my culter to kerue * and dense ]>e forwes.' 

Piers Pl.y Text B., pass. vi. 1. lOd. 


The jHow-fote of Piers the Plowman was not, however, the hody of 
the plough, but was an appendage to the beam for regulating the 
deptn to whidi the plough should enter the earth — * a staye to order 
of what depones the ploughe shotQd go.' See Mr. Skeat's Notes on 
P. PI, E. E. T. S., p. 161. 

In the description of a plough in The Treatise of Walter de Bibles- 
worth, close of ziiL cent, ' Le chef e le fenoun* is glossed * the plou- 
heyed and theyixrf.' — ^We. yocabs., voL i. p. 168, 

Amongst the seventeen * Parts of a Plow ' enumerated by Handle 
Holme is ' The Foot,^ which, he says, ' is the piece of Hooked or Bended 
Wood, at the end of the Plow, under the Suck ; which is to keep it 
firom going too deep in the earth.' — Academy of Armory, Bk. ITT, ch. 
viii p. 333. 

FOOT-ALE, sb, ale given to the older workmen by an apprentice or 
' new hand** as an entrance fee on taking his place amongst them. 
— PuLVEBBATCH ; Nbwpobt. Qy. com. * Jack, yo' munna be away 
o' Monday, theer's two/i4-a^e« to be paid.' 

FOOTIHO, (1) eh, same as Foot-ale, above.— i^itf. 

(2) sh. a fine demanded by craftsmen from gentlefolk who make 
experimental use of their implements of trade. Qy. com. 

FOOTSOHE [fut-sum], sh. neat's-foot oil — ^Pulverbatch ; Worthbn. 

FOBECAST [for'-kast], (1) ah. forethought. Com. ' Forecast 's the 
best afe o' the work ; if yo' dunna know whad yo' bin gwein about, 
'ow shan'ee know 'ow lung if U tak*.' 

' Forecast is better than work-hard.' 

Ray's Proverbs, p. 109. 

inclination that way, but lived as if hee designed to bee his owne 
heire, but did jioiforeocut to keepe any thing to maintaine him if hee 
happened to live unto old age.' — Gouoh's History of Myddle, p. 189. 

* To forectut, Prospicere, prouidere, prseoognoscere.' — Baebt, 
Alvearie [1580], in Bible Word^Booh. 

* Dere broker,* qua> Peres • * )>e devell is ful queynte ; 
To encombren holy Ghurche * he caste> ful harae. 
And fluriche)> his falsnes * opon fele wise. 
And for he cade}^ Uhfom * f^e folke to destroye.' 

P. PI, Cr., 1. 485. 

* Gf. Casie for to goon, or purpose fior to ddn' any othyr thynge.' 
— Tendo, intendo, in Prompt, Parv. 


FOSE-EHD [for' 'end''], (I) 8h. the beginning of a week, month, or 
year. — Ellehmerk Qy. com. 

' and, this twenty years, 

This rock and these demesnes have been my world : 
Where I have lived at honest freedom, paid 


ICore pious debts to heaven tlian in all 

The fore^end of my time.' — Cymheline, UL iii. 73. 

CC Vorrat-part. 

(2) sh. the fore-part of a thing — ' the fa^^end o' the waggin'.'— 
Pl'lysrbatch. Qy. com. 

FOBEIOITES rfnr^'rnuT'], «&., pec, a stranger ; one who belongs to 
another neighbourhood or county. — Church Stretton. Qy. com. 
' Dun'ee know who that mon is ? rye sid 'im about this good wilde.' 
'No, *e'8 a furriner V these parts; Vs from 'ereford way they 
tellen me.' 

* Upon this common [Haremeare] there is a ^^reat store of free stone 
very usefull for building. The inhabitants within the Manner pay 
to the Lord one shilling for ey^ry hundred (that is six score) foot <n 
stone, but Forainers paye one shilling and sixpence.' — uouoh's 
Hiatory of Myddle^ p. 32. 

FOBE-TOKEV [for'-toa*'kn], $K, obsols. a warning. — PtTLYSRBATCH. 
' Jack come wham star'in like a throttled ar, an' said 'e'd sid sominat 
i' the Boggy-leasowglimmerin' like a pot o' brimston', an' it wuz sore 
to be a joT^'icken, The chaps persuaden 'im it wuz the Devil's lontmi, 
an' frittened 'im out on 'is wits.' * WeU, it'll bd a mighty good job if 
'e tak's wamin', fur 'e's a despert gallus chap.' 

' To loke yf he him wolde amende, 
To him dkfoTt-iohen he sonde.' 

GowER, M8, Soc, Antiq. 134, f. 56, m Hal. 

FOSOOTTEH, adj. neglected ; out of the way. — Corvb Balb, A 
very secluded little hamlet in ' the Dale ' was described as a * forgotten 
kind of place.' Of. Forsaken, below. 

FOEHICATE, v, a., pec. to tell lies ; to invent falsehoods = to foige. 
— Shrewbbttrt; Pttlvbrbatch. Qy. com. *It wuz a downright 
lie, an' 'e can fornicate 'em as &st as a 'orse can trot' 

FOSBAT [for'ni't], adj., var. pr. forwaid; early. Com. 'John 
Griffl's 'as got a capital crop o*forrat 'tatoes— 'e says they bm the best 
an' yarliest i' this country ; 'e al'ays reckons to a new 'tatoee fur Sing 
CharUe' [May 29th]. 

' Tes ! there is ane ; a Scottish callan — 
There's aae ; oome/orrtt, honest Allan ! 
Thon need na jonk behint the hallan, 

A chiel sae clever.' 
BoBXRT Burns, Poeme, p. 114, 1. 5, c. 2. 
Cf. Pnun (1). 

FOB&AT-PAET, phr. same as Fore-end (1). — Shrewsbury. 

FO^AKEH y adj. a term chiefly applied to a very evil person, or a 
very remote place.— CoRVE Dalb. Of. Forgotten, above. 

FOBSOOKy pret. for part, past, forsakea. Com. 

' Emil. Hath theform>ok so many noble matches, 
Her fftther, aad her ooontry, and her friends P ' 

Otheih, IV. ii. 125. 


' . . . . . what yast regions hold 
The immortal mind that h&ih forsook 
Her mansion in this fleshly nook.' 

Milton, H Penseroso, 1. 91. 

FOBTY-LEOS, sh, Julite terreatrie, the common Millipede. — PuLyER- 


FO£TT-SA'-OB^ LIKE OBITCH'S COWT, pJir. a common expres- 
sion — ^heard with yariations in different locaHties, as Boden or Bowson 
for Obitch — applied to i>er8ons of a ' certain age' who affect youthfol 
manners. See Grammar Outlines {adjectives of numeration), p. xly. 

POE'YED [for'yed*'], *6., var. pr, the forehead. — PuLyERBATCH. 
Qy. com. < Aye, I dar'say Tore sorrow is summat like owd Tunkise's, 
w en 'e cried &r 'is wife tell the tears ronnen up is/or^yed.* 

FOSSET [fos-i't], sb. a faucet. — Shbewsburt; PuLrBRBATCH. Qy. 
com. ' I hrewed a drop o' fresh drink i' the arpigot-stean ; 5on yo' be 
80 good as len' me ycfre/oBset, fdr mine's split. 

' . . . you wear out a good wholesome forenoon in hearing a cause 
between an orange- wife and a/oMe^-seUer.' — CorioJanuSy H. i. 79. 

' Fausset^ petite brochette de bois, eeryant i boucher le trou que Ton 
fait d un tonneau. Fattoet or peg.' — Chamb. Cf. Lat. fauces, 

FOT [fot-l, prei. fetched.— Newport. ''Efoi a jug o' eel fur 'em.' 
' Also ^e that tolde me this seid that it were better for y ow to come 
up than to hefoUe out of your house wiUi Btreingth.'~P(u<ofi Letters^ 
A.D. 1461, yoL ii. p. 54. Of. Fat. 

FOTHEB [fodh'ui^], (I) sh. fodder, more especially dry food, such 
as hay, cut straw, ftc. Oom. 

' For men, I'ye three mischieyous boys, 
Bun de'ils for rantin' an' ioir noise ; 
A gaudsman ane, a thrashef t'oti^r. 
Wee Dayook hauds the nowte mf other' 

BoBERT Burns, Poems, p. 104, 1. 37. 

*AlUudo^ fMihur,' occurs in an AS. Vocaluta/ryi yui. cent, in Wr. 
yocabs., yoL ii p. 100. *A^Q.fdderyf6dder; O.IceL/Wr; O.H. Qerm, 
fuctar, fodder; pabulum,' — Strat. 

(2) t;. a. to giye horses and cattle their fodder. Oom. ' Wy, Turn, 
whadeyer han 'ee bin doin' P yo' hanna gid them hefts' thor f other ; an' 
yo' hanna littered anythin' as I can see. By g^um I yo' bin bwtm- 
lasy ; our Maister 551 a to come an' father 'em 'isseLF jest now.' The 
rule is to father horses and cattle, /Mci sheep, and 9erve piga Of. the 
following: — 

' With her mantle tucked yp 
^e» fathered her flocke.' 

Percy Folio MS,, Leo9e Songs, p. 58. 

FOUS, sb, a fann-yard : the tenn is not restricted to any one part 
ot a iarm-yard ; as, for instance, to a space bedded up for stock ; but 
it oomprehends the whole enelosure. Sometimes, but rarely, it is 
called * the fouid,' Oom. ' They bin yarly folks ; tiie cows bin milked 
an' out o' the/oud eyery monaa' afbie six.' 


' The Qarden [of the PlEuwmage House] containeing about the eighth 
parte of an acre ; the Fowl yard oontameing about the eighth parte 
of an acre ; the 3rard containeing about a quarter of an acre; the 
Fould yarde containeing about the gixteenth parte of an acre.' — 
GOUOH^ History of Myddle, p. 21. 

A.S. /aid, a fold. 

POTOHTEF, pret and part, past, fought — Newport. Qy. com. 
' They etooden up an' foughten vldl *itten out like men ; but they 'adna 
foughten manny minutes afore the Sergeant ooom oop, an' they wun 
soon parted then.' 

< WiUiam St his wi^es * so wonderli fou^ten, 
^t )^ felden here fon * fed fast to grounde.' 

William of PaUme, L 3414. 

* At mortal bataiUes hadde he ben fiftene, 
And foughten for cure feith at Tramassene 
In lystes thries, and ay slayn his foo.' 

Chaucer, Tne Prologue, L 62, ed. Monis. 

Cf: Shakespeare's ' weH-fougJUen field.'— JT. Henry V., lY. Ti. 18. 

FOUL, adj. plain ; homely of feature ; ugly. Com. An old man 
who was towing a bar^ on the canal near Ellesmere, was met by a 
bevy of nice-looking girls ; he courteously lowered the tow-line and 
stood on one side to make way for them, regarding them attentLvely, 
but with a most respectful air, as one by one they filed past him ; 
then, as the last went by, he said, as if to himself, ' Well, Vich way 
bin all the foul ones gwun this evenin', I wonder I ' 

' If thou be fair, ther folk ben in presence 
Shew tiiou thy visi^ and thyn apparaille ; 
If thou be foul, be fre of thy dispence, 
To gete thee frendes ay do thy Irauaille ; 
Be ay of chore as lyght as leef on lynde. 
And lat him care, and wepe, and wringe, and waille ! ' 

Chattoeb, K 1209 (Six-text ed.), Skeat. 

< Aud, I am not a slut, though I thank the gods I am/ouZ.' 

Ae Ytm Like It, m. iii. 99. 
A.S. f^l, fouL 

FOTTLS, ah, a sort of gathering in the cleft of the foot to which 
homed cattle are subject. ^ Com. A.S. ful, foul ; corrupt. See Bk. 
n., Folklore, &o„ 'Superstitious Cures.' 

70TTS-CB0BSES, ab, the point at which two roads intersect. — 
Shbbwsbxtbt ; Ellbsmebe. Qy. com. At Bicton and at Baschurch 
respectiyely a public-house with the sign of the ' Four^OrosHs ' marks 
the crossing of two roads [1878]. 

rOUB-O'- CLOCK [foo'h'r' u' klok], sb. the fann-labooiers' meal 
between dinner and supper. — ^Newfobt. An Edgmond plough-boy 
at a night-school — about 1867 — spelt t, e, a — sounding the letters in 
the brcMkd * yemaoular ' of his class — and paused for the word. ' What 
do you have between dinner and supper r ' said his teacher. * Foor-^o*" 
doek,^ was the very decided answer. ' But what does your mother 
have P ' ' Tay,' said the boy. Cf. 0nder*8-bayte. 


FOITR-SAXTABE [foa-ur' skwaaV], adj. quadrangular; square; cubical. 
Com. ' What box are you going to take with you, Price ? ' said a lady 
to her maid-senrant. ' Only a bit on a wooden un, Ma'am — ^a four-sqtuir 
un,* said Price, at the same time showing her Mistress the box in 
question, which was literally ' square ' on every side. 

' Upon the same riuer [Thames] is placed a stone bridge, a worke 
Terie rare and maruellous, which bridge hath (reckoning the draw 
bridge) twentie arches made of foursquare stone, of height threescore 
foote, and of breadth thirty foote, distant one from another twentie 
foote.' — Stow, Aniuihy p. 2 [a.d. 1601], in Bible Word-Book, 

* O falVn at length that tower of strength, 
Which stood four-square to all the winds that blow ! ' 

Tennyson's Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington. 

See Exodus xxxviii. 1 ; Bey. xzi. 16. ' Fowre Square. QuadruB,* 
— Prompt. Parv. C£, Three square. 

rOUSTT [fou'sti'l, adj., var. pr, fusty ; ill-smelling ; unclean. — 
BsiDONOBTH. ' E smells /outffy, as if 'e never weshed 'isself.' 

' . . . . where the dull tribunes, 
That, with the fvustv plebeians, hate thme honours. 
Shall say, against tneir hearts, *' We thank the g^s. 
Our Rome hath such a soldier."' — Corto^ntM, L ix. 7. 

Cf . Prouaty. 

FOX [fok's], ah. Vtdpes ndgdris, the Fox. Beynard is almost in- 
variably spoken of by the rustic folk as * The Fox ; ' just as people 
generally say ^the butcher,' *Mc tax-collector,' and so forth — ^they 
tnus make a kind of personage of him. A stoat, a weasel, has com- 
mitted depredations in the poultry-yard, but ' the fox 'as bin i' the 
ui^ht an' t56k all the young turkies. Perhaps it is because Shrop- 
shire is so thoroughly a fox-hunting county that Beynard is honoured 
with this 'distinguishing adjective' as a mark of respect! See 
Reynolds in Bbv. W. S. Parish's Dictionary of Sussex Dialect 
[E. D. S.]. 

FOXES OB THE FI' FIHGEES, phr. when a thing is believed to 
have been stolen, it is figuratively said that ' ^e foxes or thefC fingers 
han got it' — CoRVE Dale. 

FSAIL [fr'ei'l corr, fr'aayl], eh. a workman's satchel made of * rush ' 
or some similar thing.— -Oltjn, Hereford Border, 

' . . . . and take his felawe to witnesse. 
What he fonde in Afreyel * after a freres lyuynge.' 

Piers PLy Text fi., pass. xiii. L 94. 

Mr. Skeat remarks on this: * Freyel is the Low Lat. froelum, a 
rush-basket or mat-basket, especially for containing figs and raisins. 
See •* Frayle of frute, Palata, carica, in Prompt. Parv. , and Mr. Way's 
note. To the examples there given I can add the following: — '* Bere 
out the duste in this figge-/ray7e, Asporta cinerem in hoc syrisco." — 
Hormanni Vulgaria, leaf 149. Frail is still used in Essex to mean a 
rush-basket, as noted by Mr. Jephson. Also in Kennetf s Parochial 
Antiquities the glossary has ** Prayle, a basket in which fi^ are 
brought from Spain and other parts." He cites the phrase '* in uno 
frayle ficuum " from an account dated 1424-6. Palsgrave has * * Frayle 



for fygges, cabaSy co Jac^.*' See cabas^ cahaBier, in Cotgrave. Also 
Babees Book, ed. Furnivall, p. 200, note to L 74.' Of. Flag-basket. 

FBAI8B [fi^ai'z], ah., ohs, a^ind of pancake eaten with sweet sauce : 
it was tnicker than the ordinary pancake, and made with a ' stiffer' 
batter. — Glee Hills, Stodde$den. 

' For fritters, pancakes, and fox fray iei. 
For Tenison pasties, and minst pies.' 

How to Choose a Good Wife, 1634, in Hal. 

* Hoc frixum, a fit)y8,* occurs in a Nominate, xv. cent, in Wr. 
Tocabs., voL i. p. 242. Mr. Wright has the following note upon it:— 
' A froiM was a sort of pancake. The word is still iised in toe dialect 
of the eastern counties. It appears to have been a fayourite dish 
with the monks; for Gower {Conf, Amant., vol. ii. p. 92), describing 
the troubled sleep of Sompnoleuoe, says — 

" Whan he is falle in suche a dreme. 
Right as a ship ayein the streme 
He routeth with a slepy noise. 
And brustleth as a monkes /roite. 
Whan it is throwe into the panne." ' 

See Bk. IL, Folklore, &c., 'Customs connected with Days ana 
Seasons ' {Mid-lent Sunday), 

F&AHO [fr'ang-], sh. a very broad iron fork used for getting in coal| 
loading potatoes, &c— Clee Hills. Cf. Frank (1), below. 

FBAHOT [fr'anjiH, adj, restive; impatient of restraint; said of 
horses chiefly. — Shrewsbuby; Pitlveebatch. Qy. com. 'The 
mar* seems /rangy this momin'.' ' Aye, 'er dunna like lam' the 
cowt ; 'er o6nna let the grass grow under 'er fit in oomin' back.' 

7BAVK [fr'ang'k], (1) sb, same as Frang, above. — Ludlow (not 
common); Weh. 

(2) V. a. to throw or scatter about, as of manure, hay, &c. — ^Ludlov. 
'E's/raii*tV it aU about' 

FKAHT [fr*an't], (1) sh, a fit of violent passion in a child ; a state 
of extreme irritability in an older person. — ^Pulvebbatch ; Wobthek ; 
Cobve Dale. * Wiat's the matter with baby ? ' * 'E's on'y in a 
/rant. Ma'am, 'cause the cat 55nna be mauled.' 

(2) V, n, to kick and scream with passion. — Ibid, * 'Ow the child 

7&ATCHBTT [fr'ach-i'tia adj, peevish ; irritable.— Much Wbn- 
lock; Newpobt. See Fracchyn, and Way's note on it, in PrompL 
Farv., p. 17^. Cf. Fretchet. 

FEES, adj, frank ; generous ; affable. Com. * A more freeer, 
'onourabler, comfortabler ^oung fellow than Edward Breeze wuz 
never in company.' So said a man travelling in a ' Market-traiu ' 
from Shrewsbury to Hanwood [1871]. 

' be fei^tful & fre * & euer of faire speche, 
& seruisabul to |>e simple * so as to f^e ridie.' 

William of Pctleme, 1. 337. 


• Also I prey vow to recomand me in my most humbyll wyse unto 
the good Lorosnepe of the most corteys, gentylest, wysest, kyndest, 
most compenabyll, freest^ largeest, most bowntesous Knyght, my Lord 
the Erie of Arran» whych hathe maryed the Kyngs snstyr of Scotland.' 
— Paston LetterSy A,D. 1472, vol. iii. p. 47. 

A.S. /red; Germ./r«, free. Cf. Free-spoken, below. 

FSEE-HOLLY, sh. the smooth, upper foliage of Ilex Aqui/6Iium, 
common Holly. — ^Ludlow, Bur/ord. None but Free-holly is used by 
the Burford folk for decorating their houses at Christmas-tide [1874 j. 

FBEE-OUilJSK, 8h,f var. pr., pec, obe. 1 a free-holder, i, e, a land- 
owner, in contradistinction to a tenant. — Pulvebbatch. * Who 
'ad*n*ee at the fre^oudera^ meetin' 'isterd'yP* *Well, we'd'n Mr. 
Jackson, Mr. Freme, an' the two Jondrells — ^nod furgettin' owd John 
Hughes, the thatcher.' 

FBEE-SFOKEH, adj, frank ; candid ; unreserved, in address. Com. 
Milton employs this term — * Free-spoken and plain-hearted men.' 

FBEHCH BROOM [fr'en-sh br'um], eh, Cr/tims Laburnum. — 
Pulvebbatch. Cf. (Golden Bhowers. See Brum (1). 

FSEHCH KETTLE, sh. Lamtum purpureum, red Dead-nettle.— 
Whitchubch, Tihtock, Cf. Dun-nettle. 

FBE8H, (1) adj, intoxicated ; exhilarated with drink — ' not drunken, 
nor sober, but neighbour to both.' Com. ' 'Ow did the Maister come 
wham las' night ? ' * Oh, on'y jest fresh — a bit markit-peart, nuthin' 
more.' Cf. Eng. frisk, frisky, from A-S. fersc ; O.N. friskr. 

(2) adj\ in good condition, as of a beast when half fatted. — Pulveb- 
batch ; Wem. Qy. com. * Wun them btillocks fat ? ' * Well, nod 
very, considerin' they wun "perty fresh w'en they wun piit'n up.' 

FBESE-BKIHE, sh. table-beer. Com. 'I never piit above a 
strike an' 'afe o' maut to them two barrels, an' it mak's nice peart 
fresh-drink.' See Drink. 

FBBTCHET [fr'ech-it], adj\ peevish ; irritable. Com. ' I wish as 
the weather odd clier up to lug that com, fur it's makin' the Maister 
deepert fretchit.* A.S./reton, to fret. 

F&ILL [fr'i'l'l, sb. a piece of fleshy fat surrounding the entrails of a 
pig : it has &e appearance of being puckered like a frill, whence its 
name. Com. Margaret Penlington of Welshampton described the 
frill as * a piece of rumfled fat row'ded wuth red.' See/rt'W in Wedq, 

FSITTEV [fr'it-n], v. a., var. pr. to frighten. Com. A.S. dfyrhtan. 
— Iden^ 

[fr^it'ni'n], sb. a ghost; an apparition. — Ellesmebe; 
Weh. ' I dama g65 past Coomur [Colemere] lane ends — folks sen 
as theer's/rtt^entn to to seed theer after dark.' 

FBOD, sb. ice-rubbish ; as groundrice^ which rises to the surface of 
the Severn; or drift-ice, which comes down the ntream. — Bbido- 
270BTH. O.Pr. froit; ttoid, fHgidus. — Bx7B« 

M 2 


FBOO^STOOLS, sb. pi * toad-stoolB ' — some of the species Agariciu. 
—Shrewsbury; Pulverbatch. Qy. com. *Aye, theer*ll be no 
mushrooms this 'ear, now the /ro^-atoo/a bin comin .' 

FBOMMET [fr'om-u't], (1) prep., var, pr., ohsoh, in a direction going 
straight from a place; fromtoard as opposed to toward, — Pulver- 
batch. • Weer wun yo' w'en yo' sid*n me P ' * Wy I wuz gwelin 
frommet the stack-yurd tdert the cow-'ua' 

* Give ear to my suit, Lord ; frcmward hide not Thy face.* — Para^ 
phrase of Paalm Iv.j by Earl of Surrey. 

* Varying up and down, towards or fromwards the zenith.* — Cheyne, 
in Todd's Johnson. 

See * The Suffix " -ward,'' ' N. & Q. [5th S. x. 521]. A.S. from^ 
i{?ear(2M, from without ; beyond. 

(2) (tdi, right hand (off-side) — a harvest-field term. — ^Pulverbatch • 
Clee Hills. Tdert is left hand, thus, suppose the waggon loaded 
and ready to be boimd, the man on the top calls * rops,' — the ropes 
are thrown up to him. ' Weer Sdn'ee 'ave it ? ' he asks of the men 
on the ^froimd ; the reply is, * Put it down the /rommet way.* He 
throws it from his left hand instead of right. 'Theer, now yo'n 
chucked it down the t9^ way.' 

FBOHT [fr'un't], v, n. to plump ; to swell,' as young tender meat 
does in cooking. — Pulverbatch; Clee Hills; Wem. *I knowed 
well enough it wuz owd mutton w'en I sid it i' the pot — ^it didna 
front a bit* Jamieson has ' To front ' in this sense. 

FBOST.EETCHEH, part. adj. frost-bitten. Com. 

FBOST-VAILS^ ah. pi. spike-headed nails put into horses' shoes to 
prevent them slipping on frozen, icy roads. Com. 

* Frost-Nails, with sharp pointed heads.' — Academy of Armory, Bk. 
m. ch. iii. p. 89. See Boughed. 

7B0THT [fr'oth-i'l, adj. light in the ear : said of wheat that has 
suffered from blight.— Ludlow, Cleobury Mortimer, Cf . Fliggy (3). 

FKOTDTO [fr'oatin], part, adj., obs. 1 a thorough house-cleaning — 
• rubbing up ' and * scrubbing down.' — Pulverbatch. * We mun put 
the spinniir-w'M by now till after May-Day ; nex* wik theer^U be 
the buckin' an' the pewter clanin', an' then a reglar frotin* from the 
top to the bottom.' 

* Hee unclosed >e caue * imclainte {^e barres. 
And straihte into j^e stede * stroked hym feyre. 
Hee raught forthe his right hand * & his liggefrotus. 

And coies hym as he kan. ' 

K, Alisaunder, 1. 1174. 

'Al J^e longage of ^e Nor^humbres, & specialych at ^rk, ys so 
scharp, slyttyng & frotyng, & vnschape, \>9.t we Sou^eron men may 
)>at longage vnne|>e vnderstonde.'--JoHN OF Trevisa (a.d. 1387), 
Description of Britain. Specim. Early Eng., xviii. a, L 209. 

O. rr. frotter de [Lat.], fricare. — Bur. 

FEOTTSTT [fr'ou-sti*], adj. duU ; heavy-looking, as' from lack of 


sleep ; half awake ; not half washed. — Pulyerbatch. Qy. com. 
* Wy yo' looken as sleepy an' frouaiy this momin' as if yo' 'adna bin 
i' bed las' night ; g6o an' swill yore face 55th some cowd waiter, it'll 
mak' yo' 'afe as sharp an' sweet agen.' Cf. Fousty. 

FBTTM [fr'um-], (1) adj, forward; early ripe. — Pulyerbatch; 
WoRTHEK ; CoRVE Dale ; Wem. ' Them bin a capital sort o' 'tatoes, 
the /rum kidneys.' K,^, /rum-ripe, early ripe. 

(2) adj. strong ; heayy, as of a crop, or of com in the ear. — ^Elles- 
HERE, WeUkampUm, * That crop i* tne Breary Craft's a TB,T*/rum un, 
it'll ild a mizzer an' 'afe to the thrave.' A.S. ftam^ from^ strong ; 
Tigorons. Cf. G^erm. fromm^ excellent. 

jfiiuMP, ah. a contemptuous term for an old woman who affects 
youthful airs and dress. — PuLVERaATCH. 

FBTTMPED, part. adj. tricked out in youthful fashion, as of an old 
woman. — Ibid. * The owd girld wuz frumped up like a yeow dressed 
lomb fashion.' 

FBY [fr'ei-], (1) sh. a swarm of kinsfolk. — Pulyerbatch. 'Well, 
I'm right glad them folks bin gwem out of our parish, we sha'n be 
rid o' ttie ool [whole] fry ; I should think Ponsert 'ill 55d be best fiir 

' And them before the fry of children yong 
Their wanton sportes and childish mirth did play.' 

Spenser, F. Q., Bk. L c. xii. st. Yii. 

* What a fry of fools is here ! ' — Beaumont and Fletcher, 

Bailey — ed. 1782 — has 'Fry, a multitude; a company.' 

(2) sh. the liYer and liffhts of a pig dressed hy frying. Gom. * The 
men bin mighty fond <y fry; wen yo'n cut whad'U do fur dinner 
sen' the rest to poor owd Molly.' Ash has * Fry, fix)m the Yerb, a 
dish of an3rthing fried.' Cf. Harslet. 

FTTKE [feu-k], sb., ohsoh.% a stray lock of hair. — Pulyerbatch. 'I 
wish yo'd'n put ihsA,fuke o' yar out o' yore eyes ; yo' looken jest like 
a muntin [mountain] cowt.' ' Fukes, tne Locks of the Head. 0[ld].' 
— Bailet, ed. 1727. A.S. feax, hair of the head. 

FULL [ful-], adv., pee. quite. Com. ' This'll do fuU as welL' 

' . . . The first suit is hot and hasty, like a Scotch jig, and full as 
fimtasticaL' — Mtich Ado about Nothing, TL i 79. 

(2) »b., var. pr. fill; sufficiency; generally applied to drink. "E's 
'ad *ia full,' i.e. he has had as much as he can take without becoming 
intoxicated. — Shrewsbury. Qy. com. 

' With the grace of God, or hyt were nyghte, 
The yeant had hiafulle of fyghte.' 

MS. Cantab., Ff. ii. 38, f. 66, in Hal. 

FTJLLAB [ful'ur'], sb. the tool employed to make a ftdlaring with* 
Si;e below. 

FITLLABIHO, eh. the grooYe in a horse-shoe into which the nails are 
inserted. — Pulyerbatch. Qy. com. 


FITLLOCK [fiil'uk], v. n. to shoot a marble in an irregular way bj 
jerking the fist forward instead of hitting it off by the force of the 
thumb only. Qy. com. ' Oh, tiiat inna for ; 'e*B fuHockitC.' When 
shooting marbles at 'ring-taw' the closed hand is rested on the 
ground, and the marble projected by the thumb acting upon it Hke a 
spring : to fullock is then considered dishonourable, but it is allowed 

in * long-taw ' when aiming at a single marble. Of. Fullock, £. D. S., 

C,, «-» «» %j 

. u. 

FUME [feu'm], v. »., pec, to inflame. — Pulverbatch ; Wem ; Elles- 
liERE. ' It was on*y a bit on a briar-scrat, an* it took to fume an* 
swelled all up *is arm.' 

FITMET, adj. hasty; passionate. — Jbtd, 'The Maistei's as fumey 
as the mouth o' the oven this momin' ; yo' mun mind 'ow yo* dailen 
66th 'im.' 

* Fumer de coUre, to fume ; to be in a rage.' — Chamb. 

FTTITD [fun'd], pret and part, past, found. Com. ' Tve bin after 
the mushroms sence afore five o'clock this momin'.' ' Han 'ee fund 
any ? ' * Aye, a right good tuthree ; but the best part on 'em I fvmd 
i* the uvyer leasow.' 

' Til \>^i he haueden godard /uncfe, 
And brouth bifom him faste bunde.' 

Havelok the Dane, L 2376. 

See Dr. Morris's HUtorical Englieh Accidetice, p. 161 (5). 

FunDLESS, sb.j ohsoh, 1 a thing accidentally found. — ^Pulverbatch. 
* I 'ad sich a fundleas this momin'.' * 'Ad'n'ee ; whad did'n'ee find ? ' 
' W'y I fund our paas'n's pus, an' 'e gid me *afe-a-crownd fur the 
findm'.' Cf.— 

* & ^oii^h he asfundeling where founde • in [?e forest wilde.' 

William of Palerne, L 502. 

FTJNOirS COAL, sb. the coal which bears this name is chiefly con~ 
fined to the north of the field, and is good for nearly every purpose- 
— Colliery; M. T. See Coal-names. 

ETWHY, adj. bad ; capricious : said of the temper. Com. ' 'El's 
a nice sort of girld enough, but 'er's got a funny temper.' 

PXTB, sb. (1) the indurated sediment found in the bottom of tea- 
kettles. Com. * The kettle's got a/ur inside a ninch thick.' 

(2) adiK, var. pr, far : the ' degrees ' are furdtr, furded. — ^LuDLOW. 
See Th (3) in Grammar Outlinea {consonantt). QL Fare (2). 

FUBKACE [fur''nis], sb. the large boiler used in brewing. Com. 

* Sixty gallon brewing furnace, grate and fittings.' — Auctioneer'^ 
Catalogue (Church Stretton), 1877. 

* Hec fomax^eie An" a, fornys,' occurs under the head of * Panduc- 
$ator cum euis Instrumentis,* in a Pictorial Vocabulary, xv. cent, in 
Wr. vocabs., vol. i. p. 276. 

FTJBNAIO [fur'nai-g], v. »., obsols.l to revoke at card& — Pulveb- 



FTTSSOCK [fus-uk], sb, a big, dirty, greasy woman.— Pulverbatch ; 
Wem. • *fer'8 a reglar owd fuasock,' 

FTTSTIAH BLANKETS, sb, pi, ohs. ' One payre of gersy blanketts, 
one payre of fustian Uanketta^* are items of an Inventory taken at 
Owlbunr Manor-House, Bishop's Castle, 1625. Fustian blankets are 
said to be identical with the homespim blankets made as late as the 
beginning of the present century, wluch were a mixture of wool and 
' hordes ' [rough nemp]. One of these blankets — the yam for which 
was spun oy Alice Fletcher, of Castle Pulyerbatch, in 1804--shows 
that line warp was of • hordes,' the woof of wool. It is of thick and 
warm, but somewhat coarse, texture, and of a < whitey-brown ' colour, 
the wool being unbleached. 

Fustian blankets are of frequent mention in old inventories, as, for 
instance, that of * Sir John Fastolfs Wardrobe,' A.D. 1459. *Item, 
ij fustian blanketts, every of hem yj webbys.' — Fasten Letters, vol. i. 
p. 482. See Jarsey Hillin'. 

TTTTHEB [fudh-ur*], v. n. to fuss or fidget about. — Shrewsbury. 

PXTZZ-BALL, «/>. Lycaperdon Boviata. — Wellington; Newport. 

' Tubera terra. Fusse-balls or Puckfists. Fusse-balls are no way 
eaten : the ponder of them doth dry without biting : it is fitly applied 
to merigalls, kibed heeles, and such like. 

' The dust or ponder hereof is very dangerous for the eyes, for it 
hath been often seen, that diners haue been pore-blinde euer after, 
when some small quantitie thereof hath been blowne into their eyes. 

' The countrey people do vse to kill or smother Bees with these 
Fusse-balls beins set on fire, for the which purpose it fitly serueth.' — 
Gerabde's HerbaU, Bk. III. p. 1584. 

C£ Blind-baU, also Devil^s Snuff-boz. 

OABT [gai'bi'], sb, a simpleton ; one who gapes and stares about in 
ignorant wonder. — ^Ludlow; Wem. 

' Dan. gabe, to gape ; gabe paa, to stare at. N. gape, to stare, to 
gape ; gap, a simpleton.' — ^Wedo. Of. Oauby. 

0A7FEE [gaf'ur'l, (1) ^5., obsols. a title given to an aged father or 
grandfather — and of address, equivalent to ' Master,' the head of a 
house. The term as thus applied is one of perfect respect. — Clun, 
Hereford Border. Cf . Buffer. 

(2) sb„ obsols, a synonym for 'Mr.' or 'Sir' in the same locality. 
Qaffer, according to Mr. HalliweU, * was formerly a common mode of 
address,' meaning * friend^ neighbour,' 

* " O, why do you shiver and shake, Qaffer Grey ? 
And why does your nose look so blue ? " 
** 'OHs the weather thafs cold, 
And I'm grown very old. 
And my doublet is not very new ; 
Well-a-day ! " '— OW 8<mg. 

Bailey— ed. 1727 — ogives, ' Qaffer, a Countrv Appellation for a Man.' 


(3) $h. a head workman ; the foreman of a band of labourers — as of 
harvest-men — who makes the agreement as to the terms of their 
work. Com. See Fly-g^ang. 

OAFFIV [gaf'in], part adj. jesting ; bantering. — Pulvbrbatch, 
Han wood, * Never yo* 'eed *im, 'e's on*y gaffin a bit' 

OAFTT [^'af-ti'], adj. sly; tricky.— Wbm ; Ellbsmerr *'E'8 sich 
a gafty chap, yo* never knowen whad's the nex' thing *e'll be afker.' 

OAUT [j<ai*n and gaayn], (1) adj. near ; short ; direct. — Shrewsbdbt ; 
PuLVERBATCU. * My man, can you tell me the best way to the Hills 


JO* up to Wilderley as straight 
o' mun mind, sir, to keep to the wickets ; nod throu* gates, or 
e*appeu yo'n be landed in a o5d.' 

* At a posteme forth they gan to ijde 
By a geyn path, that ley oute a side.' 

JonN Lydoate (a.d. 1420, ctVca), The Storie of 
Thebes, Specim. Eng. LU., iii. 6, L 1002. 

* Oeyne, redy, or r3rthge forth. Diredus. In the Eastern counties 
gain Hip^iiifies handy, convenient, or desirable ; and in the North, near, 
as ** the gaine$t road," which seems most nearly to resemble the sense 
here given to the word.' — Prompt, Parv, and Notes, 

Mr. Skeat ascribes gain to * O.Swed. gen, direct ; IceL gegn, direct, 
ready, from Icel. prep, gegn, over against' — See Joseph of Ariinathiey 
p. 81. Cf. Bme. 

(2) adj. handy ; convenient — Shrewsbury ; Pulvebbatch ; Lud- 
low ; Wellington ; Newport. * Tak' the side-basket, it'll be gaifier 
fur the gig than the market-basket, 'cause o' the 'andle.' 

* pe a^el auncetere^ sunej * |>at adam wat^ called. 
To wham god hade geuen * alle pot goyn were.' 

Alliterative Poems, The Deluge (A.D. 1360, circa). 
Specim, Early Eng., xiiL 1. 259. 

Icel. gegn, serviceable; gegna, to meet; suit. 

(3) ar/y. tractable-; easy to manage. — Pulvbrbatch; Clee Hills. 
* The 'eifer's as gain as if *er'd been milked seven 'ear ; 'er walks up to 
the stelch as knowin' as can be.' 

OALENY [gulai'ni'], sh, Nuviida melcdgris, the Guinea-fowl, or 
Pintado.— Sheewsbury; Pulvbrbatch. 

* Oaleny, old cant term for a fowl of any kmd ; now a respectable 
word in the West of England, signifying a Guinea-fowl. Lat. gcdlina* 
— Slang Dictionary, p. 140. 

OAZX [gau 1], (l) eb. SL sore place ; an abrasion of the skin. — Pulveb- 
batch ; Clee Hills. * The child's never 'ad a gall om it sence it wux 
born till now ; they tellen me as it's from 'is eye-tith.' 

* But London can not abyde to be rebuked, suche is the nature of 
man. If they be prycked, they wyll kycke. If they be rubbed on 
the gale : they wil wynce.' — Latimer, Sermon on the Ploughers, p. 23. 

* Galle, soore yn mann' or beeste. Strumus, marista.' — Prompt. Parr. 


' Fr. gale, scurf; itch ; callum, callus ; hardened skin.' — ^PiCE. 

(2) V, a. and v. n. to firet ; to chafe. Com. ' Young cowts bin apt 
to gall i' the shuther/ is a saying metaphorically applied to young 
folk who are impatient of the restraints of work« 

* " )>e hors was . . . galled upon J>e bak(e)." — Oowet^8 Con/esa. Amant, 
ii 46,' in Stkat. 

' Ham Let the galled jade wince, our withers are unwrung.' 

— Hamlet, IIL ii. 63. 

'Touch a galPd horse onihe back, and he'll kick [or wince].* — 
Bay's Proverbs, p. 112. 

Fr. * 8e galer, to scratch or rub.' — Chamb. 

(3) ah, a stiff, wet, * unkind ' place in plough-land. — Pulverbatch ; 
Clee Hills. The term is usually employed in the plural form. 
' Theer couldna be spected much off that md o' land, theer's sich a 
power o' wet galls in it.' Grose has ' Galls, Sand-galls, spqts of sand 
through which the water oozes. Norf. and Suf.' oee Gall in Wedg. 
W. gwall, a defect Of. Blade (1). 

(4) sh, the oak-apple, by which name this excrescence is usually 
distinguished. — £LL£aMER£. ' Oalle, oke appyll.' — Prompt, Parv. 
See Oak-ball. 

OAXLOWAY [gal'u'wai], sh, a horse fourteen hands high ; between 
a pony and a horse of l^ger growth. — BmBGNOBXH. Qy. com. 



* To be Bun for upon Preese Heath near "White Church in Shrop- 
shire, the 23*^ of May next, being Tuesday in Whitson Week, a Purse 
of Ten Guineas, by Galloways not exceeding 14 Hands high, to carry 
Nine Stone, all under to be allowed Weight for Inches, paying half a 

Guinea entrance '—Adams's Weekly [Chester] Courant, 

April 6—12, 1738. 

' Breakfast being finished, the chiyalry of the Hall j>repared to take 
the field. The fair Julia was of the party, in a huntmg-dress, with a 
light plume of feathers in her riding-hat, As she mounted her 
favounto Gallmvay, I remarked with pleasure that old Christie 
forgot his usual crustiness, and hastened to adjust her saddle 
and bridle.' — Washinoton Ievdto (a.d. 1822), Bracehridge HaU 

OALLOWS [gal'usj, culj, mischievons ; naughty ; applied to boys 
chiefly. Com. * jB's a galltts bird, that is, — 'e's bin i' the orchut agen 
after them apples.' 


For he hath been five thousand years a boy. 
Kath, Ay, and a shrewd unhappy gallows too.' 

Love's Labottr Lost, V. ii. 12. 
Cf Ontidy. 

OALT [gau't], sb, a spayed female pig. — Pulverbatch ; Clee Hills. 
Qy. com. 

' Hic/rendis A' gait,' occurs in an English Vocabulary, zv. cent., in 


Wr. Tocabs., vol. i. p. 204. Mr. Wriffht explains gaU as * a boar-pig.' 
• Oalte (or gylte) swyne. NefrendusZ-^Prompt Parv. * Oalte^ O.lcel. 
gaiti (aper), young boar/ — Strat. Grose has * QawU and OiUs, hog- 
pigs and sow-pigs. N.' Of. Gilt. 

OAMBKEL [gambr'il], sb. a crooked piece of wood used by butchers 
to expand and hang carcases upon.— Sh&ewsbubt ; Pulyekbatch ; 
Ellesmebe. Qy. com. 

GAME, ah, fun, often derisive fun. Com, * I'll *elp yo' to mak* 
yore game o* me, yo' imperent young puppy ; if yo' comen athin my 
raich, I'll turn yo' double an' host yo'/ 

' Ne of hir doughter nought a word spak she 
Noon accident for noon aduersitee 
Was seyn in hir, ne neuer hir doughter name 
Ne nempned she, in emest nor in game,* 

Chaucer, E. 609 (Six-text ed.), Skeai 

A.S. gameUf a sport ; a play ; a taunt ; a scoff. 

GAMMOCKS [gamniks], sh, rough play. Qy. com. ' Them chaps 
bin al'ays up to some gammocks — now that poor fellow's got 'is shuther 
put out.* A.S. gamen^ sport ; play. 

GAMMY [garni*], adj,^ «/.? lame. Com. * A gammy fut.' 

GANGEEL [gang'r*il], sh., ohsoh.^ a gaunt, lean, long-limbed person 
or animal. ^1) * Whad a gangrel that Tum Perks is gwun — 'e's as 
lung as a lather, an' as thm as a thetchin' peg.* 

(2) ' If 11 tak a good djel to feed that owd sow, 'er's sich a gangrd* 

GAKLAHDS. See Virgins' Garlands. 

GAREIT8, sb, pi,, var, pr, carrots. — Pulverbatch. 

GAJLBITT, adj,^ var, pr, carroty. — Ibid, *I knowed well enough 
it wuz one o' the Burguins by 'is garrity yar ; they'd'n better keep 
'im out o* the stack-yurd, else it'll ketch fire.' 

GATED fgait'i'd], part, past, set a-going, as in the phrase gated and 
geared, below. — Whitchurch; Ellesmere. 

GATED AND GEAEED, j;Ar. made to work < true ' together : said of 
the several parts of an agricultural implement. — Ibid, See Geared. 

GATE-EOAD, sb, the main-road, or level, in a mine. — Collisrt; 
M. T. See Gob- gate-road. 

GAUBY [pjau-bi*], same as Gaby, q.v. Com. *Now then, yo* 
great gauby, get out o' the way.* See below. 

GATTBT-FAE, sh. The first Satunlay in the year and the first 
Saturday after May-Day are respectively distinguished as Qauhy-far, 
On these days country servants-— * chaps * and * wenches,' — ^gaubieSj 
as they are called for the nonce — come into the town to spend their 
wages and see the sights. — Shrewsbury. * Nex' Saturday 11 be 
Gauhy-far — theer'll be a grand show in ribbints an' rags.' See Break 
the Year. 

GATJBY-MAEKET, the market-day which follows next after 


Ckrisfanas Day, obsenred as above. — Welldtgtoic; Newport. See 
Bk. n., Folklore, &c., • Wakea, Fairs,' &c. 

OATJKY [gau'ki*], sb, an awkward, stupid, badly-mannered person. 
— Shbewsbuby; Ptjlverbatch ; Wellington. Qy. com. *Han 
'ee sid the new dairy-maid P' 'Aye, as great a gauky as anybody 
66d wish to see — 56th a ganity yed, an' as foul as if 'er wuz made fur 
spite.' ' 'Ark at Jack ! an' they sen as yo' bin o'er yed an' ears in 
love 66th 'er.' 

' pe gome \>&t gloseth so chartres * for a gohy is holden. 

So is it a goky, by god * pat in his gospel failleth, 
Or in masse or in matynes * maketh any defaute.' 

Piers PL, Text B., pass, xi 11. 299, 300. 

' Now gawkieSy tawpies, gowks, and fools, 
Frae colleges and boarding-schools. 
May sprout like simmer puddock-stools 

In elen or shaw ; 
He wha could brusn them down to mools, 

Willie's awa I ' 

BoBEBT BiTBirs, Poems, p. 122, L 19. 

A.S. gede; O.IceL gatikr, a cuckoo; whence, a fool; a simpleton. 
See Strat. 

OATJN [gau*n], (1) sb. a gallon. — Pulverbatoh. 'Tell the cowper 
to mak' a good strung four-47aun payl.' 

' 1584. 32 galanes of the best ale at Tjd ob. a gaune xiij s yiij d.' — 
AccounU of the Shearmen's Company, Shrewsbury. 

(2) sh. a pail, one of the staves of which, being left much longer 
than the rest, forms an upright handle. It holds about a gallon, and 
is used for lading the drink, in the process of brewing.— Newport ; 
Ellesmere. Of. Lac* ^-gaun. 

OATTP [gau'p and gi'aup], (1) v, n, to gape ; to open the mouth. Qy. 
com. * One o' the chickens belungin' to the brown 'en got squedge i' 
the wicket, an' I thought it wuz djed, but I 'eld it o'er the smoke, 
an' warmed it ever so lung, an' at last it begun to gaup; I wuz pretty 
glad, fur Missis is despert choice on *em.' 

' And with a galping mouth hem alle he keste.' 

Chaucer, F. 350 (Six-text ed.), Skeat. 
O.Du. galpen, gaup, in Strat. 

(2) V, n. to stare about vacantly, with the mouth open as well as 
the eyes. Qv. com. * I dunna know whad yo' wanten i' town — 
nuthin to do but g^-aup at the shop- windows.' See Gauby-Far. 

OAWV [gau'ral, (1) v. a., obaolsA to grasp. — Pulvbrbatch; Clun; 
Wem. *We'dn a rar' batch o' laisin' this momin' — I'd thirteen 
'antle, as much as ever I could gawm^ 

(2) V. a., obsds.? to bite through. — Pitlverbatch. * Yo'n cut the 
bread i' sich clouters [rough thidk pieces], nobody can gaunn it' See 
Ooam in B. D. S., B. xiv. 

OAWT. See Oalt. 

OAT-POLE [gai* poal], sb.^ obaoU. a pole placed across the interior 


of a chimney, from which are suspended the hangers for the pots and 
kettles.— B&iDGNORTH. Of. Bway-pole. 

OEABED [gee'hVd], part past, fitted up with its se Feral parts; 
said of an agricultural implement. — Whitchxtbch ; Ellesmere. 
A.S. geartvian; to make ready; to prepare. Of. Gated. See Gated 
and Geared. 

OEABDfG, (1) eh. the projecting rail on the fore-part of a cart or 
waggon. — Newpobt; Whitchxtbch. 

(2) ak the harness and trappings of a cart-horse. — CBAYEir Abms. 
Qy. com. 

'Waggon Horses with their Gearing,* 'Suit of chain gearing,^ 
* Suit of shaft gearing.* — Auctioneer^a Catalogue (Longyille), 1877. 

A.S. gearwa, clothing. 

GEAES [gee*h'r'z], sb, pi, same as Oearing (2), above. Com. 

' Suit of long geara* * Suit of thillers geara,* — Auctioneer' a Caialogue 
(Stoddesden), 1870. 

GEABVM [jee'hVum], eh, order ; good condition ; serriceable fitnesa 
for a purpose. — Pxtlverbatch. * 'Ow is it yo' binna at the turmits 
to-day, Molly P ' ' Indeed, Maister, I couldna gdd ; my back's bad 
an' my limbs achen, an* Tm altogether out o' gearumJ A.S. gearo, 
ready ; prepared. 

OEE, GEE-HO. See Waggoner's Words to Hones. 

GEE-HO-PLOTTGH [jee oa* plou], sb. a plough drawn by two hones 
abreast. Qy. com. 

* Two sets of G. 0. back bands and traces, in lots.' — Audioneer^s 
Catalogue (Longville), 1877. Called Gee-woa-pUmgh, — ^Newpoet. 

GEHTLE-LOUT, ab, the lean part of the loin of a bacon-pig, between 
the ham and the flitch. — Bishop's Castle ; Cluw. Cf . Griskin. 

OEFTLEMAIT'S-BUTTOHS, sb, pi, the flowers of Scabiosa succiio. 
— Whitchuech, Tilatock, Cf. Blue-heads. 

OEOLTITUDES [ji'ol-titeudzl, sb. pi bursts of passionate temper.— 
PuLVERBATCH, Condover, vL Tantrums. 

GEOHMOCKS [jrom-uksj, sb, pi, shreds; tatters. — Worthkn ; 
Wem. * 'Er gownd's all in geomniocks,* 

GETHEB [gedh'ur'], v, n, to ramify, as of young com. — Pdlvbr- 
BATCH. * That crop looks thin, Bayly.' * Never mind, it'll look bettor 
after awilde, w'en it begins to gether* Cf. Stoul (2). 

GETHEBIH*, sb. the * Offertory' collection in church. — ^Polvbr- 
batch; Clun. Qy. com. *Whad sort on a getherin* 'ad'n a on 

GIB [gib], (1) sb. a wooden prop used to support the coal when 
being * holed.'— Colliery ; A£. T. Cf. Sprag (4). 

(2) ab, a piece of iron of a peculiar shape— not unlike the half of a 
hollow square— used in connecting machmery together. — Colliebt ; 
M. T. 


(3) Bb,f obaoU, ? the handle of a walking-stick. — Bbidonoeth ; 

GIBBED-STICK, eb,, obaoUA a hooked ^i\ck.—Ihid, ' GilnAaff, a 
quarter-staff,' is giyen by both Bay and Grose as a North-county 
word. Of. Xibba. 

6ID [gid*], sb, a dizziness to which sheep are liable — caused by 
Ayda^MJtf.— Glee Hills. Of. E. giddy^ also Kimet (1). 

OIE [gi'']) V, a. give : used in the imperative mood and in some tenses 
of the other moods. Com. * Qie the child that apple as *e wants.* 
' It'll git 'em Bummat to do.' 

* Fortune ! if thou'll but gie me still 
Hale breeks, a scone, an' Whisky gill, 
An' rowth o' rhyme to rave at "v^,' 

Tak' a' the rest. 
An' deal't about as thy blind skill 

Directs thee best.' 

BoBEBT BuBNS, Poems, p. 9, 1. 19. 

Ol'ED [gi''d], pret. gave. — N. and N. E, Shr. Border. 

' Oh I had wooers aught or nine, 
They gted me rings and ribbons fine ; 
Ana I was feared mv heart would tine, 
And I gied it to the weaver.' 

BoBEBT BuBNS, PoevM, p. 227, U. 2 — 4, c. 2. 

OI*EH [gi'*n], part, past, given. — Ibid, 

* He ne'er was gCen to great miRguidin', 
Yet coin his pouches wad na bide in ; 
Wi' him it ne'er was under hidin', 

He dealt it free : 
The Muse was a' that he took pride in, 

Thaf s owre the sea.' 
BOBEBT BUBNS, Po€7ns, p. 71, 1. 25, c. 2. 

OIES [gi''z]i V, a. gives. Com. 

* My Peggy smiles sae kindly, 

It makes me blithe and bauld, 
And naething gies me sic delight, 
As wauking of the fauld.' 

Allan Bamsat, The OentU Sh^Jierd, I. i. p. 6. 

GIFTS [gifts], sb, pi. white spots on the finger-nails ; said to fore- 
token gifts. Oom. 

' A gift on the thumb 

Is sure to come ; 
A gift on the finger 
IB sure to linger.' 

Children sometimes read the si>ots on their nails thus — ^boginning 
with the thumb and ending with the little finger : — ' Gift, theft, 
friend, foe, journey to come.' 

0IG6IH0 0IEVE [gigi'n siv], 9b, a sieve, worked by a crank. 


used in a flour-mill for the first prooeos of taking out the rough husks 
or other hard substances. Com. 

OILLOFEB [jil-u'fur'J, sb. Cheiranthiis Cheiri, common Wall-flower, 
and Mathiolat Stock, are included in this term, which is usually 
employed in the plural form. — Ellesmere. Qy. com. * Them 
giUofers smellen sweet, they'n be beautiful fur the posy.' 

* Gifh/eTf or Oelo/er, The old name for the whole class of carnations, 
pinks, and sweet-williams; from the French girojle, which is itself 
corrupted from the Latiu cariophyllum ' 

' Here spring the goodly gelo/erB, 

Some white, some red, in showe, 
Here prettie pinkes with jagged leayes, 

On rugged rootes do m>we. 
The John so sweete in showe and smell, 

Distincte by colours twaine. 
About the borders of their beds, 
In seemlie sight remaine.' 

Plafs Flowers f &c., in Cen», Lit.^ viii. 3, in Nabes. 

Shakespeare has GUlyvors^ which Mr. Nares says is ' a step of the 
progress to our modem GiUiflower^ 

* Ferdita. . . . The fairest flowers of the season 
Are our carnations and streak'd gUlyvorsJ 

WinU^B TaU, IV. iv. 82. 

* Oyllofrtf herbe. Oariophilus,* — Ftompt. Farv. 

* QiroflSe, fleur odorif)§rante ; la plante oui la porte. Stock-gilly- 
flower. De la giroflle jaime, Wall-flower.' — Chakb. 

OILLT-HOOTEB [jil-i* oo-tur'], 8h. Sumium Aluco, Brown Owl.— 


OILLT-OWLET, sh. Sirixflammea, White Owl— the young birds.— 
Clun, Hereford Border, Ct Owlert. 

OILT [gil't], ab. a young sow that has not had a litter. — ^Pulvbb- 
BATCH ; Glee Hills. Qy. com. 

'Capital sow in pig.* *Do. gilt in pig.' — Auctioneer* a Catalogue 
(Stoddesden), 1870. 

* Suilla, vel auculay gilte,' occurs in Archhp, JElfrii^s Vocahidaryy 
X, cent., in Wr, vocabs., voL i. p. 22. 

' Oyltef swyne. A gilt^ or gaut, signifies in the North a female pig 

that has been spayed Any female swine is called a giU in 

Staffordshire.* — Frompt. Farv. and Notes. 

A.S. giUe; O.Icel. gilta, young sow. — Stbat. Cf. Qalt. 

QTS [jin*], sb.f obaols. a contrivance for hoisting minerals out of the 
shsdPt — chiefly used in sinking. It is a 'drum' fixed on an upright 
shaft, supported by a rude frame- work of timber : this * drum '•;- 
made to revolve by horse-power — ^winds up the ropes employed ui 
raising the ' barrels ' to the surface. — M. T. Com. 

Qin is found in the early writers in the twofold sense of an 
ingeniously-constructed machine and of an artful or crafty device. 
Chaucer has it in both these. An instance of the former occurs in 
The Squieres TcUe, where it is related that the magic ' stede of bras 
would bear its rider at his pleasure — 


' And tume ayeyn, "with wrything of a pin. 
He that it wroughte coude ful many a gin* 

F. 128 (Six-text ed.), Skeat. 

* Trcdeay the gyn whyche is called a crane.' — Elyot. 

' Exoatra, a vice or gin of wood, wherewith such things as are done 
within, out of sight, are showed to the beholders by the turning about 
of wheeles.' — Juniut^B Nomenclator, by Fleming, in Way. 

' O.Fr. engien, engin; machine de guerre ; ruse, finesse ; machinerie, 
tromperie; de ingenium,*— Bur, 

OIH-BABSELS, sb, pl.^ obsols. the barrels used to bring up minerals 
out of the shidft. — M. T. Com. 'Always comin* an' gooin' like gin- 

OIH-HOBSE, sb., obsols, the hoise which works the gin, — Ibid, 

OIV-BIVO, sb. obsols. the circle which the gin-horse traverses in 
working tiie gin, — Ibid, 

OIBD [gur'd'l, t?. a. to pull violently. — ^Wbm. * Dunna yo' gird the 
ro])' athatn. As a verb, gird^ to strike, to cut, is found in the early 

' & whan l^e duk was war * (lat he wold come 
boute feyntice of feuer * he festned his spere, 
ft grimly wij» gret cours • eis^^er gerde]^ o>>er.' 

Willium o/Falemey L 1240. 

' And to thise cherles two he gan to preye 
To slen him, and to girden of his hed.' 

Chatjceb, C, T., I. 14,464. 

At a later period gird was used in a metaphorical sense — to cut or 
lash with wit or sarcasm. Shakespeare has this use of the word both 
verbally and substantively. 

' Sic, ^ay, but his taunts. 

Bru, Being moved, he will not spare to gird the gods.' 

Coriolanus, L L 2^. 

' Luc I thank thee for that gird^ good Tranio.' 

Taming of the Shrew, Y. ii. 68. 

OntDEB [gur'-du/], sb, a heavy blow. — Pulvbrbatch. Qy. com. 
' I gid 'im a pretty girder,* A.S. gyrd, a staff ; rod. 

OIBL, OIBLD [gae'r'l, gaeVld], sb,, pee, a single woman of any age. 
Com. The alternative pronimciations are dependent upon the educa- 
tion or refinement of the speaker. 

/' - » My unde John Gk>ugh dyed, butt my aunt Katherine survived 
him. Shee was soe extreeme fatt that shee could not goe straite 
foreward through some of the inward doores in the house, butt did 
tume her body sidewayes; and yett shee would go up staires and 
downe againe, and too and fro in the house and yanL as nimblv, and 
tread as light as a ^'W of 20 or 30 years of age.'— Qoxtgh's History 
o/MyddlStp, 101. 
Cf. Lone-girL 

OIS-AV-OULLIES, sb, pi, the blossoms of Salix cqprSa, great round- 
leaved Sallow. — Shbewsbury; Pulvbrbatch ; Wbm. Qy. com. 


Ois-an* 'Gullies s= Geese and Gktslixigs. Bee Bk. II., FoUdore^ &c, 
' Superstitions concerning Plants.' 

0IZ2AV, OIZZAVT [Kiz-u'n], Cleb Hills, [giz-u'nt], Pulvkr- 

BATCH ; Wem, 9h, * Shall I 'elp yo' to a wing, Miss G P Dun yo' 

perfer the liyer or the gizzant f 

Pe^ge gives, ' Oizzen^ the stomach of a fowl, &c., Lana' 
' We have gyMame in an early MS. collection of medical receipts at 
Lincoln, apparently in the same sense' [of gizzard]. — Hal. 

OLAB [glab'], sh, a talkative, tattling person. — Pulverbatch. ' Yo* 
met*n as well ^e the bell-man a groat to cry it as tell Nancy Price 
anythin' — 'er is sich a glah,* ' No, I think yo'd'n better tell 'er an' 
save yore fourpence.' Cf. Clat (2). 

GLADSOME [glad 'sum], adj, joyous; cheery; pleasant — ^Pulver- 
batch. * Well, Bichut, 'ow bin'ee ? I 'spocted to see yo' as gladsome 
as a butterfly, an' 'ere yo' bin lookin' as dismal as a mug in Novembor/ 

' As when a man hath ben in noure estaat, 
And clymbeth vn, and wexeth fbrtunat, 
And ther abydetn in prosperitee, 
Swich thing is gl€uisom, as it thinketh me.' 

Chaucsb, B. 3968 (Six-text ed.), Skeai 

A.S. glctdf glad ; cheerful ; pleasant. 

GLAVTH [glan*th1, sh. a shade or tone of colour. — Corvb Dale. 
' The barley innad 'urt — it's on'y lest a nice glanih on it.' This was 
said of barley that had stood much wet weather. 

OLASTEB [glas'tur*], ttb. milk and water. — ^Pulverbatoh ; Wem; 
Oswestry. ' Aye, this is milk like milk, nod sich gUuier as yo' gotten 
i' the towns.' W. glasdvor. — Idem. 

OLAT [glat*], (1 W&. a broken down opening in a hedge. — ^Pulvbb- 
batch; Bishop^s Castle ; Corve Dale; Ludlow; Wem, *Them 
ship bin all i' the lane, Maister, I doubt theer's a gUU somew'eer i' the 
leasow fence.' 

(2) Bh. a gap in the mouth caused by loss of teeth. — Puxverbatch. 
* Dick, yo' bin a flirt ; I thought yo' wun gwein to marry the cook at 
the paas'n's.' * Aye, but 'er^d gotten too many glaU i' tike mouth fur 
me. See Gai-tooihed, in Wedo. 

(3) «6. the * vacant place ' made by death. — ^Pulverbatch. * Bo 
the poor owd Squire's gwun ! Itll be a lungful wilde afore that 
glafi maden up — theer 5onna be another like 'im.' 

GLAVBE Jglai'vur'], v, a. to flatter with a view to self interest; to 
cajole.— Wek. * '£ glavered 'im o'er till at last 'e stud 'im a quart' 

'And f^at wicked folke ' wymmen bi-traie)', 
And bigile)> hem of her good * wi)» glauerynge wordes.' 

P. PI. Or,, L 52. 
W. gla/ru, to flatter. 

OLEDE [glee-d], sb. a red spark of fire. — Shrewsburt; Pulver- 
batch, Qy. com. ' Theer wuz a nice glede o* fire i' the grate w'en I 
got up this momin'.' 


* Of knith ne liauede He neuere drede, 
^at lie ne sprong forth so sparke of gledej 

Havdok the Dane, 1. 91. 

' Her house sae bien, her curch sae clean, 

I wat she is a dainty chucky ; 
And cheerUe blinks the mgle^gleed 

Of Lady Onlie, honest Lucky I ' 

EoBBBT BusNS, Foems^ p. 252, 1. 19, c. 2. 

AuS. gUdy a burning; fire. 

OLSDESy sb. pi, clear, glowing red cinders ; glowing wood embers 
out of a bread-oTen. — Shbbwsbxjey : Pulvekbatch. Qy. com. 
The gledes from oyen-fiiel are often collected into a tin pail for the 
purpose of making, or keepine, a dish of food hot, which they do 

• very effectually. * Sally, put uie men's 'tatoe-pie o'er them glede$ aft 
come out o' the oven, to keep warm for supper. 

' And as glowande gledes * gladieth nou^te ^is werkmen, 
y&t woronen & waken ' in wyntres ni3tes, 
» Ajs doth a kex or a candel * f^at cau^te hath fyre & blaseth.* 

Piere PL, Text B., pass. xvii. L 217. 

' Loke how that fire of smal gledes, that ben almost ded under ashen, 
wol quicken ay^n, whan they ben touched with brimstone, rieht so 
ire wol evermore quicken ay en, whan it is touched with pride tiiat is 
covered in mannes herte.'— ^hauceb, Tke Persones Tale {De Ira), 

' For there no noisy railway speeds. 
Its torch-race scattering smoke and gleeds.* 

LoNOFELLOW, Prelude to Tales of a Wayside Inn, 

A.S. gl^d; O.Fris. glSd; O.Du. gloed, glowing coal. — Stbat. 

OLEDY [glee'di'J, adj, red; glowing; clear; said of a fire. — 
Shrewsbury; Pulverbatch. Qy. com. 'Mind to '&ve a nice 
glefly fire fur makin' the suppin', else yo'n get it groud.* 

' The cruel ire, as reed as eny gleede.' 

Chaucer, The Knightes Tale, 1. 1139, ed. Morris. 

OLEK [glemjL sh, a gleam; a ray of sunshine. — Pulverbatch. 
Qy. com. * Kan 'ee 'ad e'er a swarm o' bees it ? Theer^s bin some- 
nice glems to-day.' 

' Als ^ knithes were comen aUe, 
per hauelok lay, ut of )»e halle, 
So stod ut of his mouth a aUm, 
Bith al swilk so ^ sunne-bem ; 
pat al so lith wa[s] {rare ; bi heuene ! ' 

Havdok the Dane, 1. 2123. 

A.S. gloem, a gleam ; brightness. 

OLBXMT, adj. said of the weather when there are gleams of 
sultry heat, or alternating sunshine and showers. — I hid. *This 
alemmy weather's grand for feedin' the com, now its dropped the 
blow.' *'0w lung dun 'ee reckon from blow-drop till 'arroost?' 
'About five wik.' 

OLIBB [glei'b], sb., var, pr,, obmU. the glebe. — ^Pulvbrbatcs. See 



OLIB [gliil], sh., obsoU. Milvug regdlU^ the Kite. Com. 'Bessey, 
run i the orchat an* look after them young ducks — I see a glid about, 
an' the 'en*8 under the pen, an' canna defend 'em.' 

* MilvMj glida,' occurs in Archbp. jSl/ric^a Vocabulary^ x. cent., in 
Wr. vocabs., toL L p. 29. Mr. \Vright remarks upon it — ' Gkde 
continued to be the usual English name for the kite till a com- 
paratively late period.' He refers, for example, to an Enyli^h 
VocAibu'ary, xv. cent., p. 188 of the same volume, where *J?cc 
MilvM A^f glede,' is found. A.S. gliday a kite. Cf. 

OLIHT [glin't], (1) V, a, to dry; to wither: the sun gliTits gnsg 
and com. — Clee Ulixs. 

(2) adj. dull, as of the edge of a knife— 'the knife's yhfUJ-— 

OLOB [glauV], sh. fat. — Pulvtobatgh ; Wem. The following 
humorous dialogue — heard in the neighbourhood of Pulyerbatch— 
is supposed to be caused by two crows, one of which has found a 
carrion that the other desires to share :— 

First Crow. * All glor, all glor ! ' « 

Sec, Crow, * Weer is it ? w'eer is it P ' 
First Crow, * Down i' the moor, down i' the moor.' 
Sec, Crow. * Shall I come alung ? shall I come alung P * 
First Crow. ' Bar bwiins, bar bwuns ! ' 

Pegge gives * Ohre, fat North.,' and * Olur, soft iai Ltnc' 
Cf. a lor in E. D. S. , C. v. 

OLOS-FAT, adj. excessively fat ; an over-fed beast would be said to 
be gloT'/at, — PuLVEKBATOH ; WsM. See Oloar-fat in Hal. 

OLUE, sh,f pee. the gum which exudes fW>m the bark of hardy stone- 
fruit trees. — SuREWSBUBT ; Pulvebbatch. See Lammas-plum. 

OLXTE-WABM, adj, lukewarm.— Shrewsbury. 'Mix the waiter 
fur naidin' [kneading] nod more than glue^warmJ* Cf. Ijew-warm. 

GLUT [glut*], sb, a long continuance of wet weather. — Pulvebbatch. 
' We nanna 'ad sich a glut o' raiu this lung wilde.' 

OLTDE [^lei-d], (1) v, n. to squint — ^Wbm. Qy. com. 

Ash gives ' Oly, to look asquint (a local word).' Jamieeon has 'To 
Gley, Olye, to squint.' 

' Ifec stroha, a woman glyande,' and * Hie straho-nis^ a glvere,' occur 
in a Nominale, xv. cent., m Wr. vocabe., voL i p. 225. Mr. Wright 
explains * Glyande ' as ' Glyantt^ squinting.' 

See • Glyart or goguleye,' in Prompt, Paw,, with Way's note. Ct 

(2) sh, a squint. — Ibid, 

CK>B [gob-], (1) «5. a lump of dough op bread; also of cheese.— 
Shrewsbury, Uffington, ' Mother, canna yo' spar me that gttb o' 
duff to mak' pot-balls on ?* *No, far Vm gweXn to mak' apiefttr 
yore faither's supper.' 

' Hec massa An", a gobet of dow,' occurs — ^under the head of Fidor 
€um suis Instrumentis^m Pictorial Vocabulary, xv. oeni, in Wr. 
vocabs., vol. i. p. 277. 


* Gbbet, lampe. Frustrumy massa, Oobet, parte, Pars. The word 
gobbet formerly implied not only a lump, but generally a piece or 

portion of anything " Gobbet, a lumpe, or a pece, monceau, 

M>ptn, chanteau" — Palso. The derivation appears to be from 
•* Oobeau, a. bit, gobbet, or morsell." Goto.* — Prompt Parv, and 

(2) fib, the crumb or middle part of a loaf, from which the crust has 
been broken off. — ^Ludlow, Worcestershire Border, *Some chaps 
'ad'n some bayte at a public, an' p^^lenen the loaf. Wen the owd 
56man come in, 'er says — liftin' up 'er *onds — ** Whad's to become o* 

* Gobet of a broke thynge (of hole thinge. P.). Frogmen, frogmen^ 
turn,* — Prompt, Parv, 

(3) sh. a rough sod, or clump of coarse grass in a pasture-field. — 
Shrewsbuby, Uffington. 

* Oleba, a gobet of erthe,' in Way. Cf. Hobs and Gobs. 

(4) sh, a mass of refuse matter,— Collieby ; Wem ; Ellesmere. 
' They'n turned a fine gob o* sludge out o' that diche— hanna they ? ' 

(5) sb. the 'worked out* part of a coal-mine. — Colliery; M. T. 
To build the gob is to prop the walls of the excavations with timber, 
as each miner proceeds with his work, in order to prevent them 
fetUing in upon him. See Gob-gate*road, below. 

GOBBLE [gob'l], (1) v. a. to sew or mend in a rough kind of way. 
— Shrewsbury. Qy. com. * 'Ere Sally, tak' this owd petticut an' 
gobble it up — it inna wuth wastin' time o'er, but it'll do to wesh in.' 

^ 's so 

GOB-GATE-BOAD, sh, a main road carried into the gob, — Colliery ; 
M . T. See Gob (5), above ; also Gate-road. 

GOD A'HIGHTT*8 LADY-COW, sh, CoccineUa septem punctata, 
the Lady-bird. — Pulverbatoh. 'This well-known insect is dedi- 
cated to Our Lady, as appears by the German name Marien-kd/er or 
Qottes-kUhleiny in Carinthia FrauenkUele, in Brittany it is called /a 
petite vache du bon Dieu, and Bohem. Bozj krawicka, God's little 
cow, has the same meaning.' — Wedo. • 

The Welsh name for the * Lady-bird ' is • Yfuwch coch fach ' = the 
little red cow. See Lady-cow. 

GOIN' A-TUHMASIH'. See Bk. IL, Folklore, &c., 'Customs 
connected with Days and Seasons' {8t, Thomae? Day), 

GOLDEF AiraTgHj si, the Yellow Ammer.— Cluk. See Black- 

GOLDEV-CHAnrS, sh. pi, the flowers of Cytisus Lahnmum. Qy. 

GOLDEH-SHOWEBS, ic/dm.— Pulvbrbatch. 

OOLDFIHCH, sh. pee, same as Cfoldfinch, q. v. — Pulverbatoh. 

GOLOBE [gu'loa'h'r'J, adv, in abundance; always concluding the 

ir 2 

OOBBY [gob-i'], adj. rough; uneven. — Pulverbatoh. Qy. c< 
'This knittin's deepert onshooty, but I canna 'elp it— the yom'j 


phrase or sentence in which it is used — ' We'n apples gdore,* — GoRVS 
Dale. * Gkielic, gu ISar, enough, from le^, an adj. signifying suffi- 
cient, with the prefix af«» which is used for oonyerting an ai^j. into an 
adyerb.'— Note in E. D, S., C. iii. p. 30. 

OOHDES [gon'durn, (1) sb.^ var, pr. a gander. Com. * Fm gwein io 
kill my owd gondery Maister ; Tye 'ad 'im fiye an* twenty 'ear, an^ I 
know as I should neyer get my owd tith throu* 'im, so 111 dress *im 
fur the markit, an* tak' 'im to Soseb'ry o' SaturdV.' Thus spake 
Betty Matthews of Castle Pulyerbatch [1833], and-Hshe sold her 
^gonder l^ 

(2) V, n. to mope about — Pulvebbatch. ^ That fellow's good fur 
nuthin' but gonaer about like a kimet ship.' 

GK)VE COLD, part, past, become cold. Com. 

GOOD FEW. See Indefinite Hnmerals, p. xlyi. 

OOODXES-TUESDAT, sb.y obsols, Shroye-Tuesday.— PuLysiiBATOH ; 
Clitn; Clee Hills. 'Mother, did*n*ee 'ear whad our lickle Sam 
said? — as'e knowed why it wuz called Ooode^-CJioozdywaz 'cause 
Mam al'ays made poncakes. Inna-d-'e mighty arpit ? ' Called CUttU- 
Tuesday, — Wem. Grose has ' Oooddit, Shroye-tide. North.' 

GOOD OLD HAS BEEH, phr. said of persons or things that haye 
past their prime. — Pulye&batch. ^'Ei^s a aood owd 'cm bin* waa 
remarked of a sometime beauty who bad lost all pretension to be con- 
sidered such. 

GOOLD [goo'ld], sb,, var, pr,, obaols. gold. — Shbbwsburt ; PuLyER- 
BATCU; Oswestry. Ooold is a lingering form, which dates from 
the time of George lY., when it was a * shibboleth ' of good breeding. 

OOOH [goom], (1) ab. B. swelling, as from a sprain. — Clee Hills. 
* 'Ow oid'n yo' come by that goom o' yore 'ond F ' < I gid it a kench, 
but m get some lies [oils] to it to linnow it a bit.* 

(2) $h,, var. pr. the gum. Qy. oom. *I think 'ell &ye a tuth 
through afore lung — they bin yery 'ard i' the goom$* 

OOOK-TITH, sb. pi. molar teeth. Qy. coul ' It wuz one o' my 

focm-'tith as ached so, it warched an' nagged, an' gid me no pace, so 
went to *aye it drawed ; an' the mon, 'e piit the pinsons on it an' 
gid one pool, an' out it comen — but it gid me whad for.' 

Of. ' tes dents maschdieres^ The cheeke-teeth, Jaw-teeih, grinders.' 
— CoTGRAVE, in Bible Word-Book, p. 278. 

OOOSE-APPLE, sb.f obsols.^ a green, juicy cooking-apple, excellent 
for sauce. — Pijlvbrbatch ; Wellinoton, Upton Waters. 

OOOSE-0008, sb. pL gooseberries. — Oswestrt. 

GK)KSE-BIRD, »b. Fringilla canndbina, thQ Brown Linnet — Clun. 
See below. 

60B8E-HATCHES, same as aboye.— Bridonorth. This namo 
points to the bird's habit of making its nest under gorse-bushes. 

00B8B-THATCHER, same as aboye.^CHURCH Strbttok. 


OOBST [goi^'st], sb. Ulex Europasua^ common Farze. — Com. 8, Shr. 
' ril '&Te a foud 'unUed out by that shad an' waund 55th gorst — itll 
be warm fur the beas to ate thar tarmits/ 

' 1643. Payd for 5 loads of Oartte to stop the breaches in the church 
& placing the same with chardges 17 s. 

' 1649. Bee', for old gorste that was taken out of the breaches in the 
north side of the church 38.' — Churchwarden^ Accounts of the Ahbetf, 

* pe fox & J>e folmarde • to J»e fryth wyndej^ 
Hertes to hyie hej>e • harei to acrste^, 
& lyounej & lebarde3 * to pe lake-ryftes.* 

Alliterative Poems^ The Deluge ^A.D. 1360, circa), 
Sjpecim. Early Eng.y xili. L 535. 

* Herha iras, gorst.' — Anglo-Saxon Vocabulary ^ xi. cent., in Wr. 
Yocabs., ToL L p. 68. A.S. goret, Cf. Qoss. 

GOESTT, adj. abounding with 'gorst* — *a gorsty bonk.' — Com. 
8. Shr. 

OOSS [go8*], same as Gorst. — Newport ; Wem ; Ellesmere. 

' Tooth'd briers, sharp furzes, pricking goes and thorns.' 

Tempesty IV. i. 180. 

' Ooe$, Furze. Kent. Galled in the North gorse.'^-GROSE. 

€K)88IP8 [gos'sips], sb. pL sponsors in Holy Baptism. — Pulvbrbatch ; 
Wem ; Oswestry. • Yo'd'n a pretty gran' Chris'nin' I 'ear— who wun 
the goseipB f ' ' Ooesipe enough, fayth ! if they'd'n pickt the parish 
they comdna-d-a fund two better talkers.' 

' 1540. 12 March thro lycens was christened at WyUey, Agnes the 
dought* of Bic' Charlton of this towne of Wenlok and of Jone his 
wife, Oossibhes wer 8' Tho* Boteler of Wenlok aforesaid Vicar, and 
Maistres Agnes wif Maisf Bic' Lacon Lord of Wylley aforesaid, and 
the wife of W" Davys of Apley Jjode'—Begieter of Sir Thomas Boteler ^ 
Vicar of Much Wemock. 

' The^r had mothers as we had ; and those mothers had goeeipe (if 
their children were christened) as we are.' — Ben Jonson, 2'he Staple 
of News, The Induction, 

* Oosaip is still used by our peasantry in its first and etymological 
sense, namely, as a sponsor m baptism— one aib or akin in Ood, 
according to the doctrine of the mediseval Church, that sponsors con- 
tracted a spiritual affinity with one another, with the parents, and 
with the child itself. 

* ** Ooseips" in this primary sense, would ordinarily be intimate and 
familiar with one another — ^would haye been so already, or through 
this affinity would have become so ; and thus the word was next 
applied to all familiars and intimates. At a later day it obtained the 
meaning which is now predominant in it, namely, the idle profitless 
talk, the ''comm^rage (which word has exactly the same nistory), 
that too often finds place in the intercourse of such.' — ^Abchrp. 
Tbehch, Select OUmary, pp. 95, 96. 

See Wat's note in Prompt. Parv., p. 204. A.S. god-eihh, a gossip ; 


008TES [gos'tur^], (1) «6. swagger; vapoaring talk; empty. com- 
pliment. — Weh ; Kt.t.tomurk ' (He us none o' yore ^oiter---dim'ee 
think as folks han no better sense till believe it P' 

(2) V, n. to swagger, &o. — Thid. Pesge gives ' Goytter, to brag 
^aggor ; ' but does not add locality wnere used. 


00 THT WATS, phr, chiefly addressed to children when bidding 
them begone in a good-humoured kind of way. — Shsewsbubt. Qy. 
com. This phrase, according to Mr. Oliphant, is found for the fint 
time in the uandlyng Synne [1303], p. 346. 

* pou mayst ^an sykerly go ^ weye,* 

See Sources of Standard EnglUh, pp. 191 — 194. 

Shakespeare uses it :— > 

' King. Oo thy ways^ Kate : 

That man i' the world who shall report he has 
A better wife, let him in nought be trusted, 

For speaking false in that ' 

K. Henry VIII., H. ir. 138. 
See Come thy ways. 

OOWD [goud], «&., var. pr, goli — "Wellington ; Newport. Qy. 


' The rank is but the guinea stamp ; 
The man's the go^vd for a' that.* 

Egbert Burns, Poems, p. 227, 1. 28, c. 2. 

See Orammar Outlines {vowels, Ac), (9), (21). 

OOWDEH [gou'dn], adj,, var. pr. golden. — Ibid. 

* Thou paints auld Nature to the nines, 
In thy sweet Caledonian lines ; 
Nae gowden stream thro* myrtles twines. 

Where Philomel, 
While nightly breezes sweep the vines, 

Her griefe will tell I * 
Robert Burns, Poems, p. 114, L 12, c. 2. 

OOWm) [gou'nd], «fc., var. pr. a gown. Com. 

• 1756. Pd. for a Gownd for An Bridwaters „ 8 - 9.'— Church- 
wardens' Accounts, Hopton Castle. 

OSACE [gr'ai's], sb., var. pr. grease. Com. * Whad ! han they 'ad 
a sale up at the 'ill ? * ' Oh, aye ! they bin gwun all to raddle an' 
rags, an' urchins* [hedgehogs*] grace^l neyer *spected they'd'n do 
any good.* 

O&AFE [gr'af'], sb. a spade's depth in digging. — Pulvbrbatgh; 
Wem ; Whitchurch ; Oswestry. Qy. com. 

' The measure of this leape [Humphry Einaston's] was afterwards 
marked out upon Knockin Heath, upon a greene plott by the way- 
side that leads from Knockin towards NesdifPe, with an H and a h. 
cut in the ground at the ends of the leapa The letters wero about 
an elne long, and were a spade spraff broad and a spade ^aff deep. 
These letters were usually repaired yearely by Mr. Ejuaston of 


Buyton. I confesse t have seen tHe letters, but did not take the 
measure of the distance.' — Gk)tTGH^8 History of Myddle, p. 29. 

* A.S. flrra/oft ; O.lcehgra/a; O.H. Germ, ^rraftan, to grave ; dig.' 

GRAFrarO - SHOVEL [gr'af -tin shuvl], sb. a digging^pade. — 
Whttchitrch, Tilstock, 

OSAFTIHO-TOOL, (l) sh. a crescent-shaped implement for cutting 
the turf, preparatory to making the drains in grass-land — Pulybr- 
BATcn. K'ot much used now [1879]. 

(2) »b. a long spade used for draining purposes. — Ludlow. See 

(3) sh. a curved spade shorter in the iron part than the draining- 
tool : it is much used in ' rahhiting,' as it digs down to the hole at 
two semi-circular cuts, whereas a common spade would require three 
or four to the same end — it thus expedites matters. — Clbe Hills. 

OBAIHnrO IS THE HOBH» phr. A ring appears on a cow's 
horn with every calf she has after the first one, this is called graynin* 
t* the *om. Hence, by metaphor, a woman waxing in years is said to 
be graynin* C the ^orn. Also, as it is the practice of dishonest cattle- 
dealers to file out the grains or rings in a cow's horn, in order to make 
her appear younger than she is ; so, a woman, who by artificial means 
tries to give herself a more youthfHil appearance, is said to ' tak' the 
grayns oufn 'cr ^oms,^ — Pulvebbatch. See below. 

OBAIITS [gr'ei'nz, corr. gr'aayu'z], (1) sb. pi. the rings in a cow's 
horn. — ^Pulvebbatch. * That coVs ten 'ear owd — fur I counted 
seven or eight grayns in 'er 'om.' 

'Firmary i* * * Oo-a ? ' ' 'Im as 'ad the pikel grayns potched 

'ond — the Doctor said it brought on tiddinus [tetanus] or summat' 

* Chain in fl. the prongs of a fork.'— Jamiesox. 

* Dan. green^ branch ; bough ; prong of a fork.' — Wedo. 

fiHAHCH [gr'an-sh], (1) v, a. and v. n. to craunch ; to crush forcibly 
with the teeth ; to grind. — Shrewsbury ; Pulyerbatch. Qy. com. 
*Them curran'-cakes as yo' buyen bin nasty things — they granch 
under yore tith like atin' cinders. * Yo' shud'n gdo to Plimmer's, an' 
then yo'd'n '&ve 'em good.' 

(2) sb. a hard bite. — Ibid. * Jest see 'ow I broke my tuth ; theer 
wuz a bit of a stwun i' that curran'-cake, an' I gid it a granch, an' 
spUt a piece off my tuth — ^I'll g65 w'eer yo' tellen me fur 'em agen.' 

(3) V. a. to bite greedily ; to snatch at, in eating. — Pulterbatch. 
'All them ship 66n granch that bit o' grass up in no time.' Cf. 

OBAHHfOWED [gr'an-oed], part. adj. ingrained with dirt. — Wem ; 
Ellesmere. Compare granyt =s dyed in grain, in the following 
linee: — 


' In onunmyByn ded and granyi yiolat, 
With sangwyne cape, the eelvage purpiirat.* 

GtAWTS DOTTOLAB (a.d. 1513), Ptol. of the XIL 
Buk of EneadoBn JSpecim, Eng. Lit^ ziiL L 15. 
Gf. Orixmowed« 

OBAVH0W8 [gr'an'oez], $b. pi, streaks of dirt left in clothes from 
bad washing ; the term is chiefly applied to body-Unen. — Ibid, Of. 

OEAVHT- BEAKED, part. adj. oyer-indulged ; coddled-^as if 
brought up by a more fond than wise grandmother. Com. ' Whad 
a spiled, pinnikin Hckle thing that child is ! ' * Aye, 'er looks like a 
granny^reared un— duna-d-'er ? ' 

OEAESIE [gr'an'sur'], sh., obs. a grandsire. — ^Worthbn. * IVe lef 
the two little uns alung d6th thar grafuir.* 

* Both perles prince and kyng reray ; 
His gracious grangerea and his ^rawndame, 
His tader and moderis of kyngis thay came. 
Was nerer a worthier prynce of name.' 

JoHK AuDELAT, Lines on K. Henry F/., p. viii. 

< Oraum$yre, fiiderys fadjrr (grawncyr, S. grauncer, P.). Avua,* — 
Prompt, Farv, 

OBAS8-H00K [gr'as* uk], sb. a small hook attached to the head of 
a scythe-pole which fiistens into the scythe and keeps it steady. — 


OBEEE [gr'ee'n], adj. inexperienced ; raw. — Shbewsburt ; Pulver- 
BATCH. Qy. com. ' Whad can yo' expect from a green young wench 
like that P — for my part I'd as liT be athout as none the better.' 
' ^tV. Why with some little train, my Lord of Buckingham P 
' Buck. Marry, my lord, lest, by a multitude, 
The new-heal d wound of malice should break out; 
Which would be so much the more dangerous 
By how much the estate is gr^en and yet ungoyemed.' 

K. Richard III., IL ii 127. 

OBEEE-HOHI), ah. one who is unskilled, as an apprentice or new 
beginner at any kind of work. — lUd. * Aye, it's done pretty well 
fur a green-^ondP^jo^n get saisoned to it afore seyen 'ear.' 

0BE8S [gr'es'], ah. grass. — Newport ; Ellesmerb ; Oswestry. 
' Nancy Bobuts married agen, dun'ee say P Wy 'er's 'ardly let the 
gress grow green on 'er poor 'usban's graye.' 

* Was neuere non M mouhte >aue 
Hise dintes, noy)>er knith ne knaue, 
pat he felden so dos l^e grea 
Bi-fom pe eype pat ful sharp is.' 

Havdok the Dane, 1. 2698. 
A.S. gr<B$f grass. 

OBEWED [gr'oo'd], (1) part. adj. stuck to the saucepan in boiling; 
said of nmk, porridge, ftc— Wem ; Ellesiiebe. See Orowed. 


(2) pi»rt, adj. fastened in, as of smut or dirt attaching to the skin. 
^Fbid. See Orowed (2). 

OSET-HTTN [gr'ai- un], sb, a greyhound. — Pulvbrbatch. *We'n 
three dogs, but the grey-un an' the pynter bin the Squire's.' 

* O.N. greyy grey-hundr, a bitch.' — Wedq. 

OBET-HABrE, sb. a managing, rather than a ruling, wife. — Pulveb- 
BATGH. Qy. com. 'The grey-mar^B the best 'orse — 'e 65dna do 
much good athout 'is wife.' 

OBID [gr'id'l, sb. a grating over a drain. Com. ''Ow did'n yo' 
come off i* the starm ? We*d'n a reg'lar floo4 ; ^he waiter run through 
the 'ouse like a bruck — ^the grid wuz stopt up at the back.' 

OSIBDIiE [gr'id'l], (1) sb.^ obsols.% a gridiron. — Shbbwsburt; 


' A strong fur he let make and gret, 
And a gredel theropon sette.' 

MS. Coll. Trin. Oxon. 57, in Hal. 

* Craticulam,' glossed * gridil, ' occurs in the Treatise of Alexander 
Neckam, zii. cent., in Wr. yocabs., yol. i. p. 102. W. greiddyU, a 

Sv. a. to broil ; to grill. — Ibid. * Sally, we'n get on 5ftth our 
, an' n^yer mind any reg'lar dinner to-day — ^we can griddle a 
slice o' 'am fur our tay, an' get it yarly.' * Aye, I think as that'll be 
best.' W. greidio, to scorch ; to smge. 

(3) eh. a grill of some sort. — Ibid. * We mun get the Maister a bit 
of a griddle fur 'is tay — 'e's bin a lung journey,' 

OBIG [gr'igl, (1) sb. s, bantam fowl. — Pulvbrbatch; Clbb Hills. 
' They'n gid me a couple o' grigs — a cock an' a 'en.' 

(2) sb. Calluna vulgaris, common Ling. Qy. com. ' What adyan- 
tages then might bee made of some great mosses in Lancashire and 
el^where, that lye near to coal and limestone, and therefore might 
well be spared without making fuell dear, and improved at a yery 
small charge, and for the present yield little or no profit, save some 
^rigg or heath for Bheep.^ Aubrey's Wilts, M8. Eoyal Soe.y p. 304, 
in Hal. 

Bay has ' Grig, Salopiensibus Heath,' in his ' Catalogue of Local 
JTords Paralleled with Welch.' W. grug, heath; ling. 

OBIO-BESOM, sb. a broom made of ' grig.' Qy. com. * I like a 
grig-besom fur sweepin' the imbers out o' the oyen, an' then a clane 
maukin' to finish up o5th.' Grig-besoms are in much request for barn- 

OBIHE [gr^eim], sb. smut grained in— differing from ' collow,' which 
is mere surface soot. — Clee Hills. Qy. com. * That 56man'6 &ce 
hanna sid waiter lately — look at the grime.^ 

* Ant. 8. What complexion is she of? 

* Dro. 8. Swart, like my shoe, but her face nothing like so clean 
kept : for why, she sweats ; a man may go oyer shoes in the grime 
of it. 

*Ant. 8. That's a fault that water will mend. 


*Dro. 8, No, air, 'tia in gnin; Noah's flood could not do it' — 
Comedy of Error$^ IL iL 106. 
Dan. grimy soot; smut; dirt 

ORIH [gr'in-], sh, a snare, as for a hare or rabbit, &c. Qy. com. 
* Whad's the matter 5oth the cat's fut P ' < I 'speot it's bin ketcht in 
a grin^ an' Vs got a poacher's reward.' 

* pe loyerd >at sone undenat 
Lim and grine and wel ihwat 
Sette and leide ^e for to lacche 
pu come sone to l^an hacche 
pu were inume in one grine 
Al hit abohte J^ine schine.' 

Owl and NighUngdU, IL 1055—1059. 

' Even as a bird 

out of the foulers grin^ 
Escaped away, 
right so it fareth with us.' 

Sternhold and HoPiOKS (a.d. 1599), 
P«. cxxiy. 7, in BibU Word-Bock. 

A. 8. grin, a snare. Der. 'grinned.' 

ORnTDLE-STONE. eh a grind-stone. Qy. com. 'Jack, I shall 
want yo' to turn the grindle-Btwun fur me to sharpen the axe.' See 
grindeUtonf in Strat. 

OBINKED, paH, past, trapped in a * grin.' Qy. com. See above. 

OBINHEEED, OEIHHEBS, same as Grixmowed, &c,, below.— 

OEIITVOWEB [gr'in'oed], part, adj, ing[rained with dirt — Shrews- 
bury ; PxTLVERBATCH. * I 56dna gie anythin* to sich a nasty slanny ; 
'er clo'es bin all grinnowed ddth dirt, an 'er face is as black as the 
aister.' Cf. Grannowed. 

OEINN0W8 [gr'in-oez], sh, pi. same as Orannowa, q. v. — Shrews- 
BTTRY ; PtJLYERBATCH. * I canna get the grinnow out if I rub the 
piece out, they'n bin biled in so many times.' 

6KIF [gr'ip*], *^- a very small water-channel cut in the ground for 
the purpose of letting the rain run off. — Church Stretton, Longnor, 

* pan bir^e men casten hem in poles, 
. Or in a grip, or in )>e feu.' 

Havelok the Dane, 1. 2102. 

* Oryppe, or a gryppel, where watur rennythe a- way in a londe, 
or watur forowe. Araiiunculat agtiagium, aquarium. ** Aratiuncuioj 
foasa parva que inetar sulci aratur. — Cath. The term grype occurs in 
an award, dated 1424, relating to the bounds of lands of the Prior of 
Bodmin, as follows : ** the bounde that comyth thurgh the doune — 
goyng don to another stone stondynge of olde tyme in the bank of a 
grypty — and so the diche (called Kenediche) and the gripe, &c." — 
Mon. Ang., new ed. from Harl. Cart., 57 A. 36. 

' In Norfolk, Forby states that a trench, not amounting to a ditch, 


is called a grup ; if narrover still, a grip ; and if extremely narrowy 
a grijmle.' — Prompt. Parv. and Notes, 

' O.Du. grippe {stUciui), grip ; trench ; ditch.' — Stbat. 

OSIBE!I]Ef [gr'is'kinj, sh. a lean piece out of the loin of a bacon-pig, 
lying between the ham and the flitch. — Bishop's Castle ; Clun. 

' In Salop the old Scandinavian gris (the Sanscrit griahtt) is used 
[1220] instead of pig ; hence our griskin : some curious English rimes 
in the Lanercost Chronicle turn on the former word.* — Sources of 
Standard English^ p. 123. 

The following are the rimes referred to by Mr. Oliphant in the 
passage quoted above : — 

• Willy GHs, Waiy Grit, 
Think quhat thou was, and quhat thou is.' 

Mr. Wright alludes to the same rimes in his Glossary to Piers PI, 
when explaining the word *gry8,^ which occurs about three times 
throughout that work. 

* Oryce, swyne or pygge. PorceUus, ne/rendisJ — Prompt. Parv. 
See Oris in Jamieson. 

OBIST [gr'ei'st], sb. the quantity of com ground at once, usually a 
bag, i.e. three bushels. — Clttk. 'Tell the milner to fetch the grist 
to-daay, an' saay I shall want the batch i' the momin'.' 

' And moreouer, that all Dowers of the Cite and suburbis of the 
same, grynd att the Cite is myllis, and noo where els, as long as they 
may have sufRciaunt grist, vppon such paynis as of old be ordned and 
provided 3m that be-halfe.' — * Ordinance of the ** Gild of the Bakers." 
£xeter, temp. 22 Edw. IV. to 1 Richard lU.,' in English Oilds, their 
Statutes and Customs, E. E. T. S. 

* All bring grist to your mill.' — ^Bay's Proverbs, p. 194. 

Jamieson gives, ' Orist, fee paid at a mill for grinding.' 
A.S. grist, a grinding. Cf. Batch (2). 

6B0AT8 [gr'aa*t8], sb. pt. dregs or grounds of oatmeaL — Newport. 
A.S. griH, coarse meal. 

OBOBD [gr'ond*], pret and part, past, ground. — Shrewsbury; 
PuLYERBATCH. * The Waggoner said 'e couldna sleep fur that lad — 
'e grond 'is tith all night as if *e'd bin gnawin' a w'et-stwun.' 

'A few verbs have ou, which has arisen out of an o or 00, as 
ground = grond {groond) = [O.E. pret.^ grand,* — Dr. Morris's 
laistoriccU English Accidence, p. 161. 

6B0PE [gr'oap*], v. n. to catch trout with the hand<^, by feeling for 
them in the holes and sheltered places of a stream. — Pulyerbatch. 
Qy. com. ' I can do no good 56th a net ketchin' trout — I like to 
grope fur 'em best under the stouls an' bonks.' 

' Look what ther is, put in thyn hand and grope, 
Thow fynde shalt ther siluer, as I hope.' 

Chaucer, G. 1236 (Six-text ed.), Skeat. 

* Gropyn or felyn wythe hande. Palpo,* — Prompt, Parv, 
A. 8. grdpian, to lay hold of. 


OBOTTHD [gr^ou'nd and gi^ou'n], sh, farm-land, or some portion of 
it : ' gwun round the ground ' =: gone round the fiirm ; * the nyrer 
groun ' = the upper or higher part of a farm. — Pulybabatgh. Qy. 
com. * It's a rar^farm that's no bad ground* is a proverbial sayiiij^ 
analogous to ' It's a fair flock that has no black sheep,' and ia 
similarly applied. 

OBOTTTS, OBOUTiJiS [gr'ou-tsj, Pdlvbrbatch. [gi'ou-tini], Wnc, 
$b. pi, settlings of beer ; the thick sediment deposited by the * drink' 
at the bottom of the cooler, or otherwise in the barrels. ' Sally, ban 
yo' bin stoupin' the barrel ? Look at this diink, all fiill o' grotdt^ 
on'y fit fur the wesh-tub.' 

* N. grut, dregs ; grtUen^ grouty ; muddy.' — ^Wedo. G£ Crap. 

OBOWJSD [gr'ou'd], (1) part. adj. stuck to the pan in boiling: said 
of milk, &o. — Shrewsbury ; Pulvbebatch ; Clun. ' Wy, Bessy, 
this suppin's bwiled till it's aU gr<nved to the pot — ^whad says owd 
Nancy Andrus o' Churton Green r — 

" It's saut, sour, an' sutty. 
Thick, growed, an' lumpy, 
Like the Devil's porritch."' 

Lancelot, in the Merchant of Venice (IL iL 18), uses the expresaon 
grow tOt and the following note upon it is found in the edition of the 
Clarendon Press Series {Select Playe), ' Orow-tOy a household phrase 
applied to milk when burnt to the bottom of the sauoejMin, and thenoe 
acquiring an unpleasant taste. " Ghrown " in this sense is still used in 
Lincolnshire (Brooden's Did. o/Frov. Word$, &c.).' Of. Bishopped 
(2), also Orewed (1). 

(2) part. adj. ingrained with dirt — a term chiefly applied to the 
akm. — Shrewsbury; Pulverbatch. 'That poor child^s never *afe 
weshed— the dirf s reg'lar growed in tell yo' mefn sow sids i' the 
ridges on 'er neck.' Cf. Orewed (2). See Orime. 

OBOZIEB [gT'oazh-yur*], «6., var. pr., obsols.^ a grocer. — Shrews- 
bury; Pulverbatch. * Whad grozier dun yo' dale 66th ?' 'Well, 
I al'ays g66 to Bromley's — ^yo' sin one knows the fiAmily.' See -ier. 

OBITBBT [gr'ub-i'l, (^dj. small; poor; stunted. — Shrewsbubt; 
Pulverbatch. Qy. com. 'The cabbitch bin poor ^md^-lookin' 
things this time.' 

OBVHFT [gr'ttm-pi*], adj. peevish; testy; ill-tempered. — Shrews- 
bury; Pulverbatch. Qy. com. * " Grumpy," whad els yo' to-day ? 
Yo* bin as grumpy as yo' knowen 'ow to be — if I canna plase yo I 
shall jest gie yo' lave to plase yoreself.' 

OXTDOEOVS [guj'unis], (1) *d. pi. the iron pivots in the wooden axle 
of a wheel-barrow. — ^Pulverbatch ; Ludlow. * Tell the smith to 
mak' a par o* gudgeona fur the wilbarrow.' 

' The gudgions of the spindle of a wheele.'— ^om«ne2aior, in Wb. 

(2) $b. pi. the pinions on which a windlass turns. Com. IC. T. 
OULCH [gul'sh], r. a. to swallow greedily with a sucking noise.— 


FuLTBBBATGH. Qy. com. ' Jim TunkisB id no better than a wench 
at *arToo8t-work, but *e can gtUch the drink out o* the bottle as well 
as e'er a chap i' the fild.' 

' Du. gtillm, to swallow greedily; suck down/ in Wedq, 

G£ GKittle, also Iioaoh (1). 

6TJLL [gul*], eb, an unfledged gosling. — Clun ; Clbb Hills. 

' And Terily 't would yex one to see them, who design to draw 
disciples after them, to lead a crew of gtUh into no small puddles by 
having obtained the repute of being no meanly understanding ganders/ 
— ^Trenokfield (A.D. 1671), Cap of Grey Hairs, p. 8. 

Mr. Wedgwood says gtdl simply means an ' unfledged bird.' So 
Shakespeare has it : — 

' And being fed by us you used us so 
As that ungentle giUl^ the cuckoo's bird, 
Useth the sparrow. . • . .' 

1 King Henry IV., V. I 60. 

See also the ' naked guU ' in Timon of Athens, IL L 31. Cf . the 
Celtic: — W. gwylan; Cornish, gtdlan; Bret, gwelan, a sea-gull. 
Hence, perhaps, guUf an appellation given to other birds. C£ Gimy, 

01TLLET [gul-it], (1) sb, a parcel or portion, as of a field. — Ludlow. 
"E*s a good ^J^ o' that side the fild.' 

' And the residewe beinge xx. li lyeth in sundrye gtUlettes in severall 
townes and shers.' — Ludlow Muniments, temp, Edw. VI., in Wb. 

(2) sh. a long, narrow piece of land.— Wellington. *I*ve bin 
down the gullet gettin' rawnies.' Cf. Slang. ' 

(3) sh. a passage opening out of a street — a 'cul-de-sac,' not a 
thoroughfare. — Shrewsbuby. * I say, w'eer does that 66man live as 
maden yore gownd ? ' * W'y, 'er lives up that gullet by Hughes the 
painter's shop, o' yore left-hand side as yo' gwun up the Cop. 

' Fr. gcvlet, a narrow entrance to a harbour ; O.Fr. gcule for gueuU/ 
—Pick. Cf. Shut (2). 

OXJLLT, same as Gull, above. Com. 

OXTMPT [gum-pi'l, adj. lumpy; uneven. — Pulvkrbatch. 'This 
o611en yom's mighty gumpy — ^it'll mak* a rough stockin'.' Ct Qobby. 

OXnr [gn^n*], «&., obsol^. a broad-cast turnip-sower of a peculiar 
description. It is a hollow tin cylinder about ten feet long[, divided 
into compartments, each of which has apertures furnished with slides 
to open or close at pleasure— the ^per one iis for admitting the seed, 
the lower one for letting it out. Tne slide by which the seed is dis- 
tributed is perforated with holes of various sizes for the purpose of 
regulating the quantity of seed to be sown. The gun is held by two 
handles, and the man who uses it carries it before him in a horizontal 
position, shaking it as he goes along. — Clee Hills. 

OTTKOE0H8 [gur^-junz], sh. pi. coarse refuse from flour. Com. 
Ourgeons are produced from the inner skin of the grain. They 
are lighter in substance than * sharps/ with which they are often 
confounded, owing to the respective terms being applied without 


discrimination to the different kinds of refuse meal obtained from Uie 
processes of * dressing' the flour. 

Cf. 'Fr. escourgeon, a kind of base and degenerate wheat, whick 
being ground yields very white, but very light, and little nourishing 
meaL* — Howell's Dictionary, ed. 1673. 

*O.Fr. tscourchier, escorce; de cortex.* — BuR. 

' Cortexy a rinde or bark ; a shell or pill.' — Diet. Etym. LcU, 

See Sharps. 

OXJTH [guth], sb,, a girth. — ^Newport ; Elleshbrs. 

OTJTTES [gut-ur*], (!) sb, a narrow (natural) water-course, generallj 
flowing into a brook — ^Grub's Gutter ; Hope Gutter ^ &c. — Clun. 

(2J eh. The fissures or rifts in the Longmynd (Stretton VaUey side) 
are locally known as gutters. — CHURCn Stretton. Whatever their 
producing cause may nave been — geologists differ as to that — these 
gutters now serve as channels for the mountain streamlets, which, 
issuing from spring or bog, flow down them — ^almost invariably from, 
their summits — to the vaUejr below. 

O.F. gutiere. * Fr. gouttiere, a channel or gutter.' — ^Wedo, 

(3) [guot-ur']. See Drain. 

OITTTLE [gut-1], V. a. to drink greedily. — Wek. Qy. com. *Them 
chaps binna fur work, all they wanton's to guttU the drink down thar 
throttles.' See GtOtle, in Wedg. Of GhUch. 

OTLANB [gei'land], sb, a sloping piece of land; a high bank. — 
Oswestry, Welsh Border, W. ceuJarif a hollow bank ; Y-gevlan, a 
sloping bank. 

H. The remarks on the omission of this letter as an aspirate, in 
Ghrammar Outlines, p. zxxviii., may be aptly illustrated by the 
word house as spelt in an inscription in the entrance hail of the old 
half-timbered dwelling-place in Bridgnorth, which was built by 
Bichard Forster, A.D. 1580, and in which Bp. Percy was bom, A.D. 
1729. The inscription runs thus : — 


* 1580 

The quaint use of the symbol *■ to represent the last syllable of 
For«^ is very curious, and probably exemplifies the local pronun- 
ciation of star at that period. Something very like it obtains m many 
parts of Shropshire at this day. 

HACK [ak*], (1) v. a. to chop ; to mince. Com. 'Now, *adc them 
garrits, an' get the bif an' bacon up fiir the men's dinner.' 

' And leet comaunde anon to hakke and hewe 
The okes olde, and leye hem on a rewe 
In oulpous wel arrayed for to brenne.' 

CHAtrosR, The Knightes Tale, L 2007, ed. Morris. 

O.Du. Juteken, to chop ; to cut 


(2) eh.^ obsoh, the heart, liTer, and lights of a pig» undivided. — 
— Ellesmeee, Wd%hampton, 

^ Hack^ the Lights, Liver, and Heart altogether.* — Academy of 
Armnry^ Bk. 11. di. is. p. 181. 
Ct'. Haslet. 

(3) sb, a small pick used in getting coal. — Colliery ; M. T. Ash 
has this, which he calls ' a local word ; ' and Bailej— ed. 1782 — says 
it is * North Country.' Cf. Kaundrel. 

EACK-AVE, 8h. the handle of a ' hack.'— J&t'tf. See Auve. 

HACKEE, ah, a short, strong, slightly curved implement of a peculiar 
kind, for chopping off the branches of fallen trees, &c. — Clee Hills ; 
Ludlow, Cleooury Mortimer (Forest of Wyre). Cf. Brummock. 

* Axe, hacker, mittins, and other small tools.' — Auctioneer' $ Catalogue 
(Stoddesden), 1870. 

HACBXE [ak'l], (1) sb. a cone-shaped covering of straw placed over 
bee-hives to protect them from wet and cold. — PuLVERBATCH ; Clxjw ; 

Compare * Heyke, garment. Lacerna* with Way's note in Prompt, 
Parv., p. 232. Also, 'AS. hacele; Goth, hakult; O.Icel. hdhdl; 
O.H.Germ. hachul, hackle, garments,' in Strat. 

f 2) V, a. to cover the hives with ' hackles.' — Ibid, * It's gettin' time 
to ackU an' dicket the bees — theer'll be a snow afore lung.' 

(3) V. a, to cover out-standing com, by placing inverted sheaves 
over the * mow ' in such a manner that the straw spreads out, and 
forms a weather- thatch to throw off wet. — /Wd * I spect the glass 
is gwein down, fur they'n begun to ^ackle the com i' the lung leasow, 
an I see the Maister busy among 'em.' Cf. Hattock. 

HACKLIHO-SHEAVES, ab, pi. the sheaves turned down over the 
* mow.'—Ibid, Cf. Hattooks. 

EACKHET [ak'ni'J, sb. a saddle-horse — an easy-paced, ambling nag. 
— Pulverbatch. Qy. com. *WhadI han'ee got two ^cuJcneyaf* 
' Aye, that's a spon new un fur the Missis — the jockey's comin' to 
break it nex' wik.' 

' Er we had riden fullv fyue myle. 
At Boughton vnder Blee vs gan atake 
A man, that dothed was in clothes blake, 

His hakeney, that was al pomely grys. 
So swatte, that it wonder was to see ; 
It semed he had priked myles three.' 

Chauger, Or, 5d9 (Six-text ed.), Skeat. 

' Svne to thi tennandis & to thi wawafouris 
If effy haknaya, palfrais, and curfouris.' 

Lancelot of the Laik, 1. 1730. 

' Hakeney horse. Bc^'uIub, equiferue,' — Prompt. Parv. 
O.Fr. haoqumSe, 

HADDEH. See Grammar Outlines, verb Have. 


* A tit H^nne told ecbe til o^ * here tenee & hem sorwe, 
|»at saidly for oilmen sake * hodden suffred long.* 

Wiib'am of FaUme, L 1014. 

EADVA. See Onmmar Outlinoi, verb Haye. 

' Sym, I wad na baulk m v Mend his blithe design, 
Gif that it hadna first of a' been mine.' 

Allan Bamsat, The QenUe Shepherd^ IL L p. 25. 

HAO [ag']> (1) *b, a plantation; a coppice; or part of a wood 
enclosed for any special purpose. — ^Wellinoton. 

' This said he led me over holts and hags^ 
Through thorns and buRhes scant my legs I drew.^ 

Fairfax' (a.d. 1600) Tasw, Tiii. 41, in ItiTares. 

There is a &nn called the Hag a few miles south of Bridgnorth, in 
the parish of EUghley, and not far from the Forest of Wyre. 

Mr. Halliwell says, * The park at Auckland Castle was formerly 
called the Hag.' 

'A.S. fiaga; O.Du. hage {haghe); O.IceL hagiy locus sepe circom- 
datus.'— Strat. Cf. Hay. 

(2) 9b. an allotment of timber for felling. — Glee Hills; Ludlow; 

When a wood is to be cut down and a number of men are engaged 
to do it, they conduct the operation on this wise : — ^they range Uiem- 
selves at the edge of the wood at about forty yards apart, men they 
start, proceeding in straight lines through the wood, hewing down 
the underwood, and hacking the outer h&Tk of the trees wiSi their 

* hackers' as they go along; shouting to each other in the mean 
while, in order to keep their respective distances, tUl they reach the 
farther limit The lines thus cleared form the boundaries of the 
hag apportioned to e%ch man to felL 

A hne of demarcation of this kind is called by the wood-cutters in 
the neighbourhood of Cleobury Mortimer a ' MtM,* — ^they make a 
bliss ^ and in doing it ' braae' — as their term is— the outer bark of the 
trees, t. e. cut and slash it : in using this expression bra^e they presenre 
an old word, meaning — according to Mr. Halliwell — ' to make ready ; 
to prepare,* in its eany sense, applying it as they do, to their work of 
preparation for the ha^. See Hagvoays, N. and Q. [dth S. zi. 257.] 

(3) sb. work taken by contract; a job of work- — Pulvkrbatch; 
Worthen; Ellesmere. *Whad! bin'ee road-makin\ James }|* 

* No, Tm on*y doin' a bit of a ^ag tax owd Tummad — 'e*8 gwun to Hs 
club to-day.* 

H AOOIS [ag'is], sh. Not the ' Great chieftain o' the puddin'-race,* 
the Scotch * Haggis,* immortalized by Bums, but the smaller entrails 
of a calf; what the ' chitterlings' are in a pig. — Clun. 

* Omasus, %. tripa vd ventrictUus gut continet alia viscera, a trype, or a 
podynge, or a wesaunt, or hagges, in Way. 

EAG^IT r&g'i't], part, adj,^ var. pr. harassed ; careworn ; emaciated ; 

* haffged. —PuLVERBATCH. * Poor Nancy Poppet looks despert *a^»^i 
as if er worked *ard an' far*d 'ard.' 

Ash has ' Hanged, tormented ; harassed.' See Hag, in Wedo. 


HAOOLETag'l], (1) tr. a. to cut and carve in notches. — Shrewsburt ; 
Wek ; EiiLESBCEBB. Qy. com. * Donna 70' ^ aggie the mate i' that 
way — ^I conna bar to see it.' 

< Suffolk first died : and York, all Tiaggled oyer, 

Comes to him, .' 

K. Henry F., IV. vi 11. 

' The manner of carving is not only a very necessary branch of 
information, to enable a lady to do the honours of her table, but 
makes a considerable difference in the consumption of a family. . . . 
. . Some people haggle meat so much as not to be able to help half a 
dozen persons decently from a large tongue, or a sirloin of beef ; and 
the dian goes away with the appearance of haying been gnawed by 
dogs.'— i)ame«<tc Cookery, p. yi. ed. 1812—1816 (?). 

• Sw. dialect, hagga, to hew.'— Wkdo. C£L Kag (3). 

(2) V. n. to dispute; to bicker. — Shbewsbuby; Pulterbatoh; 
Wem. Qy. com. • Who said it 66nna P — ^yo' wanten to *aggle, dun'ee — 
yo' bin al^ys ready for cross-pladin*.' 

* Pris. hagghen, rixari. — ^EdHan,' in Wedo, 

^RixoTy to braule, to scould, to striye and quarreL' — Did, Eiym, 
LaL Of. Argy(l). 

(3) V, n. to driye a hard bargain ; to be tedious in coming to an 
agreement about price. Qy. com. ' 'E's a rar* chap to driye a l^gain, 
Vd *aggle a nour fur sixpence.' Gf. Higgle. 

HAIFER [ai'fui'], sb,, var. pr, a heifer. — CoRya Dale ; Clbb Hilui. 
' Hayfare' is giyen as the gloss of *juvenca^ in a Metrical Vocabulary ^ 
perhaps xiy. cent., in Wr. yocabs., yoL L p. 177. 

See * Hekfere, Juvervea^ with Way's note in Prompt. Farv., p. 234. 

A.S. Jiedh/ore, a heifer. 

HAIHOW [ai'oul, sb. Oecinus viridiSy the Green Woodpecker. — 
BRiDaNORTH, CfndmarBh, 'Pimard, a heighaw, or woodpecker.' — 
GoTORAyE's French Dictionary. See Scall. 

HAISY-TAILOB) sb. the caterpillar of Arctia caja, the Tiger-moth. 
Clxtn, Twitchen. Ct Tommy-Tailor. 

HALF-SOAKED, part. adj. said of persons of feeble mind or of silly 
expression. — Shrewsbury ; Whitchuroh. * That chap looks as if 
'e wuz on'y ^a/e-soaked.* Q£. Finished. 

HALF-STKAIHED, part. adj. simple ; sUly ; half-witted. Qy. com. 
* Well, I think the Maister wuz to blame to trust a *<ife-$trained auif 
like 'im, 55th a sperited 'orse — ^'e met a bin sure 'e'd spile it.' 

HALLAHTID [al-ontid], sb., obsoU. the time of the ' Festiyal of All- 
Saints.' — ^PuLYERBATCH. C£ Alhalontid. 

HALTEE [aut-ur^, Com. [ou-tur^], Ludlow, sb. It is commonly 
said of a person m impotent rage that he is ' as mad as a tup in a 

HAMES [ai-mz], sb. pi. the two crooked pieces of wood which 
encompass a horse-coUar, and to which the traces are attached. — 
Pttlyerbatch ; Newport. Qy. com. 


' Les oous de chiyaus portunt eeteles,'* with * hames * aa the glon of 
« esteleSf* occurs in The Trtaii^e of Walter de BibUiworth, xiii. cent, in 
Wr. Tocabs., vol. L p. 168. 

* Atielle, tenne de Bourrelier, espece de planche chantournee qu*on 
attache au deyaut des colliers des cheyaux de charrettes. The kaum.* 
— Chakb. 

•Du. haam; hame; horse-collar.' — Strat. Ct Homes. 

HAH. See Oramnukr Oatlines, verb Have. 

' & gode sire, for godes loue * also grete\f wel oft 
alle my freyliche felawes ' )>at to l^is forest longes, 
han pertilyche in many plaoes ' pleide wi> ofte.' 

WUliam of PdUme, L 861. 

* For al ys good that hath good ende, 
When je han mended 30 han do mys. 

This ys no nay.* 

JoHiT Audelat's Poem*, p. 64. 

* " They Jkan," which you may read in Chaucer, and hear in York- 
shire and Derbyshire, is a contraction, hav-en,* — Peqoe's ^uodotei 
of the English Language, p. 202, ed. 1814. 

A.S. habban, to have. 

HAITB-BSEASTH. See Weight! and Keasnres, p. xciii. 

* Hand^breadth (Ex. xxy. 25), a measure of length now rarely used; 
a palm. Horses are still measured by hand*. Compare Ezek. zl. 43.' 
— Bible Word-Book, 

* Others haye thought, that it fthe grape of Amomum] commeth 
from a shrubbe like >fyrtle, & caneth not aboue a hand-bredth, or 4 
inches in height.' — Holland's Pliny, zii 13, in ibid. 

* She's bow-hough'd, she's hein shinn'd, 
Ae limpin* leg a hand-breed shorter ; 
She's twisted n^ht, she's twisted left. 
To balance fair in ilka quarter. 

Sic a wife as Willie had, 

I wad na gie a button for her.' 

AOBERT BuKNS, Poenu, p. 207, L 14, c 2. 

* Hande Brede. Palmt^* — Prompt, Parv. 
A.S. hand'brdd, a hand's breadth. 

HANDXEBOHEB [ang'kur^chur'], sb, a handkerchief. Qy. com. 

' Oliver if you will know of me 

What man I am, and how, and why, and where 
This handkereher was stained.' 

Aa Tou Like It, IV. iii 97. 

' Handcloth (Sax. h4>ndclath) was the old and more proper word for 
that which we now call a Handkereher* — BLOinrr, GloMographia, 
p. 298. 

See *Kerche,* with Way's note, in Prompt. Parv., p. 272. 

Cf. Haashaker. 

HAJTDLASS, $b. a windlass. Coixl— M. T. 


HAHDT-PAITBY. See Bk. II., Folklore, &c., * Games.' 

HAHOMAN'S-WAOES, sb, pi, sUmonej paid before-haud for work. 
Shbewsbury. See Hal. 

HAHSEL [an'sl], (I) sb. the first money received in the day on the 
sale of goods. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch. Qy. com. * Bless yo', 
Missis, tak' summat off me jest fur 'ansel ; I've carried my basket all 
momin' an' never soud a crock. Thank yo\ Missis, I'll spit on this, 
an' *ope ifU be lucky.' 

' And, fiercely drawing forth his blade, doth sweare 
That who so hardie hand on her doth lay, • 
It dearely shall aby, and death for handadl p^.' 

Spenser, F, <?., Bk. Vi. c. xi. st. xv. 

' It is a common practice among the lower class of hucksters, pedlars, 
or dealers in fruit or fish, on receiving the price of the first goods sold 
that day, which they call luinsel, to spit on the money, as they term 
it, for good luck.' — Grose, Popular Superstitions, 

' Hansel (from the Brittish honsel) ; he that bestows the first money 
with a Traaesman, in the morning of a Fair or Market, is said to give 
him Handsel, quasi Handsale,^ — Blount's Qlossographiay p. 298. 

* " Hansale, Strena" — Oath. ** Strena est bona sors, Anglice han- 
selL" — Ortus. ** Hansell, estrayne. 1 hansell one, I gyue hun money 
in a mornyng for suche wares as he seUeth, ie estrene" — Palso.* 
Prompt, Parv, and Notes, 

' O.IceL handsale handsel (hansel).' — Strat. 

A.S. hand^sylen, a gi^g into the hands. Gf. Amess. 

(2) V, a, to try, or use, a thin^ for the first time. — Pulverbatch. 
Qy. com. ' I never sid sich a time fur wet ; I thought to *ansel my 
new bonnet o' Wissun-Sunday, but it rayned all day lung — ^if 11 get 
owd a-lyin* by.' 

' and Bose |>e dissheres, 

Godfrey of garlekehithe * and gryfin >e walshe. 
And vpholderes an hepe ' erly oi \fe morwe 
Gheuen glotoun with glad chore * good ale to hansel.' 

Piers PL, Text B., pass. v. 1. 326. 

•**. . . To hanselle, strenare, arrare.'* — Oath. Ano. ** EstreinS, 
handselled, that hath the handsell or first use of." — Goto.' See Way. 

BUUfSHAKEB [an'shukur*], sb,, var, pr. a handkerchief. — Wel- 
lington. Gf. Handkercher. 

HAITTLE j^an'tl], sb, a handful. Qy. com. ' lUl scaud a ^antle o* 
'ops an' bmd it to the mar^s leg — it'll bring the swellin' down.' 

Hantle, in Southern Scotch, means a good many, a considerable 
number or quantity ; and Dr. Murray says, * the word seems to be 
hand'tal, a hand-tale or number.' — Dialect of the Southern Counties of 
Scotland, p. 178. 

See Qrammar Outlines {nouns compounded with *ful '), p. xliii 

HAPPEV [ap-n], adv. perhaps ; probably. — Collibrt. ' 'Appen 1 
shall be theer.' 

Q 2 


* *' Now faire words makes fooles faine ; 

& that may be seene by thy Master & thee ; 
ffor you may happen think itt soone enoughe 
when-euer you that shooting see."' 

North umherland betrayed by Dowglas^ 1. 181. Percy , 
Folio Jii8,y vol. ii. p. 224, ed. Hales and FumiyaU. 

Poggo giT^t * Happen and Haply, perhaps. Happen I may go. 
Derb.' Cf. Kayhappen. See Behappen. 

HABDEN [aaT'dnl v. cu^pec. to air clothes — damp from the washing. 
— Clun, Merefd. Border, • Mind as yo' ^orcfn them things afore yo* 
putten 'em away.' A.S. heardian^ to harden. 

EAKD-TEDS [aa*r'd yedz], sh, pi. the hard, globose heads of 
CentaurM-nigra, black Knapweed. — ^Wellinoton. 

EABIFFE [ae*r'if], sb, Galium Aparlney Goose^rass or Cleavers. 

*Hec uticdla, haryflPe,' occurs in a Nominale, xv. cent., in Wr. 
Tocabs., YoL i. p. 226. Mr. Wright has the following note upon it :— 
* In Gloucestershire the name hairiff is ^ven to the plant called more 
usually ffoose-grass or cleavers; . . . m the north it is applied to 
catohweed.' S^ * Hayryf^ in Prompt. Parv., with Way's note. 

HABHISH [aa-r'nishl, (1) sb. horso-trappings ; harness. — ^Pulvbr- 
batch; Ludlow; Wem. 'The *amiah mus' be brought i* the 
kitcheD, it's gettin* quite mouldy.' See below. 

(2) V. a. to put the harness on horses. — Ibid. * Tell Jack to 'amuh 
the mar'; I want to gdd as &re as the Beas-leech, for that cow's 
despert bad.' 

John Audelay uses this form in the sense of to garnish or decorate :— 

' he is a gentylmon and jolyl^ arayd, 

His gurdlis hame^hit with silver, his baalard hongus bye.' 

J^oeiM, p. 16. 

' O.Fr. hamaacher^ hamacher, gamir, §quiper Ce mot ne 

derive pas de I'allemand harnuch; . . . c'est le contraire qu'il eOt 
MLu admettre . . . [c'est] du celtique : kymri Aatam, anc. breton 
hoiam, irlandais iaran, fer.' See further, in Bxtr. 

HABROOST [aar'-iiost], eb.^ var. pr. harvest — Shrbwsburt; 
PuLYEBBATGH. ' Back o^harrihit ' is aiter the harvest. * Wen's yore 
wakes, Tum ? ' ' Oh, back o' ^arrihst* Der. < harroosting.' 

EABBOOST-DBIHK, eb. strong, twelvemonth -old ale. — Ibid. 
They'n got some o' the best owd beer at GofiTs o' Wes'ley as ever 
I tasted. *Aye, they wun al'ays noted fur good ^arHhai'^rink.' 
See Drink. 

HABSOOSTINO, sb. the act of getting in the harvest.— /^uf. « Oar 
Dick's gwun 56Ui Jack Sankey an' a lot on *em down to^rt Atchazn 
an' Emstre^ a-*arrtfo»<tV — yo' sin they bin yarlier down theer ; the^n 
get three wiks ^arrHost wages, an' be back time enough far ours.' 

EABBT-LOirO-LEOS, tb. Tipula gigantea. Great Cnme-fly. Com. 


**Arryf * ArTy-lung-UgB, 
Couldna say 'is prars ; 
Ketcht 'im by the lef leg, 
An throwed im down stars.' 

Children^ 9 Doggerel Verse. 

HAKSLET [aar^-sli't], ohaoUA same as Haslet, q. v. — Clee Hills- 
Mr. Halliwell elosses this word, ' A pig's chitterlings,' and quotes, 
'A haggise, a ditterling, a hog's hariet,* — Nomeiidator, p. 87. 

In the Domestic Cookery ^ p. 64, ed. 1812 — 1815 (?), there are directions 
for dressing a Pig's ffarsl^ : — ' . . . chop the liyer^ sweetbreads, &c., 
. . . when mixed, put all into a cawl, and fasten it up ti^ht with a 
needle and thread. Boast it on a hanging jack, or by a strm^.* This 
would be a haggis, AltematiTe instructions are — * Or serve m slices 
with parsley for 9k fry J Cf. Pry (2). 

HAKVEST-BEEB, same as Harroost-drink. Qy. com. 

HABVEST-OOOSE. See Bk. II., FolMore, <&c., 'Customs ' {harvest). 

HASAM-JASAM [ai'zom jai'zum], adj. equal, as in weight, size, or 
value. — PuLVEKBATCH. * Theor wuz fifteen faggits i' one lot, an* 
sixteen i' the tother, an' I piit 'em little an' big together, to msH^ 'em 
as ^Ssam-jasam as I could.' 

EASK [as'k], sb. a hoarse, hard cough. — Kewport ; Wbm ; Whit- 
0HX7B0H. * 'E's gotten sich a ^ask on 'im.' 

' He hath a great Tiaskness, gravi asthmate implicatur.' — Sbrman, 
in Wedo. See below. Cf . Hoost, also Wiak. 

HA8KY [as'ki'l, adj. harsh; dry; arid. — Wbm; Whitchurch. 
• A *asky cougn; ' * 'asky winde ; ' * 'ard an' 'cwAjy land.' See harske 
or haske, with Way's note, in Prompt. Parv*y p. 228. IceL hukr^ hfuAry 

HASLET [as'li'tj, sh.^ ohsoJs.l the heart, liver, and lights of a pig, 
taken out entire — ^with the wind-pipe attached. — Pulvebbatch ; 
Clun. ' We shanna a to bwile the pot o' Friday, theer'U be the *aslei 
fur the men's dinners.' 

' There was not a hog killed within three parishes of him, whereof 
he had not some part of the Titislei and puddings.' — Ozell (first hidf 
18th cent), RahdaiSf Bk. iii. ch. 41, in Nares. 

* Haslet [probably of Hasten F. a Spit, because being usually 
roasted], the Entrails of a Hog.'— Bailey, ed. 1727. 

'Fr. hcuiillef hasterel, hastemenue, the pluck or gatiier of an animal.' 
^Wedo. Cf. Harslet, also Hack. 

HASP [as^)], sb. a fastening for the lid of a box — a folding clasp 
with siaple attached which falls over the lock : the staple fits mto an 
anerture on one side of the key-hole, and is there secured by the bolt 
m the lock. Com. ' I lost the kay, an' didna like to break the *€up, 
BO I knocked a bwurd out o' the bottom.' 

' And undeme)^ is an Aewp, shet wi|» a stapil and a clasp.' 

B. Coer de Lion^ 1. 4083, in Stbat. 

' Clavis vel sera, hespe,^ occurs in Semi-Saxon VocabtUaryy xii. cent., 
in Wr. vocabs., vol. L p. 02. 


< {t 

Ilaspe of a dore, cZtcArfte."— Palso. " Agraphe, a claspe, hook, 
brace, grapple, haspe." — CoTO. In this last sense the word haspa 

occiirs in tne Sherbom Cartulary, MS where, among the gifts 

of William the sacrist (xii. cent?), is mentioned, ** MissaJe cum hcupd 
argented"'— Way, 

Bailey— ed. 1782— has, 'An Hasp, a Sort of fastening for a Boor, 
Window, &c.' 

A.S. hcpps, hcup, a hapse, hasp, the hook of a hinge. C£ Clicket (1). 

EASTES'EE [ai'snur*], sb. a long funnel-shaped tin vessel for warm- 
ing ' drink ' quickly : when used for this purpose it is put into the fire, 
n(»t upon it, as a saucepan would be. — Craven Arms. See ILuUner^ 
in Wedo. Cf. Horn. 

HAT [at-], pret^ ohaoh, heated. — Pulverbatch. *Whad*n*ee bin 
doin all momiu' ? — I *at the oven an' knad the bread afore the men 
comen in fur thar bavte, an' yo*n bin pltherin* o'er them tuthree milk- 
things all this wilde. 

HAT-BAT, 8h, the Long-eared Bat. — Pulverbatch ; Worthen. Cf. 
Billy-bat, also Flitter-mouse. 

HATCHEL, same as Hetohel, q. v. — Glee Hills. 

* An HatcheU of which there are several sorts, one finer than another, 
these are long Iron Pinns set orderly in a Board with which Hemp 
and Flax is combed into fine haires.'— Academy of Armory ^ Bk. III. 
ch. iii. p. 106. 

HAT-FTTLL-OF-FEATHEBS, (1) sb. the nest of the Long-tailed 
Titmouse.— Oswestry. 

* Meanwhile Rupert, wandering listlessly about the pool, and keep- 
ing his eye on the bushes, discovered the most beautifully-constructed 
nest of any of our English birds — that of the long-tailed tit. This 
nest was about as large as a small cocoa-nut, and just the shape of 
one, with a small hole in the side, near the top, to admit the birda 
It was made of mosses, feathers, and hair, and was encrusted on the 
outside with lichens, until it looked as if it were spangled with frosted 
silver. Inside, it was so full of fine soft feathers, that it quite justified 
the name it bears among the country lads of a ** hat full o/feathert" * 
— G. Christopher Da vies, Rambles and Adventures of Our School 
Field'Ciub, p. 136, ed, 1875. 

(2) «6. the nest of the Willow Wren. — Oswestry. 

This nest * is a rounded structure with a hole in the side, through 
which the bird obtains admission into the interior. . . . The materials 
of which it is composed are generally leaves, grasses, and moss, and 
the interior is lined with a warmer bed of soft feathers.' — Wood's 
Natural History (Birds), vol. ii. p. 281. 

IBLAlTHOBH [aath-ur*n], «ft., var, pr, the hawthorn. — ^Pulverbatch. 
* I went to Cunder [Condover] church o' Wissun-Sunday to see the 
poor owd Maister's grave, an come the fut road across the Park 
back — it wuz grand, the ^athurn trees wun blowed as Vite as a sheet' 

HATTOCK [at'uk], v, a, to cover reaped com in the field with 
hattocks. See below. Cf. Hackle (3), also Hood. 


HATT0CK8, sb. pi. sheaves of com inverted over the 'mow' to 
protect it from wet. The two end sheaves of the * mow/ which con- 
sists of eig^ht sheaves, are taken as hattocks for the remaining six. — 
Ellesmere, Wehhampton, Compare O.N. hottr (later huttr), which 
had, according to Cleasby, the primary meaning of the cowl of a 
cloak, and seems to be allie<i to hetta^ a hood, with A.S. hoeteTf clothiDg; 
apparel. Whence hcUt + ocAr, a covering. 

• An Hattock is three Sheafs laid together.' — Academy of Armory ^ 
Bk. III. ch. iii. p^ 73. 

Qrose gives ' jacUtock, a shock of com containing twelve sheaves, N. 
Of. Hackling-sheaves, also Hooders. 

HAXTL faulj, v, a. to carry coal. — Shrewsbury ; Ludlow. 

'1805. I3ec'. 7*^, Ja'aw/iXv Load Ooals to the workhouse. 1-0-0.' 
— Parish Accounts, Much Wenlock. 
Of. Lug (1). 

HATJLIEB [aul'yur'], sb, a man who carts coal, &c for hire. — 
Shrewsbury ; Ellesmerb. ' I've bin to Philips the ^aulier to axe 
'im w*en 'e can latch me a 15oad o' c6al from the Out-w*arf' 
[EUesmere]. See -ier. Of. dagger. 

HAITLM [aum-], ab, pease-straw; bean-stalks, &c. — Pulverbatch. 
Qy. com. 

* Culmus, healm,' occurs in Archhp. ^l/ric's Vocabulary, x. cent., 
in Wr. vocabs., voL i p. 38, and Mr. Wright remarks upon it: — 
' The straw of com, as well as the stalks of manj other plants^ are 
[sic'] still called haulm in many of our provincial dialects.' 

'A.S. healm; O.Sax., O.H. Germ, halm; O.Icel. halmr, halm 
(haum), eulmus.* — Strat. 

HAW. See Waggoners' Words to Horses. 

HAWS [au'z], eb. pL the fruit of Oratdgiis Oxyacdntha^ Hawthorn. 

' ffawes, hepus, ft hakemes * & l^e hasel-notes, 

& o^er frut to ^e fulle ' 

William of Paleme, 1. 1811. 

Of. Hippety-haws. See Hips, also Guckoo's-beada. 

HAT, 8b., obsoU. a plantation ; a wood ; a coppice : formerly a portion 
of a forest, or wood, enclosed for special purposes, as of deer-keeping, 
feeding swine, &c., but in this sense the term is become obsolete. — 
Welunoton. a gamekeeper of Lord Forester's said [1868], * We'n 
seventeen ^ays about *ere, an' we cut'n [thin] one every ear, so it'll be 
seventeen 'ears afore the Arcall [ErcallJ is cut agen.' A group of small 
coppices in the neighbourhood of Wellington is known as the ' Black 
Hays.' The entrance to the king's Hay in the forest of Mount Gilbert, 
otherwise known as the Wrekin forest, is still called Hay-gate. Hay 
enters into the names of several places about Wellington, as Horse- 
way, Hinks-Aay, &c. It occurs in like manner in other parts of Salop. 
*T?he Hay' near Coalport was formerly a portion of ohirlot Forest. 
' The Hays ' and * Hay House ' are the names of farms which lie a few 
miles south of Biidgnorth ; and two others which border on the Olee 
Hills are called respectively * ^oy-more ' and * ^ay-farm.* On the 
west aide of the county, northward of Worthen, there is a farm on 


what is called the Forest of Hayes — south of this is ^ay-wood. 
About half a mile from Weetbury there is a mill at J9ay>ford. Then, 
near the southern limits of the county, not far from Ludlow, is Hay 
Park. Other instances might be adduced, but those here given will 
be sufficient to show how the old word hay = enclosure, once obtained 
in Shropshire. 

' In tne edition of the Ortus in Mr. Wilbraham's library, datuvra^ 
is rendered '*a dosse, or a heye." Haye occurs elsewhere in the 
sense of an enclosure ; thus in the gloss on the *' liher vocaJttu equusy* 
called in the Promptorium *^ Distigitu" written by John de Garlandii, 
occurs ** CimiteritMn, chyrche-haye." — ^HarL MB. 1002. In the Qolden 
Legend it is said, "he had— foule way thor ugh hayes and hedges, 
woodes. stones, hylles and valeys." — ^f. 68, b.* Way, p. 221. 

* ?iaiet cloture en g§n6ral ; du bas-aUemand lutegJie, endos.' 
— Bub. 

Compare 'A.S. haga; O.Du. Tioge (hagTie) ; O.IoeL Ao^', locus sepe 
drcumdatus.' — Stbat. See below. Of. Hag (1). 

HAYMEBT, HEYMEVT, «&., obs, a fence; a botlndaiy. This 
word, mentioned by Mr. Hartshome as having come under lus notice 
in a parish book pertaining to Smethcot, and which he subsequently 
found to mean, ' the hedge which encircles part of the chur(uiyard,' 
seems to have had a wide range throughout Shropshire. Though for 
the most part restricted in its application to the boundary — of what- 
ever kind it were — which enclosed the churchyard, yet it was not 
necessarily so. 

Gough, in his History of Myddle, pp. 10, 11, at the date of 1770, 
says, that a certain brid^ over a brook ' some years past was out of 
repaire, and the parishioners of Baschurch parish did reouire the 
parish of Myddle to repaire one half of this bridge. « . . Kowland 
Hunt of Boreatton, Esq. . . . living in Baschurch parish, was very 
sharp upon the inhabit^ts of Myddle parish beecause they refused to 
repair half the bridge. But the parishioners of Myddle answeared that 
the brooke was whoaly in the parish of Baschurcn, and was the Hay- 
ment or fence of the men of Baschurch parish, betweene their lands, 
and the lands in Myddle parish. . . .' At p. 33 of the same work, 
Gouffh says, speaking of Billmarsh Green, * This is a small common, 
mucn controverted, whether it lyes in the Lordship of Myddle, or in 
the parish of Broughton, and libertyes of Salop. . . . But all Billmarsh 
was formerly a common, and it should seem uiat this Greene was left 
out of it when it was incloased, for all other places make HeymenJt 
from Bilmarsh except this Greene.' 

In p. 65 of A Lecture on QucU/ord, MorvilU and AHon Eyre 800 
Tears Ago, by the Eev. George Leigh Wasey, M.A. (Bridgnorth, 
1859), the following old custom at Quatford is recorded : — ' The wall 
round the churchyard, extending two hundred and seveninr yards, is 
apportioned between the following nine proi)erties in the parish, 
Tdiich are bound bv immemorial usage to keep certain lengths of it 
in fixed repair, on tne application of the churchwardens : the CaresweU 
Oharity estate; DanieUs null; Mr. Pitman's estate at Eardin&i»n, 
late Mr. Duppa's; Mrs. Oldbmys; Mr. Butter's; the Hay tarm, 
now Mr. Walker's property ; Lord Sudeley's farm at the Knowle ; 
Mr. Hudson's at the Deanery ; and Mr. Norton's at Eardington.' 

The portions of the churchyard wall for these ' Properties ' to repair 


80 many yards each are marked out on 'the yestry map, which is 
called * the Map of the Hayments.^ 

The following extract is from the Churchwarden^ AceounUt Clun : — 
* Agreed at a Vestry Meeting held for the parish of Clun, the 24* Day 
of May 1755, for the Repairs of the Church and the Churchyard WaU 
or HaymenU^ as followa . . .' 

In the Churchwardens' Accounts, Hopton Castle, are the following 
entries:—* 1747, Pd. Will" Bottwood for mend-g Hayment 0-17-0. 

'Pd. Mr. Beale for Timb'. 1-1-0. 

1766. for Railing the Church hayment at two pence f, - 12 - 0.* 

The churchyard at Hopton Castle is stiU [1875] enclosed by a 
wooden paling on its south side, though it is no longer called the 

Gk>ugh glosses the proper name Haywardy * a keeper or overseer of 
Hayment J See History of Myddlcy p. 197. Hayment is made up of 
Fr. haiey and Fr. suffix, < ment,* See Hay, above. 

HATTICK, sb, common Whitethroat. — Oswbstry. This bird, when 
alarmed, flies about the tall grass uttering a ' tick-ing * sound, from 
which it gets its name, Haytick, See Flax. CI Utick. 

HE, used for It. See Orammar Outliiiei {personal pronouns), p. 


* A I nay ! lat be ; the philosophres stoon, 

Elixir dept, 

For al our craft, whan we han al ydo. 
And al our sleighte, he wol nat come vs to. 
He hath ymaad vs spenden mochel good.' 

Chaucer, Q. 867, 868 (Six-text ed.), Skeat 
Cf. Him, below. 

HEAD [yed-]. Com. [yad-], Bishop's Castlb; Clun. [yud-], 
Ludlow, Bur/ord. 

HEAD-OUT [yed' out], v. a. to 'drive a head' in advance of the 
general workiags. — Colliery. See Drive a head. 

HEAD-COLLAR [yed* kol*'ur'], sb. a kind of bridle put on to a horse 
for the pui*pose of fastening him to the manger, — an arrangement of 
leather straps, passing over the nose, under the throat, and round the 
neck of the animal. A rope — which is sometimes called the sliank — 
is attached to the head-collar, and by it the horse is tied up in his 
stall. — Ellesmere. Qy. com. 

HEAD-STALL [ed'stul and yed-stul], sb,, obsols. 1 same as Head-oollar, 
above. — Atcham; Ellesmere. 

' one did take 

The horse in hand within his mouth to looke : 

Another, that would seeme to have more wit, 
Him by the bright embrodered hed- stall tooke.' 

Spenser, F. Q„ Bk. V. c. iii. st, xxxiii 

' . . . . his horse hipped with an old mothv saddle and stirrups of 

no kindred ; and with a half-checkea bit and a head-stall of 

sheep's leather.* — Taming of the Shrew, III. ii. 58. 


HEAP [yep*]. Com. [yup-], Clun ; Ludlow, Burfard^ v. a. and <6. 
to heap ; a heap. See Scutch-yup. 

HEABKEH-OTTT, v. n. to be on the watch for information. — 
Shrewsbuby ; Newport. Q,j, com. * We'n 'eark^n-out, an* mehbe 
we shan 'ear o' summat ' — Shaving reference to the subject of inquiry. 

HEABT [aa'r't], 8b.,pec. state ; condition ; said of ground. — Pulvbr- 
BATCii. Qy. com. 'If 11 do mighty well this tune athout muck, 
the groun' *8 in good *eart, an' well claned.' 

HEAETEH, v. a. to cheer ; to encourage ; to invigorate. — Pulver- 
BATCH ; Newport ; Wem. Qy. com. This term is usually employed 
with one or other of the prepositions, up or on. ' Come in an' '&ve a 
dish o' tay — it'll *earten yo' on — yo'n find it a good way to Powder- 
bitch [Pulverbatch], an' all up 'ill.' 

' Prince, My royal father, cheer these noble lords 
And hearten those that fight in your defence : 
Unsheathe your sword, good &ther ; cry '* Saint George ! " ' 

3 K. Henry VI., II. il 79. 

' Roger, Kind Patie, now fair fa' your honest heart, 
Ye're aye sae cadgy, and have sic an art 

To hearten ane ' 

Allan Ramsay, The C^Ue Shepherd^ I. i. p. 11. 

A.S. hyrian, to encourage ; comfort. 

HEABT-WELL [aaVt wel*'], adj, in good general health.— Shrews- 
bury; Pulverbatch. Qy. com. 'I'm pretty 'eart-well, God be 
thankit, on'y infirm'd.' 

HEAVE [ai'v], (1) v, a., var. pr, to lift Com. * *Aive that pot off 
the fire, them tatoes bin done.' 

( & comande ^e couherde ' curteysli and fayre, 
to heue vp >at hende child * bi-hinde him on his stede.* 

William of Pafeme, I 346. 

' He was schort schuldred, brood, a thikke knarre, 
Ther nas no dore that he nolde heve of barre, 
Or broke it at a rennyng with his heed.' 

Chaucer, The Prologue, 1. 550, ed. Morris. 

See Hove, also Heler. 

(2) V, n. to rise ; said of bread when ' laid in sponge ; ' or of cheeses 
that rise up in the middle in consequence of the whej not having 
been thoroughly pressed out Com. (1) 'I doubt this bread'll te 
sad, it dunna 'awe well — the barm's bin fros'-ketcht, I spect' 
(2) ' Theer's won o' them cheese 'aiVni' I see — we maun keep that fur 
ourselves — it wunna do fur the markit' Cf. Bulled. 

(3) See Bk. II., Folklore, &c., 'Customs connected with Days and 
Seasons ' (JEaater Monday). 

HEAVEB [ai'vur'], (1) sb., ohsoU, a kind of vertical, sliding shutter 
across the doorway of a bam, made to fit into grooves in such a way 
that it can be lifted, or ^aived, out at pleasure — ^whence its name. 
Qy. com. When grain was thrashed on the barn-floor with a 
* thrashal ' [flail], the heaver was employed to close up the lower part 


of the bam door-way, and so prevent the grain escaping by th< 
otherwise — open door of the bam. 

(2) 8h,y obsoh. a kind of * blower,' or winnowing machine without 
sieves. A handle is turned that works a fan — from a box at the top 
of the machine the grain falls over the thin edge of a board, and 
being met by a blast of wind from the fan, the light grain and dust 
are ^aived out Qy. com. 

HEA.VIHO. See as for Heave (3). 

HEAVINO-DATS, ab. pi, ohsols, Easter Monday and Easter Tuesday : 
so called from the custom of heaving on those days. Qy. com. See 

HEAVY [ev-r], adj, stem. — ^Whitohurch; Ellesmerk. * Yd* look'n 
vdry *eavy at me.' 


HEEL [ee'l], sb. the top crust of a loaf cut off, or the bottom 
crust remaining. — Pttlverbatch. * Cut a loaf through to sen* to the 
leasow, that Ve/ 5onna be enough.' A remaining corner is called the 
heel of the loaf at Clun. Bums has * kebbuck-Aee^,' i. e. the remain- 
ing part of a cheese ; — 

* Wives, be mindfu', ance yoursel 

How bonie lads ye wanted, 
An' dinna, for a kehbuck-hed. 
Let lasses be affronted 

On sic a day ! * — Poema, p. 19, L 7. 
Of. Cantel. 

HEEL-RAKE. See EU-rake. 

HEEL-TAPS, sb. pi. small quantities of ale, &c. left in the glasses. 
Com. * Now, drink up yore ^eeH-taps, an' ftve another jug — the 
evenin' 's young yet.' 

HEET, HEIT. See Waggoners' Words to Horses. 

HEFT [ef-t], Pulvbrbatch; Clee Hills; Ludlow. [if*t], Wem. 
(1) «6. a heavy weight. A dead heft is a weight that cannot be moved ; 
as, for instance, the huge trunk of a fallen tree, would be a dead heft 
to a horse that was made to pull at it. 

the sense of heaving : — 

* ... he cracks his gorge, his sides, 

With violent A«/^« ' 

Winter's Tale, II. i. 45. 

'A.8. hehhan; O.Sax. hebhien; CH.Germ. heffan; O.Icel. hefja; 
Goth, hafjan, to heave.'— Strat. 

HKLER [ee'lur'], sb. obs.l one who covers or conceals a thing. 
This old word is preserved in a proverbial saying heard in the neigh- 
bourhood of Stoddesden :— • The heler 's as bad as the heaver ; ' which 
is analogous to, ' The receiver's as bad as the thief — he who helei, or 


, bides, is equally guilty with him who JieavcBf i. e. ' lifts,' which latter 
word has an old meaning of to steal, still retained in the modem 
term ' eiko^'Ufiing,* 

' " I-wisse," J>an seyde William ' " i wol no longer hde. 
My liif, my langor, & my de> ' lenges in \>i warde." ' 

WiUiam of Paleme, L 960. 

A.S. helan, to coyer; to conceal. Ct Hill. See Heave (1). 

HELL-HXnr [el-un], sb.y var. pr. a hell-hound. — Newport ; Whit- 
CHT7BCH. A poor old man whom a pack of rufiBanlylads had hooted 
at and peltea, said of them, to a magistrate at Whitchurch, that 
* they wun a paasle o' 'ell-*uns.' 

* 30 ben to |>e heUe-hond ' hoUiche i-like.' 

Alexander and DindimuUf L 792. 

' A cry of hell-hounds neyer ceasinff bark'd 
WiUi wide Cerberean mouths full loud, and rung 

A hideous peaL ' 

Paradise Lost, Bk. IL L 664, 

A.S. heUe-h^ndf idem. See Orey-hun for hound. 

HEHP-BTFT, ab,, obs, a plot of garden ground, or a piece of a field on 
which hemp was grown. — ^Wem ; Ellesmere. 

* It is observed that if the chiefe person of the family that inhabits 
in tlus farme [Oayhowell] doe fall sick, if his sicknesse bee to death, 
there comes a paire of pidgeons to the house about a fortnight or a 
weeke before the person's death, and continue there untill the person's 
death, and then goe away. This I have knowne them doe three 
seyerall times. 1st Old Mr. Bradocke, fell sicke about a quarter of a 
yeare after my Sister was maired, and the paire of pidgeons came 
thither, which I saw. They did eyery night roust under the shelter 
of the roofe of the kitchen att the end, and did sit upon the ends of 
the side raisers. In the day time they fled about the gardines and 
yards. I haye seene them pecking on the hemp-butt as if they did 
feed, and for ought I know they did feed.' — Gouoh's History of 
MyddUy p. 47. 

HEMPERT [em'pur't], sb,, obs, ground specially appropriated to 
hemp, whether of the garden or of a * close.' — ^Pxtlvbrbatch. * So I 
see Mr. Goff 'as let the *empert into the stack-yurd — well, well, I s'pose 
as theer^s more barley than 'emp wanted now-a-days.' Hempai is 
doubtless a corruption of hemp-ywrd, 

HEN-AHB-CHICKEHS. See Baohelon'-bntton. 

HEH-SC&ATS, sb. pi, elrri^ — ^filaments of white cloud crossing the 
sky like net- work. — Ptjlverbatch ; Whitchurch. Qy. com. 

HEBDEB' [ur'dh'n], adj, made of 'herdes,' q. y., below. — PuLyEB- 
batch; Clun; Clee Hills. *The waiver's maden a nice piece o' 
'uckaback of the 'crcfen yom — i^VL do mighty well for the men's 

* The Inyentory of the effects of Sir John Conyers, of Sockbume, 
Durham, 1667, comprises **yij harden table clothes, iys. — xy^pair of 
harden sheats, xx s.*' Wills and Iny. Surtees 80c. i. 268,' in WAT. 

See Hurden. Cf . Hoggen. 

HEBDBS [ur'd'z], ah,, ohsolsA coarse, or refuse, flax or hemp. — 


* Hyrdys or herdya of flax or hempe. Stuppa. ** Stupa, hyrdes of 
hempe, or of flax. Stupo^ to stop with hurdes." — Med. MS. Cast. 
** ExtupOf Anglice, to do awaye hardes or tawe. Stupa, stub, chaf, or 
towe." — Oktus. The word occurs in the Wicliffit« version, Judges 
zyi. 9; ''And sche criede to him, Sampson! Felisteis ben on ^ee, 
which brak ]>e boondis as if a man brekith a f^rede of herdis [fihim de 
stupd, Vulg.) wri)>un wi)> spotle." "Heerdes of hempe, tillage de 
ehamure {?chainvre) estovpesy — FAiiSG. "Hirdes, or towe, of flaxe, 
or hempe, stupa," — Baret.' Prompt, Parv, and Notes, 

* Stupa, vd stuppa, quod cortici lini proximum, .... The course 
part of flaxe.' — Did, Etym. Lot, 

Mr. Halliwell observes of Herdes, that it is ' still in use in Shrop- 
shire.* A.S. heordaSf the refuse of tow. See Hurds. Of. KTogB. 

HE8PEL [es'pil], v, a, to worry ; to harass ; to tease ; to ' bother.' 
— Shkewsbury ; Pitlverbatch ; Woethen; Glee Hills. 'They 
dun ^espel that poor wench shameful — er's on throm momin* till night, 
an' 'afe the night as well, fiir now the childem han got the chin-cufE 'er 
'as to be up an' down 5oth them.' Of. Huspel. 

HETCH, sb,, var, pr, a hatch, as of chickens, &c. — Pulverbatch. 

EETCHEL [ech'il], sb,, ohs, a carding implement for dressing hemp 

or flax — a board with rows of iron teeth set in it — ^the fibre was thrown 

across the hetchel and pulled throue^h it. — ^Pulverbatch ; Worthen. 

' Hechde ' (noun) and ' hechdet ' (verb) are the respective glosses of 

' serence ' and ' aerencet ' in the following lines : — 

< La serence dout pemet, 
E vostre lyn serencet.' 

The Treaiise of Walter de Biblesworth, xiii. 
cent., in Wr. vocabs., vol. i. p. 156. 

Blonnt has, ' Hitchel (Tut. hecTid), a certain instrument with iron 
teeth to dress flax or hemp.' — Glossographia, p. 308. 

* O.Du. hekd ; O.H.Germ. hachele, hatchel (heckle).' — Strat. 
01 Hatohel. See Swingle (1), also Tewter. 

HETMEHT. See Hayment. 

Hik [ei*], V. n, to hasten — used in the imperative mood with the* 
adverb away, has the meaning of ' be quick and go,' but is not often 
heard. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch. * Now then, 'w away an' 
f&tch me yore throck to ptit on, else yo'n be late fur school agen.' 

' Ellee go by vs som, and that as swythe. 
Now, gode sir, go forth thy wey and hy the.' 

Chaucer, G. 1295 (Six-text ed.), Skeat 

Hiej in combination with up, is employed in urging cows forward. 
See Gall- words {cows). A.S. higan, higian; to make haste. 

HIFT. See Heft 

HIGOLE [ig'l]) V, n. to chafler; to drive a hard bargain.— 


* Plume, . . • Pretty Mrs. Boae— yoa have— let me see — ^how 
many P 

* Bone, A Dozen, Sir, and they are richly worth a Crown. 

* Bui. Come, Ruf)8e ; I sold fifty St rake [strike] of barley to-day in 
half this time ; but you will higgle and higgle for a penny more than 
the Commodity is worth. 

* Bose. What's that to you. Oaf ? I can make as much out of a 
Groat as you can out of fourpence Fm sura The Gentleman bids £edr, 
and when I meet with a Chapman, I know how to make the best of 
him, and so, Sir, I say for a Crown-piece the Bargain's yours.'— 
Fakquhah's Becruiting Officer, Scene — ^The Market-place, Shrews- 

Cf. Haggle (3). 

HIOOLEE [ig'lur^], «5. same as Badger, q. v. — Newport ; Ellbs- 
MERE. Qy. com. 

EIOHFirL [eiful], adj. haughty—' a 'ighful dame.*— Much Wex- 


HIOHFULLT, adv, haughtily ; with a distant manner. — Ibid, ' I 
didna go6, 'cause *er on*y axed me *igh/ullg,* 

HIGHRAHGEB [eir'ai-nzhur*], sh., var. pr.^ ohsoU. Hydrangea 
hortense. — SuREWSBURT; PULVERBATCH 'I pfit the *ighranger out 
i' the ^rden to get the sun, an' the winde's wouted the pot o'er an' 
broke it all to pieces.' 

HIKE [ei'k], v, a. to throw ; to toss ; to injure with the horns ; 
said of cattle. — Newport ; Wem ; Whitchurch ; Ellesmsre. 
About the middle of the present century there lived in the neighbour- 
hood of Whixall a covetous old farmer, who, to prevent boys from 
trespassing on his land in nutting season, turned a ' running ' bull 
into his fields. In about a week's time he himself was killed by this 
same bull — whereupon ' they maden a ballet on Im.' The last verse 
ran thus: — 

< 'E got 'is wealth, 
By fraud an' stealth. 
As fast as 'e could scraup it ; 
Theer com'd a bull, 
An' cracked 'is skull, 
An' *iked 'im in a saw-pit.' 

The gravestone placed over this victim of his own greed, in the old 
churchyard — Whixall — still [1874] retains the traces of a chiselled 
gallows — showing the estimation in which he was held while living. 
Cf. Hile, below ; also Hite (1). 

EILE [ei'l], V. a, to strike with the horns as cattle do, so as to cause 

injury; to gore. — Pulverbatch; Newport; Wem; Whitchurch. 

(1) *Our J(mn's in a pretty way — them b&llocks han *iled 'is new 

. plaiched 'edge an' tore it all to winders.' (2) * Them oows 11 'tie one 

another if they binna parted.' 

' The terms lu'le and hike (see above), though often used indiscrimin- 
ately for " homing," are dearly not, in «f, synonymous — ^the attack of 


a Bayage bull consists of two processes ; he first hiles^ or gores, and 
then hikeSf or tosses.* HUe = hik-le, the frequentative form. 

See I (5), p. xxviii.| for the Newport pronunciation of these two 

HILL pi*], V. a. to cover. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch. Qy. com. 
(1) * Please, Ma*am, shall I *ifl you up afore I ffoo ? ' said a little maid 
to her invalid mistress, the covering of whose bed she was prepaiing 
to arrange for the night [1874]. (2) 'Mind an' *t7/ them tatoes woU 
65th feam Ven yo' tumpen 'em.' 

' and pertiliche bi-holdes 

hov hertily ]>e hordes wif ' hulea ^at child, 

& hov fayre it fedde ' & fetisliche it ba|>ede, 

& wromt wi)? it as wel * as lif it were hire owne.* 

William of Palerne, L 97. 

' And alle \>e houses ben hiled * haUes and chambres, 
Wit[h] no lede, but with loue • and lowe-speche-as-bretheren.' 

Pier8 PL, Text B., pass. v. 1. 599. 

' A rof shal hile us bo)>e o-nith, 
pat none of mine, clerk ne knith, 
Ne sholen \)i wif no shame bede, 
No more ^an min, so god me rede ! ' 

Havelck the Dane, L 2082. 

• 1544. For covering off W. Smyths grave v*. 

' 1545. Eor covering off Thomas Warmynchames ^rave iij'. 

* 1553. For leynge my lords grave and others ij' iiij''. 

• 1558. For iiii bushells off lyme for pavyng ye Churche & hyllyng 
graves ther xx*. — Treasurer* e MS. Accounts o/ the Cathedral^ Chester. 

^ Hyllyn* (coueren), (Jperio, tego, velo, •* Tego, to hille; tegmen, an 
helynge." — Med. MS. Caitt. •* I hyll, I wrappe or lappe, ie couvre; 
you must hyll vou wel nowe a nyghtes, the wether is ccude.'* — Palso. 
** Palter, to hill ouer, &c.** — Goto/ Prompt Parv, and Notes. 

'A.S. hdan ; O.H.Germ. htdlen; Goth, huljan; O.IceL hyJja, to 
hill ; to cover.' — Strat. 

Der. < hilling.' Of. Heler. 

HILLEBS [il'ur'zl sb. pi., ohaoU, dwellers on hill-common ] people 
who go to the * hills' for the purpose of gathering wimberries.— 
Pulverbatch. See Wixnberries. 

HILLIHO [il'in], ah,, ohsols, the binding or covering of a book. — 
Pulverbatch; Wellington. 'Tummy, yo'd'n letter piit some 
brown paper on them school-books, or else the 'iUirCs 55n be spiled 
afore the wik's out.' 

* HyUynge, or coverynge of what thynge hyt be. Coopertura, 
coopertorium, operimentum, ** Tegmentum, a hyllynge, a couerynge." 
— Ortus. * * Ayllyng, a con eryng, couverture."— Palso. The accounts 
of the churchwaniens of Walden comprise the item, ** A le Klerk de 
Thakstede pur byndynge, hyllynge et bos3rnge de tous les liveres en U 
vestiary e,'' — ^Hist. of Audley iSid, p. 220.' Prompt, Parv, and Notes, 

Of. Hulling. 

HIM, used for It See Oranmiar Ontlines (personal pronoun*), p. 


' A ! nay ! lat be ; tlie philoeopliTes stoon» 
Elixir clopt, we sechen faste echoon ; 
For, hadde we Atm, than were we siker ynow.' 

CuAUCEB, Or. 864 (8ix-text ed.), Skeai 
Cf. fLe, above. 

HIF-B088 [ip* boss], sb. same as Briar-boBS, q. v. — Cleb Hildb. 
See Hips, below. 

HIPPETT-HAW8 [ip-i'ti' aa*z], sb. pL same as Haws, q.T., 
children's term. — Shrewsbtjby. See Hips, below. 

HIPPBTT-HAW TBEE, sb. the hawthom.— /(iem ; ibid. 

HIPS [ip'sl, sb. pi. the berries of Rosa eanina^ common Dog-rose. 
Com. HxpB are generally associated with ' haws * — hips and haw$, 

* hawes, hepu$ A hakemes. . . .' 

William of Palerne, L 1811. 

' Fie upon lieps (quoth the fox) because he could not reach them.*— 
Bat's Proverb*^ p. 110. 
A.S. hedpe^ the fruit of the dog-rose. See 

HIT [it*], sb. a good crop. — Pulvkrbatch ; Clun ; Clbb Hills. 

* Theer's a perty good hit o' turmits this time.' * Aye, the weather 
'appens to shute 'em.' 

HITE [eit* corr. a'yt and ahyt], Pulvbrbatch ; Church Stbetton. 
[ahy*t and ait*], Clee Hills, Abdon. (1) v. a. to toss; to throw: 
the term is of general application. 

(1) * Poor owd Sally Wildblood's 'ad a mighty narrow 'scape up at 
Shep'n filds, 'er wuz gwein alung the leasow, an' the biill t5ok after 
'er an' ketcht 'er jest as 'er raught the stile ; 'e 'iled 'er lees an' then 
'ited 'er clane o'er into the Drench Lane.' ' Dear Sores ! ^er met as 
well a bin killed.' 

(2) * We'd'n rar raps o' Sruv-Toosday 66th the bwoys tossin' thar 
poncakes; Dick *%ted 'is right o'er 'is yed, an' Bob send 'is up the 
chimley — Sam fell 'is i' the ess, an' then Tum 'ad 'is face oollowed 
66th the pon.' 

Farm-nouse kitchens are sometimes the scenes of great mirth on 
Shrove-Tuesday, when the farm-labourers celebrate tiie Feast of 
Pancakes — ^not only does each one toss a pancake, but if he fail to 
eat it before another is fried, he has to submit to haying his face 
blacked with the frying-pan. 

Hite = hike (see ante) by the common weakening of A; to t 

(2) [a'yt*], V. a. to raise the hand as a signal. — Pulyerbatch ; 
Weic. 'rye bin to the top o' the bonk to call Jack ; the winde wiis 
so 'igh I couldna mak' im 'ear, but I *ited my 'ond at 'im, an' 'ell 
come.' V 

AIVJSK-HOVEB [ivui' ovur'], adj. wavering ; undecided. Qy. com. 

* Did'n yo' g66 f '" * No, I wuz 'iv«r-'<wcr about it fur a bit, but as I 
said 1 6odna, I didna.' 

HOB AHB CATCH, phr. bit by bit ; just as one can— as of getting 
in haryest in a bad season. — Cravek Abms. Gf. Catching-time. 


HOiBBETY-HOY [ob-iti* oi-'], sh, a youth between boyhood and 
manhood. * 'Twixt man an' boy.' — Pulverbatch. Qy. com. * Yo' 
dunna think I'd tak' up ooth a ^ohheiy-oy like that far a eweet'eart ! — 
ifU be a better sort o' mon than 'im as'll get me i' the 'umour.' 
Tusser has the third season of man's age : — 

' 21 . . kepe Tnder sir hobbard de hoyJ — See p. 138, ed. E. D. S. 

' A Hober-de-Jioy, half a man and half a boy.' 

Eay'8 Proverbs f p. 67. 
Of. Lobber-te-loy. • 

HOB JOB, adv, off-hand ; without deliberation. — Cleb Hills. ' '£ 
did *ob-job at a yentur'.' 

HOBS AHD OntDS, phr, fits and starts.— Pdlvbrbatch. ' Theer's 
no 'eed to be took o' that fellow, 'e's all by 'o6» an* girds — ^yo* never 
knowen Ven yo' han 'im.' Of. Fits and Girds. 

HOBS-AITD-GOBS, sb. pi. inequalities of surface. — Pulverbatch; 
Glee Hills. ' Theer's some difference betwix them two turmit- 
fallows — the one's all ^obs-an'-gobs like 'orses'^yeds, an' the tother'a as 
fine as a inion-bed.' Of. Gob (3). 

HOBS-AHB-JOBS, sh, pi snatches ; odd times.— Wem. ' Wo mun 
get that done by *obs-arC'jobsJ Of. Hob and Catch. 

HOD [od*], (1) sh, a store-heap of potatoes, or turnips, covered with 
straw and soil to protect them from frost. — Ellesmere. 

(2) V. a. to cover potatoes, &c. as above. — Ihid, Of. Hog (3). 

HODOE [oj*], sK the large paunch in a pig.—CLUN. Cf. Boger. 

HODOEH [oj'in], ah, Erindceua EurojxBua, the Hedgehog. — Much 
Wenlock, Cressage. C£ Urchin. 

HOE [au-], Shrewsbury; Pulverbatch; Ellesmere. Qy. com. 
[on* J, Bishop's Oastle ; Olttn, sb, and v. a. a hoe ; to hoe. 

' Some like sowin', some like mowin' ; 
But of all the games that I do like, 
Is the game of turmit-'aoh'n'.' 

Local Doggerel Verse, 

O.H.Germ. lumioan ; Fr. hoxte^ to hoe. Du. honiver^ cognate with 
the O.H.G. houwa, a pick, or hoe. See Wbdq. 

HOG [og-l, (l) 8h. & male sheep of the first year. — Bishop's Castle ; 
Clun ; Glee Hills. 

* The Sheep and beastes. Imprimis, six wethers, nyne tupp or hoggs, 
thirteene hoggs & barren ewes, eleven heefers, foure stearos, one bull, 
two geldings, two fylles, one Ooult, one nagg, and six stales of Bees, 
Ixij" XV" viij*.' — Inventory . . . Owlbuiy Manor-house, Bishop's. 
Castle, 1625. 

' The lee-lang night we watch'd the fauld, 

Me and my faithfu' doggie ; 
We heard nought but the roaiiug linn, 
Amang the braes sae scroggie ; 



But the howlet (ayd frae the castle wa\ 

The blitter frae the boggie» 
The tod reply'd upon tiie hill, 

I tremblea for my Hoggie.' 

KOBE&T BiTBirs, PoetM, p. 269, L 3d. 

*ffog, a youBg sheep of the second year . . . Du. hokkding, a 
heifer, beast of one year old. From being fed in the hok or pen.'-* 
Wedo. Gf. Hogrget, below. 

(2) V, a. to trim a hedge J^y sloping it to the top, like the roof of a 
house.—^HBEWSBUBY ; Atchah; Etj.khmkrk. ZTo^ = hag = hack. 
Of. Blade. 

(3) «6. and v. a. same as Hod, q. v.—Newpobt; Wem. 0£ Bury, 
also Tump. 

HOOOET [og'i't], ab. same as Hog (1), above. — Pulvbrbatch. Of. 

HOGhMAHE, nb, a horse's mane cut quite short, so as to stand erect. 
— Ellesmebb. Of. Hog (5), in Hau 

HOGSHET [og'shi't], sh., var. pr. a hogshead. ' Yo'n get a right 
good traicle 'ogshet fur the Talley o' 'afe-a-crownd — I *ad one off 
Bromley the grozier, an* it lasted, fur a wesh-tub, 'ears.* 

HOLD [ou't], 8b, place of safety, as a hole under a bank where fish 
lie ; the retreat of any wild animal. Qy. com. 

Mr. Oliphant, speaking of the French Romance of Sir Tristrem, 
which was £nglished about 1270, says, ' Some new substantiyes are 
fomid. In page 25 a castle is called a hold,* — See Sources of Standard 
Englxth, p. 160. 

Cf. Ps, Ixxi. 2. 

HOLB YO* [ou-d yu*], phr, ' hold fast '—an expression of the harveet- 
fiold — addressed to the man on the load when the waggon is about to 
move on. Com. 

HOLD YOVB HOLB [ou-d yur' ou-'t], phr, meaning primarily 'hold 
fast,' but with a secondary sense of ' Stop,' or ' Gently there,' when a 
person is either walking or talking too mst — ^Wem. 

HOLE [oa'l], V, a. to excavate ; to cut round a block of coal in such 
a way as to detach it for removaL Com. — M. T. 

*Holyn', or boryn*. Cavo^ wrforo^ terehro. "To hole, cavare, 
per/oraref Ac^ uhit to thyrle." — Cath. Ano. ** Palare, cavare^ /orare, 
Anglicty to hole, or to bore.*' Equiv. John de Garlandii.' — Prompts 
Parv. and Notes, 

A.S. holian, to hollow ; to make a hole. See Sprag (3). 

HOLERS [oa'lur'z], sb, pi, men^ employed to hole, — Ibid, See 

HOLP [oa-pl, pret^ eing., obaoU, helped. — Shrewsburtj Pulteb- 
BATCH, ' 1 'd*|) 'im 5$th that bag on 'is shuther.' 

' Heo hath holpe a thousand out 
Of the deyeles punfolde.' 

Piers Pl„ pass. y. 1. 8766, ed. Wb. 


* Ant. E» A man is well holp up that tnifits to you.' 

Comedy of Errors, IV. i. 22. 

A.S. kealp, p. t. of helpan^ helped; assisted. 

EOLFEB' [oa'pn], (1) prd.ypl.^ obsols. helped. — Ibid. *Poor owd 
Tummas an' me wun al'ays good Men's, an' 'o'^'n one another as 
neighbours shoulden.' A.S. (we) htUpon, p. t. of helpan, helped; 

(2) part, pasty ohsole. helped. — Ibid. * I doubt they bin a avenless 
set— they dunna ought to be bad off, the^n bin *d^p'n more than any- 
body i' the parish.' 

* For I haue . . . seith cryst 

blynde men hclpen. 

And fedde ^ow with fisshes * and with fyue loues, 
And left baskettes fiil of broke mete * here awey who so wolde.' 

Piers Pl.y Text B., pass. xvi. L 124. 

' To have no need to be holpen with any part of my labour in this 
thing.' — Latimer, Sermons, p. 34, in Bible Word-Book, 
See Ps. IxxxiiL 8. A.S. hotpen, p.p. of ?ielpan, to help. 

HOLXrS-BOLTJS [oa-lus boa'lus], adv. impulsively ; without deliber- 
ation. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch ; Clee Hills. Qy. com. * 'E 
never thinks 'ow it's gwein to end, but gwuz at it 'olus-bdluts.* 

HOMBEB [om'bur'], sb. a hammer. Com. To go "ember an' 
pinsons ' at a thing is to set about it with determination and force. 
* So yo' couldna finish the Wakes athout a fight I 'ear.' * I'd nuthin' 
to do 66ih it, Maister, it wuz Jack Pugn an' Dick Morris — the 
constable parted 'em wunst, but they watchen 'im away, an' then 
wenten ^omber an^ pinsons at it again — but they'n '&ve 'em in fur 
it yit.' 
The form ' Jiambyr ' for malUus occurs in Prompt. Parv., p. 225. 

H0KE8 [oamz], same as Hames, q. v. — ^Wem. 

' The Trill Homes, are the peeoes of wood made fast to the collar 
about the horse neck, to which hooks and the chains are fixed. The 
Homes are the wooden peeces themselves.* — Academy of Armory , Bk. 
ni. ch. viii. p. 339. 

HOMKACK [om*uk], v. a. to dash ; to destroy by want of careful 
using: said chiefly of dress. — Shrewsbury; Wem. *Look 
at that wench, 'ow 'er's ^ommacked 'er new bonnet.' 

HOMHACKOr, ad^. awkward ; clumsy. Qy. com. ' 'Er's a great 
^ommakin\ on-gain lookin' wench — 'er mus' spruce up an' look sharp 
about 'er, else 'er 66nna be theer lung.' 

HOMHAOED [om*ijd], part. adj. severely censured. — ^Wem. ' 'E 
wuz badly \ommag^ about^it, an' 'e wunna do it agen in a 'urry.' 

HOHPEBED Fom'pur'dl, part. adj. harassed ; worried ; troubled. 
Qy. com. * Uod 'elp tie poor firman — 'er'U be deepertly ^ompered 
odth them two twins.' 

p 2 


* *' whan al ^ cuntre was umbe-cast * with clene men of annes, 
to haue \>e take ^r tit * & to dethe hampred ; 
I tok here souerayne sone * so saued i \!e \>ere.*" 

William of PdUrfie, 1. 4694. 

HOVD [on*d], eh. a hand. Com. 

' And oche edav thi masse thou here. 
And take hale bred and hal^ watore 

Out of the prestis hond ; 
Soche grace God hath lif the, 
3if that thou dey sodon ly 

Fore thi housil hit schal the stond.* 

John Axjdeiay's Poems, p. 81. 

' And at this same tyme were hurt Lordes of name— the 

liord of Stafford in the hondy with an arowe.* — Piuton Letters, A.D. 
1465, vol. i. p. 331. 

A.S. hond. 

HOHDLE [ondl], r. a. to handle. — Shrewsbury; Pulverbatch. 
Qy. com. ' To * ondl en that pikel as if it wuz a gate-pwust ; slout it 
under the swath athisn, an' shift yore fit a bit faster, or we shanna 
finish 'arr6o8t by Chns'mas.* 

' He was fayr man, and wicth, 
Of bodi he was ^ beste knicth 
Y^i euere micte leden with here, 
Or stede onne ride, or handlen spere.* 

Havelok the Dane, 1. 347. 

HOVE [oa'n], v. «. to yearn ; to long. — Pulverbatch ; Newport. 
(1) * That poor cow's *bnin* after 'er cauve an* lowin' pitifiiL' (2) * 'E 
canna do no good at school, 'e does so *one fur 'ome.' 

' She brought a servant up with her, said he, who hones after the 
country, and is actually gone, or soon will.' — Sir Charles Grandison, 
vol. i. p. 241, ed. 1766. 

HOOD [nod], V. a, same as Hattoek^ q. v. — Whitchurch. A.S. 
hdd, a nood. 

HOODERS [uodur'z], sh. pi same as Hattockt, q,y.—P)id. Cf. 
Hoodwinks, below. 

HOODWnfKS [ud'wingks], sb. pL same as Hooden, above. — ^Wem. 
Compare this use of the term hoodwink, in the sense of a covering, with 
the— apparently — kindred meaning it bears in the following passage : — 

• Caliban, Good m^r lord, give me thy favour stilL 
Be patient, for the prize I'll bring thee to 
Shall hoodwink this mischance ;....' 

Tempest, IV. i. 206. 

EOOFLOCK [ufluk], Pulverbatch. [of-luk], Cleb Hills, sb, the 
fetlock of a horse. The term is metaphorically applied to clumsy 
ancles. ' Whad 'uflocks 'er 'as ! — bif to the anclers lixe a Lancashire 


HOOKEB [ook'ur'], sb. a large quantity : a tenn generally employed in 
combination with 'pretty.' Com. *'My eye ! we*n got a pretty 'ooker 
o* tail-ends fur the fowl — the Maister hanna forgot us this time.* 

HOOKIHOS [ook'inz], «6. j?!. two long spells of work, with an 
interyal of rest between. — Newpobt, Cheswardine, A man who 
works bv IiookingB, i e. early and late, with an intervening * siesta,* is 
said to do two days' work in the twenty-four hours. An arrangement 
corresponding to this is known to miners as * double-shift.' 

HOOP [oop- and wop'], sh., obsols. a peck measure. — Shrewsbury ; 
PtTLYERBATOH. ' G^io pars bin so chep, they binna wuth twopence a 

In the Accounts of the Ludlow Churchwardens for the year 1548 is 
the following : — * item to Coke for whitlymynge the churche ij dayes 
worke, and for a bushelle and a whop of l3rme xzd. ob.' 

Price, in his History of Oswestry^ quotes an old ^accompt' of the 
third year of the reign of Elizabeth, which contains a charge for 
' saullt,' viz., * Allso, payde for a hoope of saullt for the byff xd.,' and 
another for * a hoope of whette for brede.' 

An Inventory, taken at Owlbury Manor-House, 1625, comprises — 

* In the Corne Chamber over the Stables — one strike, one hopp^ one 

* According to Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033, the hoop contained two 
pecks ; but in his Glossary, p. 147, he says only one peck.' — Hajl. 

HOOSACK [oos'akj, interf, an exclamation, equivalent to 'Eureka,* 
uttered upon finding a thing, or recovering that which has been lost. 
— ^PuLVERBATCH. * Dick fund 'is knife w'en we wun gettin' the 
barley-stack in — ^I 'eard *im cry *"oosack/** an' I said, **W*ast*ee 
fund, Dick P " an' 'e says, " My knife, lad— Fm perty glad." ' 

HOOST [oos't], sh. a cough; said of cattle. — Newport. *The cows 
ban gotten a bit'n a *oosC 

' Now colic-grips, an' barkin' Jioast^ 

May kill us a'.' 
Bobebt Burns, Poems, p. 9, 1. 9. 

Mr. Oliphant, speaking of the Northumbrian Psalter — ^a.d. 1250 — 
says, 'We now find has {raucus) becomes Jiaast; hence the Scotch 
substantive Iioast. We of the South have put an r into the old 
adjective, and call it hoarse.*^ — Sources of Standard English, p. 150. 

' Hoose, or cowghe (host, or cowhe, K. host, or cowgth, S. boost, 
Harl. MS. 2274). Tussis. "An host, tussis; to host, tussire."— 
Cath. Ano.' Prompt, Parv, and Notes, 

'A.S. hw6sta; O.Icel. Msti ; O.H.Germ. ^t<o«fo; O.Du. hoesit, host 
(bust), ftM^.'—SxRAT. Cf. Haak. 

HOOTGHIirO [uo'chin], part adj. crouching ; huddling. — Shrews- 
bury; Atcham; Pulverbatch; Wem; Ellesmere. Qy. com. 

* Come out — 'ootchin* i* the cornel theer.* Hootching is generally used 
with reference to a comer, and so differs from Couch (4), q. v. 

HOPPER [op'ur*], (1) sh,, obaoh, a kind of open box of — what is 
technically called — * bend- ware,' for carrying seed ; it is slung across 
the shoulder of the sower, and usually rests on his left hip, being 


hollowed on one aide to fit the person, whibt on its outer side there 
Lb a short, upright handle, by which he holds it — ^PultebbjlTCH ; 
Clee Hills. 

' And hange myn hoper at myn hals * in stede of a scrippe ; 
A btisshel of bredcome * brynge me ^er-inne ; 

For I wil sowe it my-self. ' 

Piers PL, Text B„ pass. yi. L 63. 

* Seed hopper and strap.' — Auctioneer' $ Catalogue (Stoddesden), 1870. 

* Hopur of a seed lepe (or a seed-lepe, Habl. MS. 2274). Satorium, 
•aticulum, *^ Seminarium vas quo ponitur semen, an hopre." — Med.' 
Prompt, Parv. and Notes, 

(2) sh. a funnel for supplying grain to the mill-stonee. Com. 

' . . right by the hopper wol I stand, 
(Quod John) and seen how that the com gas in. 
Tet saw I never by my fader kin, 
How that the hopper wagges til and fra.' 

Chauceb, C. r., IL 4034—4037. 

* Hopur of a mylle, or a tramale. TaraJlantara. — ^Oath. Farrieap- 
sium, — Dice. " An hop3rT, ferricapsa, est molendini ; saHculum, 
saium, seminarium.^ — Cath. Ako. The proper distinction is here 
made between the hopper, ... so termed from the hopping moye- 
ment given to it, and the seed-leep, which was also called a hopper, 
** Hopper of a myll, tremye,^* — Palso.' Prompt. Parv. and Notes. 

* A.S. hoppere (saltator), hopper ; (hoper) in/undihulum,* — St&AT. 

* InfundibUlum, a tunnell whereinto uquor is powred when vessels 
are fiUed, an hopper of a mill, &c.* — DiaL Etym. Lot. 

HOPPEBrTSOVOH [opur* tr'uf], sh, a Mud of booc into which the 
grain is put to be conveyed between the mill-stones. The grain nms 
out of the trough, through the hopper, into the * eye' of the ii^psr 
mill-stone. Com. Mr. Way womd seem to confound the hopper 
with the hopper 'trough, when he says, *the hopper, or the trough 
wherein the grain is put in order to be ground, mentioned by Chaucer, 
C, T„ U. 4034—4037, &c.' See Note in Prompt. Parv,, p. 246. 

HOPS AVD OnUDS, same as Hobs and Girds, q. v.— Worthsk. 

EOKH [aur'-n], sb. same as Hastener, q. v. — Pulvsrbatch. 

EOT [ot], V, a. to make hot ; to heat Com. ' Diaw some drink 
an' ^ot it fur the men's suppers.' 

HOTTB, V. a., var, pr. hold. Cf. Hout. 

HOTTB TO'. See Hold yo'. 

HOTJD TOBE '01TT. See Hold your hold. 

H0I7SEL [ous'il], ah. household goods. — Shrewsbury; Pulverbatch. 
* I 'ear as theer s to be two days' sale at the " George "—one fur live 
stock, an' another fur 'ousel.' 

HOUSEH [ou'znl sb.pL houses. Com. ^^Ottwn bin despert scase 
about theer, folks dunna shift about like they dun i' the town, they 
keepen on, one generation after another.' 


HOITSE-PLACE, sh. the large kitchen, or general living room of a 
£eu*m-house. — ^Whttchubch. 

HOTTSIHG' [ou'sin], ah,^ obsols. the large leather cape attached to the 
collar of a waggon-horse's gears, which can he raised or lowered at 
will ; when laid down, it serves to protect the horse's neck from wet. 

' Hausse de cheval de hamoiSf a sheep or goat's skin laid npon the 
collar of a team horse.' — Chamb. 

HOTJT. See Hold. 

HOVE [o&v], pret heaved; lifted. — Clkk Hxlus. "E come an 
*ove me ont o' the gig afore 'e 'ove 'is wife out.* 

* For his swerd he ho/m heye, 
And \>e hand he dide of fleye, 
pat he smot him with so sore.' 

Havdoh the Dane, I 2750. 
A.S. hd/f p. t. of hebban, lifted. 

HOVEL [ovil], (1) sb. aame as Cote. — Shrewsbury ; Pulvbrbatch ; 
Ellesmere. Qy, com. * Dnn'ee call that a 'ouse to live in P — w'y 
it's no hotter thiui a *dvil far cattle to 'erd in.' 

^ Hovyl for swyne, or o)>er heestys. CartabtUum, caiabulum.^ — 
Prompt, Parv, 

' O.Lat. Catabclum^ a stahle ; a heast house.' — Did, Etym. LaJt. 

(2) eb, a shed adjoining a cottage, where coal, wood, &c. are kept ; 
also a mean dwelling-plax;e. — Fulverbatch. Qy. com. 
* Hovyl^ lytylle howse. TegesJ — Prompt, Parv, 
' O.Lat. TegestaSy a cover or cottage.' — Did. Etym. Lat. 

HOWOT [ou-ji'], (1) adj, huge.— Clun ; Cleb Hills. ' 'E fat a great 
*owgy stwun an' piit agen the gate, so as it shouldna he opened.' 

The form howgy occurs, according to 1^. HaUiwell, in Skelton, 
ii. 24. ' Huge, hougy, is found in Strat. 

(2) adj. large. — Ibid. An old man at Clun said that the living of 
that place was not very * ^owgy^ i. e. not * good ' or * rich.' 

(3) adj. * great,' meaning very intimate. — Ibid. * They hin gotten 
mignty *owgy.* C£ 0reat in Qrammar Outlines (adjectives), 


HITD [ud-], V. a, to collect, or gather together. — Ludlow. * Oh Y *ell 
he sure to 'ud it all up.' 

HTJDDIMITK [ud-i'muk], v. n. to do things on the sly. — Fulver- 
BATCH ; Wem. * I dunna know ahout 'em hein' so poor — they carri'n 
a good cheek, an' it strikes me they'n ^uddimuk an' junket oy thar- 
selves, an' al'ays looken poor to get all they can.' 

HTTDDIMTJKEBT, adj, close; sly: as in hiding away money or 
valuahies of any kind. — Wellington ; Colliery ; Ellesmere. * I 
fund a hran'-new shillin' in a noud canister, w'en I wuz clanin' down 
that top shilf ; I 'spect Jim 'ad piit it theer — ^I dunna like sich ^udder- 
mukery ways. * Compare the two fore^ing terms, expressive of secresy 
or concealment, with O.E. hude, to hide : — 


' & he fal listli hem ledes * to ^t loueli SGhippe, 
& taiut bi-hinde tunnes * hem to hude ^ere. 

WtUiam o/Paltme, L 2743. 

Compare them also with 'hugger-mugger' in the following 
citations : — 

' the people muddied, 

Thick and unwholesome in their thoughts and whispers, 
For good Polonius' death ; aod we have done but greenly, 
In hugger-mugger to inter him.' — Samlet, TV. v. 84. 

' But one thing I have to request, proceeded my Uncle — It is, that 
we may haye a joyful Day of it ; and that aU our neighbours and 

tenants may rejoice with us No hugger-mugger doings — 

Let private weddings be for doubtfdl happiness.' — Sir Charles Grandi- 
•on, vol. vi p. 280, ed. 1766. 

Mr. Oliphant says that, T3n^dale was the first ' to give us the term 
*' hi^cer-muker" which has been but little changed.' — Sources of 
Standard English^ p. 294. 

It would seem as if huddimuk and huddimukery were words * made 
up ' of O.E. hude and the last half of that term of Tyndale's, which 
he brought into the Mother Tongue in the sixteenth century. 

HUF [uf •], ab., var, pr, a hoof. Com. 

HUPP \y^'\ 9^' ft P^t ; a slight fit of hasty temper. — Ludlow. Qy. 
com. Of. Miif. 

HUFFED [uf't], adj, offended ; put out of temper. Qy. com. 

< But then to see how ve're negleckit. 
How huff^dy an* cuffd, an' disrespeckit ! ^ 

BoBERT BuBjfS, Poems, p. 3, 1. 6. 

HUFFLE-FOOTED [uM fut-id], same as Hnffle-heeled, below.— 

EUFFLE - HEELEB, adJ, clumsy - footed ; shuffling in gait — 
PuLVERBATCH. * *E'll mak' a prime militia-mon — ^w'y 'e's/ump- 
backed an' 'uffle-^eded ! I call it a waste o' the king's cloth,' See 

HUFLOCK. See Hooflook. 

HTJO-A-HA-Tira, same as Clip-me-tight, q. v.— Clee Hills. 

MUK [uk*], ah,, var. pr, a hook. Com. 

HVLKT [ul-ki'J adj, heavy ; stupid.— Wem. 

' Imagin her with thousand virgins guided 
Unto her fearefuU toombe, her monster-grave : 
Imagin how the hulky divell slyded 
Along the seas smooth breast, parting the wave : 
Alasse poore naked damsell iU provioed. 
Whom millions without heavens help cannot save.' 

Heywood, Troia Britanica, 1609, in Wr. 

HULL {\) ab, an outer covering or husk, as of nuts, pease, beans, &c. 
Shrewsbury; Pulvbrbatoh; Clun; Newport, Qy. com. * Chuck 
them bean-'ttZ/« o'er to the pigs afore yo' gin 'em the weeh.' 


* jffooUf or huske. Stliqua, ffoole of pesvn', or "benys, or o>er 
coddyd finite. Techa. — Cath. in/resua. In tne recipe for ** blaunche 
perreye" it is directed to " sethe the pesyn in fyne leye/* and then 
rub them with woollen cloth, and " \>e holys wyl a- way." — Harl. 
MS. 279, £ 25. " Hull of a beane or peso, escosae. Hull or barcke of 
a tree, escorce,** — Palso. ** Oous8e, the huake, ewad, cod, hull of 
beanes, pease, &c." — Goto.' Prompt, Parv, and Notes. 

* Hull, the Cod of Pulse, Chaff, &c.'— Bailey, ed. 1727. 
A.S. hule; O.Du. huUe; husk, as of com, &c. Cf. Hulling^. 

(2) V. a. to take off the husks, as of nuts ; to shell, as of beans, 
pease, &c — Ibid, (1) 'I've bin *ulltn walnuts all day, so I shanna 
want a par o' gloves fur Sunday.* (2) ' Gie Jinx the side-basket o* 
pase, an' 'e'll ^ull 'em afore 'e gwuz to church, an' throw the pessum 
to the pigs.' 

'Bestes to hulde' occurs in William of Pal erne, L 1708. Hulde is 
explained in the Olossarial Index, p. 280, ' to flay, to take off the 
covering or hide ; ' and Sir Frederick Madden's note on the word is 
quoted as follows : — * ** From the same root proceeds the modem verb 
to hull, to take off the htdl or husk. It corresponds to the Goth, and" 
huljan, Lu. x. 22. Hence also A.S. hyldere, a butcher." ' 

(3) V. a. to take off, as of the crust of a pie, or to lift up the meat 
In it, to get to that which lies beneath. — Ptjlveebatch. * Yo' bin 
'u7/m' an' ortin' that pie as if it wunna fit to ate.' 

EULLIN& [uMn], ah, the binding of a book. — Wellington. 

* O.H.Germ. nullen; Goth, huljan; O.Icel. hylj'a, to hill; to cover/ 
— Strat. See Killing. 

HTJLLOCK [ul'uk], sb, a lazy, worthless fellow. — Clee Hills. Cf. 
Hulk (1), in Hal. 

HIJMBER [umbur'], sb, the common Cockchafer. — Clee Hills. 
Compare * Humher [of Hummen, Teut. to make a humming Noise, 
because it flows with a murmuring Noise], the Name of a £ver,' in 
Bailet, ed. 1727. 

*O.Du. hommden {bombilarey — Strat. Cf. Blind-buzzard (1), 
also Huz-buz. 

UUMOTTESOHE fyoo'mur'sum], adj, peevish; out of temper; in a 
state of mind when nothing pleases. — Pulveebatch; Newport; 
Wem ; Ellesmbre. * The child's well enough, but 'e's spiled till 'e's 
that 'umouname 'e dunna know whad to do ^th 'isself.' 
Compare Shakespeare's ' humorous ' in a similar sense : — 

' Yet such is now the duke's condition, 
That he misconstrues all that you have done. 
The duke is Atimorou^ ; . . . .' 

Aa You Like It, L ii. 277. 

Humoursome is employed at Burford (Salop) with the signification 
of good, or pleasant, in regard of temper. 

HUNT [unt-], r. a., pec. to search for. Com. ' Han yo' sin the 
kav o' the one-w'y-drink ? I've bin 'untin* it up an' down — ^likely 
an onUkely — an' canna find it now'eer.' *It wuz o' the shilf i' the 
comel-cubbert the las' time I sid it, but if it inna theer now, yo' 
mun *unt till yo' find'n it, an' then yore labour 5onna be lost.' 


* Seek till you find, and you^ll not loee your labour.' 

Bat's Provtrb», p. 155. 

HXTBDEV, same as Herden, q. v. 

'What from the hurden smock, with lockram upper bodies, and 
hempen sheets, to wear and sleep in hoUand.' — ^B. ^&OMS (first half 
17th cent.), New Acad., liL p. 47, in Nares. 

ETJBB8, same as Herdes, a. t. 

' Now that part [of the flax] which is utmost, and next to the pill 
or rind, is called tow or hurds,* — Hollaitd's Pliny, yol. iL p. 4, in 

EJIBXTFTTL [u-rTfal], adj\ quick; hasty; precipitant.— Pulvto- 
BATCH ; Clee Hills. ' It inna the *umful sort o' folk as brioflen 
the most to pass, fur they runnon about atiiout thar yed 56th 'em. 

EmtST [ur's't], (1) «&. a wooded eminence or knoll. — Clun. 

' . . From each rising hurtt. 

Where many a goodly oak had carefully been nursed.' 


Hurst, in combination, is of not infrequent occ u rr en ce as a place- 
name throughout Salop : — BlackAur^t, BrockAur^^, HollyAurai, Under- 
hur$ty lA\y hurst, MudAtir«<, &c. 

Bailey says — ed. 1727— '-ffur**, joined with the Names of Places, 
denotes that they took their Name from a Wood or Forest.' 

(2) sh, a bed of shingle in the Seyem is called a hurst, — Much 
. Wen LOCK. 

' Du. horst, a brake, bushy place ; G«rm. horst, a tuft or cluster, as 
of grass, com, reeds, a clump of trees, heap of sand, crowd of peopla' 
— Wedo. 

EIJ&TEB [ur'-tur*], sh, an iron plate edged with steel, fastened — ^by 

* langets ' or stays — on to the axle of a * tumbrel ' to keep the wheel 
from wearing into the axle-tree : the steel edge works against the 

• boukin,' q. v. — Pulverbatch. Qy, com. 

HITS [us'], ah, house, in composition: — wain-'M^ oow-'iu^ bake-'itf, 
brew-'tM, maut-'tM, ^c. Com. 

Compare ' sceapa-^tM,' ' com-AtM,' ' mealt-AiM,' Ac, in the Supple- 
ment to ^f/ric's Vocabulary, x. or xi. cent., in Wr. yocabs., yoL i p. 58. 

A.S. hus, a house. 

HUSPEL [us-pill V. a. to drive away ; to put to rout. — Corvb Dale ; 
Wellington ; Wem j Ellesmere. * I'll 'uspel yo' childem off that 
causey, yo' bin jest like a kerry o' 'ounds up an' down : ' so said a 
Welshampton woman [1873]. 

* Hu9pylyn\ or spoylyii'. Spolio, diapoh'o. In old French hous- 
pouillier, or harpailleur, implies a thievish marauder, *' homme qui 
vole les geus de la campagne, vagabond,'* — ^BOQUEF. ** S*houspitter 
run r autre, to tug, lug, hurry, tear one another, &c." — Ooxa' 
Prompt, Parv. and Notes, 

Cf. HeapeL 

EirSBT, HUSWIFE [uz-i*], Clbb Hills, [uz-if], Pulverbatch; 
Ellesmere, $b,, pec,, obsols, a case fbr holding sewing materials, such 


as thread, needles, and buttons. It is made of a strip of some suitable 
material, and is fitted up with longitudinal * casings ' for the thread, 
and with pockets for the buttons, &c. It rolls up when not in use, 
and fastens with a loop and button. 

HVZ-BTJZ, eh. same as Blind-bnzsard, q. ▼. — Colliery. Cf. 

-lEB, a noun suffix = er, as in drovter, grozter, hauher, q. y. 
Tiller for tiller is found in the Wycliffite version [A-D. 1388], Luke 
xiii. 7 : * And he seide to the tilier of the vyn^erd.* The plural tilierU 
occurs in Luke xx. 9 : ' A man plauntide a yynjerd, and hiride it to 

IFTIH 'AV'-AHBIH*, eb, hesitation.— Shrewsbury. < I axed that 
65man about the weshin', an' after a good bit o' iftiW-an''andin' *er 
said Wd come— but 'er didna seem to car' about it/ 

HDfil'd], V. w., var. pr. to yield. — Pulverbatch ; Wem ; Ellesmerb. 

* 'Ow does the com ild, William ? ' * Well, but mighty middlin\ the 
ears bin lathy— theer wuz a djel o* strung winde Ven it wuz in blow, 
an' knocked it about.' 

Compare Shakespeare's 'tW — 'God VW you:' — Aa You Like It, 
in. iii. 76. 

JLL-BLEBDED, adj, morose ; bad-tempered. — Pulverbatch ; Cleb 
Hills ; Wem. ' 'E's a ill-blended, down-looking, hang-dog fellow as 
ever yo' sid'n.' 

ILL-CO VTBi VJSB, adj. bad-tempered ; cross-grained. — Pulverbatch. 

* Yo' bin as contrairy an' ilUcontrived as yo' knowen 'ow to be, but it 
56nna be lung till May-Day, then yo' sha'n g6d somew'eer else to 
shewn yore tempera' 

fim'bur'z], ah, ph^ var. pr. embers. — Pulverbatch ; Wem. 
' The fire^ tak' no 'arm, theei's nuthin' but a few imbers i' the grate.' 

IMITATE, V. n., pec. to attempt. — Wem; Ellesmbre. ^'E's bin 
imitatin* at drivin' the 'orses the las' wik or two, but 'e inna-d-up to 
much.' [Common in Norfolk. — ^W. W. S.]. Cf. Make a mook. 

nCPy 8h. a scion ; a slip ; a shoot. — Gorve Dale ; Glee Hills. 

' ''I was sum tyme a frere, 

And ^e couentes Gardyner * for to graffe ympes." ' 

Piers PL, Text B., pass. v. 1. 137. 

* '* Impe, or graffe. Surculus, novella" — Cath.' Prompt, Parv. 

* Dan. ympe ; Swed. ymp, imp, surctdueJ — Strat. 

IMPLE [im-pl], adj. same as Ample, q. v. — Glee Hill& 

DTCH-MEAL, adv. inch by inch ; little by little ; minutely, as in 
seeking for a thing.— Clsb Hills. * Well, it oonna be theer, I've 
looked it inch^meul? 


' Caliban, All the infections that the sun sucks up 
From bogs, fens, flats, on Prosper £bI1 and make him 
By inch-meal a disease ! ' — Tempest, TL ii. 3. 

IHCH-SMALL, same as Incli-meaL — ^Wem. See Iiu-anall. 

nr GOOD BEHOPES, phr, hopefuL— Wem ; Ellesbteius. ' I wuz 
in good he* opes as I should a got theer afore the poor fellow died, but 
I didna.' 

IN OOOD SADNESS, phr, in good earnest ; in all seriousness. — 
PULVERBATCH ; Wem. (1^ * Now sot about that job in good BodnesB, 
as if yo' manen to do it/ (2) * If s sure to be the truth, for 'e toud me 
in right good sadnesa.' 

* M, Mery. . . And will ye needes go from ys thus in very deede ? 
R. Boyster, Yea, in good fadneffe.^ 

Roister Doister, Act iij. Sc iij. p. 46. 

* Therfor 30, britheren, bifor witynge kepe 30U silf, lest 30 be dis- 
8e3rued bi errour of ynwise men, and falle awei fro 20ure owne sadness 
[a propriSi Jirmitate, Vulg.].' — 2 Pet, iii. 17, Wicliffite Version, ed. 
A.D. 1388. 

* " Sad, Sadly t Scidness,^ says Archbp. Trench, ** had once the mean- 
ing of earnest, eerious, sedate, ** set, this last being only another 
form of the simo word. The passage from Shakespeare quoted 
below marks *' si ly'' and ** sadness" in their transitional state from 
the old meaning t * the new; Benvolio using '* sadness" in the old 
sense, Bomeo pretending to understand him in the new. 

** Ben, Tell me in sadness who she is you love ? 
Bom, What, shall I groan, and tell you ? 
Ben, Groan? why, no; 

But sadly tell me who. 

Bomeo and Juliet, I. i. 205.' 

Select Glossary, pp. 192, 193. 
Of. * Sadnesse, Soliditas, maiuritas. Sadnesse, yn porte and chore idenh 
est.^ — Prompt, Parv. 

nr GOOD SOOTH, phr,, ohs. of a truth ; indeed.— Pulverbatch ; 
WoBTHEN. * Theer*s bin parlour-laisers theer all wik — in good sooth^ 
I amma gwei'n to scrape thar orts after *em.' 

' Kent, Sir, in good sooth, in sincere verity, 
Under the allowance of your great aspect. 

Whose influence * 

K, Lear, IL ii. 111. 
A.S. s6^, truly ; verily ; of a truth. 

INION [ei'ni*un], sb., var. pr, an onion. — Shrewsbubt; Pulvbr- 
BATOH. See (15) (16) (17) in Grammar Outlines {vouiels, &c), 

IHKLE [ingk'l], sb., oba, coarse tape. — Pulverbatch. 'If yo' bin 
gpveln to markit, be so good as bring me a pen*orth o* inkle for my 
linsey appam — nod Vite — if yo^ canna get it striped, bring blue caddas.* 

* Serv, He hath ribbons of all the colours i' the rainbow . . . 
inkles, caddisses, cambrics, lawns.* — Winter* s Tale, IV. iv. 8. 

' As thick as inkle weavers.' — Proverbial Saying, 
Of. OaddM. 


TS LUSU J^in loo*], adv. instead ; in exchange for. — Pulvbrbatch. 
* The Maister said 'e'd gie me the top adlant i' the ** Bed-buts " fur 
tatoe ground, an' 'e mun 'a a couple o* days work i' the 'arr6o8t 
in lieu,* 

* But, poor old man, thou prunest a rotten tree, 
That cannot so much as a blossom yield 

In lieu of all thy pains and husbandry.' 

As You Like It, II. iii. 65. 
Cf. Fr. au lieu de. See Intuxn. 

IHSEVSE [insen's], v, a, to instruct ; to make clear to the under- 
standing. Com. ' If 'e dunna bring the things right I canna 'elp 
it — I insejised *im well into it,' 

* The olde bokes of Glastonbury shall you ensence, 
More plainly to ynderstande this forsayd matere.' 

The Lyfe of loseph of Armathia, 1. 363. 

' . . . Don John your brother incensed me to slander the Lady Hero. 
— Much Ado about Nothing^ V. i. 242. 

Bay has, * To Inaenae, to inform : a pretty word used about Sheffield, 
in Yorkshire* 

IHSI6HT [in-sit], sb, the entrance into the 'workings' from the 
bottom of the shaft. Com. — ^M. T. 

IHS-SKALL. See Inch-small, of which it is a corrupted form. — 
Pulvbrbatch. * I've sarched the 'ouse ijia-emally an* canna find it 
'igh, low, nor level.* 

ni-TAK [in'tak], sh. an in-take, i e, a piece — say an acre or there- 
abouts — of reclaimed waste land, enclosed and taken into a farm. — 
Wem ; Ellesmebe. * I 'ad forecasted to a laid the new in-tak down 
[sown it with permanent grass seed] this time, but I doubt I canna 
manage it now.' Cf. Bytiack. 

nr THE FACE 0' FLESH, phr., ohsols, equivalent to < in the body.' 
— ^Wem. * Eh, dear ! but I'm reet glad to see yo' in the face o* flesh 
agen after aU this lung time.' 

UNTUAN [intur'n-], adv, instead. — Shrewsbury; Ludlow, *ril 
do it inturn o' yo'.' Cf. In lieu. 

HTWA&DS [in'ur'dz], sb. the heart, liver, &c. of a pig or lamb. — 

* Jniestina, smfel Joannas, vel inneweard,' occurs in Archhp^ JElfric^s 
Vocabulary t in Wr. vocabs., vol. i. p. 44. 

ISS. See Tes. 

ISTERBT [is-tur'di'], adv., var. pr. yesterday. Qy. com. ' IstenVy 
wuz a wik = yesterday week. 

IT, conj., var, pr, yet. Com. 

ITEM [ei'tum], sb.^ pee, a hint. — Shrewsbury. Qy. com. * I sid 
the Maister comiu', so I gid 'im the item,* 

* My Uncle took notice, that Sir Charles had said, he guessed at the 


writer of the note. He wished he would g[iTe him an item, ua he called 
it, whom he thought oVSir CKarle$ Oranditan, toL Ti. p. 266, ed. 

IV VX pvi'], sh,f var. pr. Hedera Helix, commoii Ivy. Com. 

' 'Oily an' iwy wun runnin' a raoe, 
'Oily gid iwy a smack i' the face ; 
Iwy run wham to tell 'is Mother, 
'OUy run after 'un an' gid 'im another.* 

Children's Doggtrd Verte. 

JACK pak*], (1) $h. Corvus numidtda, the Jackdaw. — Bridgnorth. 

(2) tib. Ebox lUcitUf a (young) Pike. — ^Ellbsmebe. 

(3) sb.f obs, a drinking yessel of leather. A Jack of this kind was 
preserved until quite a recent period at Corra — ^the Oalverhall of the 
Ordnance map — not far from Whitchurch (Salop). It was shown in 
the Art Treasures' Exhibition at Wrexham, 1876, and was catalogued, 
' 1075. Leather Jack (pint) mounted with silver rims, inscribed— 

** Jack of Carrow is my name. 
Don't abuse me then for shame." 

— ^Mr. Whitehall Dod.| A local tradition was formerly current 
at Corra that a certain traveller, half dead with fatigue, being 
helped on his way by a refreshing draught of nut-brown ale at 
that place, by way of thank-offering, charged his estate with a sum 
of money yearly, to provide a Jack of ale at a cost of Id. for 
future wayfarors in Corra. The village inn at the present day [1879] 
is called * The Old Jack.' 

There is an account of the Jack of Corra, substantially the same aa 
that given above, in Baoshaw's HUiory^ OazeUeer, Ac, of 8hrop$hire^ 
1851, p. 305. 

Minsheu (ed. 1617) has, '6013. A Jacke of Leather to drink in, 
because it somewhat resembles a Jacke or coat of maile ; Yi. Jugget 

Phillips— iVeu; PTorW of Wtyrda, 7th ed., 1720 -gives, amongst other 
meanings of the word Jack, that of ' a sort of great leathern Pitcher 
to put frink in.' 

Ash has, ' Jack^ a kind of leather cup, a large jug for liquor.' 

Mr. Halliwell says that Jack 'has tiie same meaning as Bla^' 
jack' which he glosses, * a larffe leather can formerly m great um 
for small beer.' %oth Grose and Pegge give the term Jack as signi- 
fying a measure ; t&e former says, * half a pint,' the latter, ' a quarter 
A a pint.' 

JACK-A-DANST, $h, the dancing light sometimes seen on wall or 
ceiling, reflected from the sxmshme on water, ^lass, or other bright 
surface. — Newpobt. The same term is appbed to a lady in the 
following verse, and apparently with a Kindred — meiaphorical— 
sense :-^ 


* My love is blithe and bucksome, 
And Bweet and fine as can be : 
Fresh and gay as the flowers in May, 
And lookes like Jack-a- Dandy, ^ 
Song, * Harry and Mary^^ in Wit and Drollery, 1682. 

JACK-AIT-'IB-CHEM [team], sb,, obsA Ursa Major, — Pulvbrbatch. 

JACK-AHS-HIS-WAOOOV, idem. — ^Pulyerbatoh ; Ellesmerb. 

JACK-AHD-HIS-WADT, iVf^m.— Oswestry. Of. Charles's Wain. 

JACK-DOXJKEB, same as Donker, q. v. — Weh. 

JACK-KICOL [jak nik'u'l], sb. FHngilla carduMis, the Goldfinch. 
— Wem; Ellesmebe. 

JACE-0*-THE-IiAHTHOBB', eb., obs. the Ignis fatuu8.^ChSR Hills. 
Of. Devil's-lontuxL 

JACK-O'-TWO-SIBES, sb. Ranunculus arvensis. — ^Wellington, High 
Ercail, See Bevii's Ourry-oomb, slso Worry-wbeat. 

JACK-PLAYHE [jak plaayn], sb,, var, pr, the first plane used for 
taking off rough surfaces. — Clun. Jack-plane, as usually pronounced, 
is a common enough term. 

JACK-SQUEALEB [jak squai-lur'], sb, Cppselus apus, the Swift.— 
Chttrch Stretton; Bribqnorth. Qy. com. This bird's loud 
piercing cry has obtained for it the name of squealer, 

JACK-STOVES, (1^ sb. pi. pebbles — usually white ones — used in 
playing the game known by the same name. Qy. com. See below. 

(2) sb. a children's game played with stones. — Ibid. Ck>n8iderable 
dexterity is required in throwing up and catching the Jack'stones — five 
in number — and the game throughout is a pretty and interesting one. 

JACK-STEAW, sb. Curruca einerea, common Whitethroat. — 
Shrewsbury. The name of Jack-straw is given to this bird from the 
straw-like material with which it builds its nest. Of. Flax. 

JACK-TILES, sb. pi. roofing-tiles, so called from the place where 
they are made — Jack^fteld, Broseley (Salop). 

JACK-VP-THE-OECHABD, sb. a ihxe&t—ignHumpro terribile. Com. 
' If yo' dunna tak' car* Fll shewn yo' Jack-up4he-orchui.* 

JAO [jag*], (1) V. a, to carry hay, &c. in a cart. — Colliery. Qy. 
com. Der. 'jagger.' Of. Haul. 

(2) sb. a small cart-load. Qv. com. 'Tak' the light waggin an' 
&tch them tuthree lilkin's, they n on'v be a bit of a jag.' 

' A Ja^ji of Hay is a small load of hay.' — Academy ^ Armory^ Bk* 
nL ch. lii. p. 73. 

(8) same as Ohag, q. t.— Wsir. 

JAOOSR, sb, one who carts for hire. Qy. com. * So John Ivans is 
turned jogger, I 'ear ! ' * Aye, an' it's a poor ja^/ 'e'U mak' on it, fur I 
dunna know w'ich is the biggest drummil, 'im or the owd 'oise.' Cf. 


JAOOLE [jagi], r. a. to cut badly and unevenly. — ^Pulverbatch. 
* Them scithors mun g6o to Soseb'ry to be grond — jest look 'ow they 
jagglen the stuff — isomebody's bin nosin' an' taylin' faib'ries ooth 'em.' 
Cf. Haggle (I). 

JASGtLnSQ [jang'lin], part adj, the idle talking which is fruitful 

Com. * Them women bin 
mind thar own business. 

of * evil speaking, lyine, and slandering.' Com. ' Them women bin 
al'ays janglin* — ^it 65d look better on 'em to 

an* let other folks mind thars.' 

' Jangling^ is whan man speketh to moche before folk, and clappeth. 
as a mille, and taketh no kepe what he sayth.' — Chaucer, The 
Personea Tale {De Superbia), 

* Iangelyn\ or iaveryn'. Oar(v}ulo, hlatero. " langltTy to jangle, 
prattle, tattle saucily, or scurvily." — CoTO.' Prompt, Parv, and Notes^ 

* Du. jangelen ; O.Fr. jangUr^ to jangle, garrirey Naterare.' — Stkat. 

* II faut chercher une (autre) origine kjangler^ et elle se trouye sans 
doute dans le hollandais yani/eZ-en." — Bub. 

of January. — Pulvebbatch. Qy. com. 

' A kindly good Janiu^ere, 
Frieaeth pat by the fSere.* 

TussEB, Januaries husbandries 

* Janiveer freeze the pot by the fire. 
If the grass grow in Janiveer, 
It grows the worse for't all the year.' 

Bay's Proverbs, p. 33. 
See Febriwerry-flll-diclie, 

JAEF. See (1) Dam, (2) D^nu 

JAB8EY [jaa-r'zi'], (1) sb., obs, the fine combings of wool. — Pulveb- 

* Jersey is the finest Wool taken out of other sorts of Wool by 
combing it with a Jersey-Comb.' — Academy of Armory , Bk. TIT, ch. 
vi. p. 286. 

Aish has, ' Jersey, Combed wool prepared for spinning, yam spun 
from combed wool.' And he gives, as the adjective from this, ' Jersey, 
made of Jersey,* See below. 

(2) eb. , obs. a coarse fabric of loose texture, made of 'jarsey ' sptin 
into worsted. — Ibid, ' As coa'se as jarsey' is a proverbial saying still 
extant, and applied to any material of inferior quality. Der. ' jarsey- 

(3) sb,y obsols., si. ? the hair. — Ibid, * Yo' wanten yore jarsey CK^t' 
Compare the slang term * Jazey,* a wig — * the cove with ike jazey^ i. e. 
the tfudge.' See Slang Dictionary^ p. 161. 

JAASEY-HILUH', sb., obs, a bed-covering of 'jarsey * (2) quilted 
with refuse wool-combings between the double-fold material. — Ibid. 
* 1 think yo* bin prepared fui the winter 65th two par' o' blankets an' 
a jarsey' ilUn\* 

* One payre of gerey blanketts * is comprised in an Inventory .... 
Owlbury Manor-House, Bishop's Castle, 1626. 


See Wat in Prompt. Parv., p. 240. CI Bed-hillin', also Fustian 

JARSET-WOOLSET, sb,, ohs. a dress material cnimingly woven of 
fine worsted yam and linen thread — ^warp and woof often of diverse 
colours, as of dark blue and orange, or brown,— a pretty fabric of 
changine^ hue and serviceable quality, entirely ' home-made.' — Ibid. 
'Aye, theer's nuthin^ wars like the owd-fashioned Jaraey-ddlseyy it 
beats yore merinoes out o' sight. ' 

JAUBDEBrS [jon'dur'z], sb,, var. pr. the jaundice. Com. 'Poor 
owd mon I ^e s bin bad a lungful tune, an' now they sen it's turned to 
the black yawnArtf.' Cf. Yallow-wort. 

JAWM. See Chimley-jawm and Door-jawms. 

* The Jaumt8 or Peers, the window Sides.' — Academy of Armory ^ 
Bk- ni. ch. xiiL p. 473. 

JAZEY [jai'zi*], »ft., obs. % a form of the (woman's) name Joyce — 
there was a Jazey Humphreys at Castle Pulverbatch [1838]. 

JEALOXrST [jelni'si'], sb, Sedum rupestre, St. Vincent's Rock Stone- 
crop (garden plant). — Pulverbatch, Aracott, See Link-moss* 

JED, adj\y var. pr, dead. Com. See Grammar Outlines (ccmson- 
anU), D (1) for similar examples. 

JEF-EABS. See Beaf-ears. 

JEF-HTJTS. See Deaf-nnts. 

JEHHT-SAILS, sb. the tramway. — Collibrt ; M. T. 

JJfiJXJN IL-WAQOOiNf sb. the truck — loosely hooped with iron round 
the load — on which coal or iron-stone comes up the pit, and is pushed 
from the pif s mouth by the • bonkies.' — Collieby ; M. T. 

JEOW. See Dsw. 

[jur'-ks], sb. the heart, liver, and lights of ^ Iamb. — Wem. 

Cf. Pummice. 

JERirSALEM STAB, sb. Hypericum cahjcinum, large-flowered St. 
John's Wort (garden plant). — Pulverbatch, Hnnwood, 

JESSTIP [jes'up and jez'up], sb. juice ; syrup out of fruit pies and 
pudding — ^PuiiVERBATCH ; Newport ; Wem. 'Wen the rubub's so 
young it gwuz all to jezzupp an' w'en the puddin' 's cut it's nuthin' 
but duff.' 

JETH, JETH-PIHCH. See Death and Death-pinch. 

JETTT [jet-i'], (1) r. n. to agree; to be in concord. — ^Wem. *The 
new cow jetties reet well alung wuth the others.* 

(2) sh. a state of evenness or uniformity. — Ibid. ' The new buildin' 
an the 'ouse bin all of a jetty ^^ i. e. not detached — all under one roof. 

Shakespeare has jutty with exactly the opposite meaning — that of 
projection : — 


'2'^G SliH01»SHlRE WORD-BOOK. 

• No Jntty^ friezo, 

Buttress, nor coign of yantago/ 

Macbeth J I. vi. 6. 

JlOOnr. See Waggoners' Words to horses. 

JIMMT [jim'i'], afh\ airily ; jauntily. — Pdlverbatch ; Worthbn ; 
Wem. *The owd mon au' (mman wun comin* alung together aa 
jimmy as yo' plasen.' 

JIVE, r. a. and v. n., r/ir. ^^r. to join. Com. It is related of a 
certain parish clerk of Upton Magna, that upon one occasion, when 
there was a * strike * amongst the village choir, he found himself com- 
pelled to sing * solo ' — he managed to go through one yerse, then he 
stonped, turned with an appealing look to tiiie congregation, and 
said, * Them as can Jine, come jine, come Jine, fur it's a misery to he 
athisn ! * 

JOB [job*], V. a. to pierce or stab suddenly with any sharp-pointed 
instrument. — Shrewsbury; Pulverbatch ; Wem. *Whad maks 
yo* lame, Tummas ? * * W*y I jobbed one o' the tines o' the sharevil i* 
my big toe.' * Han'ee 'ad it dressed ? * * I *ad it charmed, a»' the 
sharevil, so I 'spect it'll tak' no *ann.' Ash has to job in the same 

* To job signifies in the East Anglian dialect to peck with the beak, 
or with a mattock.' — Way, in Prompt Parv., p. 263. 

J0BL0CK8 [jobluks], sh. pL fleshy, hanging cheeks. — Pulverbatch. 
' 'E's a fine par o' joblocks, 'e looks as if 'e didna crack many djef nuts.' 

JOCKET [jok-n, sh. a horse-breaker. — Shrewbburt ; Pulverbatch. 
Qy. com. * We sha'n a pretty well o' folks o' Monday — ^theerll be the 
ftlup- shearers, an* the wilrits, an' owd Billy Davies the jockey y an' 'is 
lad bin comin' to break two cowts.' 

*From Jack (or, with the Northern pronunciation, Jock)^ in the 
sense of a person in an inferior position. Jocky was specially applied 
to the servant who looked after horses, now almost confined to the 
rider of a race-horse.' — ^Wedo. 

JOHK-GO-TO-BED-AT-HOOir, same as Betty-go-to-bed-at-noon, q. v. 
— ^Newport. 

JOHirVT-KVOCK-SOFTLT, sK, ell a slow, dawdling, awkward 
workman. Qy. com. ' I dunna know whad the Maister wanted 5oth 
sich a Johnny-knock-Bo/tly as that.* 

JOHHHY-WOP-STBAW, sb. , «/. ] a fann-labourer. Qy. com. Cobden 
applied the term * chop-stick ' to the same class of people. 

JOnri-STOOL^ sk, ols, Mr. Halliwell says, «A stool framed by 
joinery work, at first so called in distinction to stools rudely formed 
from a single block;' he quotes from the Union Inventories, p. 1| 
* Toyned side,* 

* In the greaie Parlor . . . fowre low stooles, Thirtecne joyned stoofes,' 
— Inventory , , . Owlbury Manor-House, Bishop's Castle, 1625. 

Cf. BufTet-Btool. 

JOMPEBT [jom-pur't and jom'pu't], sh., ohsoh. a large, coarse, 
earthenware cup with two close-fitting handles — a kind of * porringer.' 


— Pulvbbbatch; Wbm; Ellesmere. 'Have you brought the 
things out of the gig, Jack P Take care of that cup.' * Dun yo' 
mane that jomp^t. Missis ? — ^it's a rar' un for a joram o drink-mate I ' 

JOHHACK fjon'uk], adj. true-hearted; fair-dealing; honourable. 
Qy. comu 'Bill said 'e oodna, an* 'e didna, 'e's always yonnocA? — whad 
says owd Ben — ^I'd sooner tak' 'is word than many a man's wuth«* 

JOK&M [joa'r'um], sh, a large quantity of good eatables or drink- 
ables — * a rar* yoram.' Qy. com. 

JOSET [joa-zi'], sh, form of ' Joseph.' — Colliery. 

JOUB [jou'h'r' and ji'ou'r'], v, «., ohsoU. to mutter, or grumble in an 
undertone ; generally used in the particimal form— jouring. — PuLVER- 
BATCH. * "Whad's the matter 66th yo', iHck ? — yo' bin al'ays j'ourin* 
an' mungerin' at the table — ^han'ee got summat as is too good 

' I pray that Lord that did you hither send, 
You may your cursings, swearings /ottringr^ end.' 

BoBERT ILiTMAK's QuodlihdSy 1628, in Nares. 

Mr. Nares explains jouring as ' swearing,' and adds, * Perhaps a 
coined word, from juro, Jjatin.' Cf. Munger. 

JOWL [jou-1], PuLVERBATCH. Qy. com. [joal], Atcham; Wem, 
(I) V, a, to knock, as of the head. ' Whad bin yo' lads cross-pladin' 
about? — ^I'U jowl yore yeds together direc'ly, an' that'll end the 
matter.' Joivl is a corruption of Choul. See Choul (1). 

(2) ah, a washing mug. — Newport. A Staffordshire-Border term, 
apparently. Cf. Btean. 

JOWTERS [jou-tur'z], (1) sb. pi. cabbage-plants that boll instead of 
forming hearts. — ^Pulverbatch. *My cabbidge bin most turned 

(2) ab. pi. large flakes of curd. — ^Pulverbatch. In the process of 
curd-malung, if the whey breaks into large flakes, they are jowtera — if 
into yery small ones, ' the cruds bin moitnered.' See Cruds. 

JOT, sb.f pec. service. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch ; Wellington. 
' Well, a good thing is a good thing after all, an' a bad un does yo' 
no joy.* 

JUPPET Fjuf-it], V. V. to jump or fidget about.— Wem. ' Whad 
bin yo' cmldem juffetin* about athatn fur ? ' 

J U MBLEHENT, sb. a state of confusion. Qy. com. ' Dear 'eart 
alive I whad a jumhlement yo'n got them plums in — afore ever I get 
to Soseb'ry they'n be in sich a mingicummumbus, I shall never 
part 'em.' 

JUITDEB, (1) V. n. to mutter; to grumble in an undertone. — 
PuLVERBATCH. 'I'd ten times sooner folks 66d'n spake out whad 
they han to say than g66junderin* to tharselves — if they wun my 
childem Pd 'elp 'em to junder J Cf. Chunder. 

(2) ab. frogs' spawn. — Craven Arms; Church Stretton. Cf. 
Tather (1). 

Q 2 


JUITKET [jungk'it]^ sh, ohsds. a feast ; a furtive entertainment. — 
' The Missis an' some on 'er owd cronies wnn '&yin' a rar* junket o' 
buttered flaps, an' the Maister come wham onezpected an' ketcht 'enL* 

JWKETIHO, part, adj., ohsoh. wastefuUj feasting and entertain- 
ing. — Ibid. * 'Er*ll ruin 'er 'usband 66th 'er junketin* ways — it's an 
owd sayin', but a very brue un, '* The 66man can throw out 66th a 
Bp66n whad the mon'll throw in 66th a spade." ' 

JJTROIY [jur'gi'], adj. contentious; inclined to pick a quarrel. — 
Glee Hills. ' The agent wuz mighty /ur^, I 'ad to mind whad I 
said to 'im.' Ct Lat. jurgioatta, quarrelsoma 

TUBS. See Denrn. 

JTI8TLT, adv., pec. exactly — with regard to time. — ^Newpobt. * I 
conna come not now — not judly now.' 

JTTST HOW [jaest nou*], adv. this term comprises a twofold mean- 
ing with regard to time — past and future — at a considerable interval 
from the moment of speaking. Com. (1) 'Gall Jack to 'is bajte.' 

ing with regard to time — past and future — at a considerable interval 

>f speak] _ 
* I did jeit now: * Wen P ' ' This 'our ag66.' (2) * The butcW- 

boy's brought the mate, an' wanted to know about the shooit — ^I toud 
'im as that '66d do jest now, at-after 'e*d bin 'is rouu's — ^'e needna g66 
back fiir it.' 

' Jtut now,* says Dean Alford, ' in its strict meaning, imports nearly 
at the j)re6ent moment, whether before or after. Tet general usage 
has limited its application to a point slightly preceding the present, 
and will not allow us to apply it to time to come. . • . We have the 
double use of the term (that is, for past and future time) preserved in 
provincial usage in the Midland and Northern coimties.' — The Queen's 
English,!^. 210, 2nd ed. 1864. 

Kay gives * Near now. Just now, not long since, Nor/.,' in * South 
and East Country Words,* Gf. Now just. 

KAO [kag-], Atchax; Pulvbrbatch; Wem. [ki'ag-], Church 
Steetton, Leehotwood, (1) «&. a projecting piece left on a tree or shrub 
when a branch has been severed from it. 

(2) tooth standing alone. — ^Pulverbatch. ' I hanna but this 
one hag leT, an' I shomd be better athout that, fur it's as sore as 
a bile.' 

Gompare ' Denies exerti, gag teeth, or teeth standing out.* — Nomen^ 
tlator, 1585, p. 29, in Hal. 

(3) i;. a. to cut badly and unevenly, so as to leave projectiona — 
Ghttbch Steetton, £eehotuHx>d, * See 'ow yo*n kyagged the bacon.' 
Gf. Snag (1). 

KA06LE [kag'l], v. n. to struggle to keep up and make the best of 
circumstances. — Pulveebatch ; Wem. * 'Ow dun'ee manage, Betty, 
66th the ruff ralnin' in so bad ? ' * Well, we bin obleeged to haggle 
on some'ow — ^we 'ad'n to pool the bed out, an' ptit the cooler to 
ketch it' 


KALE pcai-1], (1) ah. a turn. — Wbllington. ^ Kale for A-a/e/ to 
drink alternately; — 'It's my hile now,' t. e. my turn to drink — are 
harvest-field expressions in passing the bottle. 

Compare ' Sors, a lot, or kecniill, a chance, a deale,' in Duncan's 
Appendix EtymologicB, A.D. 1595, E. D. S., B. xiii., and O.Du. eavel, 
' sors,' in Strat. 

(2) [kai'l], Shbewsbubt. [kei'l corr. kaayl'], Pulveebatch, v. a. 
to tilt up, as of a cart, so as to empty ; to turn over. ' Wen Dick 
brings the nex' tumbril load o' turmits, tell 'im to kayle 'em up i' the 
orchut fiir them yeows.' Cf. Cave (2)« 

K&MDTO [kai'min], (1) paH, adj. issuing forth in a stream, as bees 
when leaving the mve to swarm. — Newfobt. Cf. Towthering. 

(2) part, adj^ making rude mocking noises to annoy a person. 
— /Wrf. 

XATIE-BKAH'-TAIL, ah. the Eedstart.— Ludlow. Cf. Bessy-brin- 

KAT [kai*], (1) a key — an old pronunciation. Com. 

' And cal the darg^ to ^our coimsel, that beryn Cristis kay^ 
And holdist up hol^ cherche the prynce of Heven to pay.' 

John Audelay's Poems, p. 20, 

' The[y] locked the dore / and than went theyr way. | 
Cayphas and Anna / of that kept the hay* 

Lyft of Joseph of Armathia, 1. 53. 

« Either through gifts, or guile, or such like waies. 
Crept in by stouping low, or stealing of the kaies.^ 

Spenseb, F. Q., Bk. rV. 0. X. st xviii< 

* A*S. cdg; O.Fris, hei, hat, key ; davia.^ — ^Stbat. 

(2) ah.y oha, same as Oop-wedge, q. v.— Pulyebbatoh. 

(3) V. a. to make, or to bind, round, as of the top of a well, with 
timber or masonry — * kayin* the top o' the well.' — Corve Dale. 

* * * Keyy or knyttynge of ij . wallys, or trees yn an vnstabylle grownde. 
Loramentum" — Cath. The Catholicon explains loramentum to mean 
boarding or frame- work compacted together, as in the construction of 
a ceiling. . . - "JS>y to knytte waUes toguyder, c/«/."— Palso.' 
Prompt, Parv, and Notea, 

KATS. See Keys. 

IXACH [kee'ch], same as Cleaoh, q. v. — Pulverbatch ; Wev. 

KEACH-EOLE, same as Cleaeh-hole, q. y. — ^Pulverbatch ; Wem. 

KECK-HOHSED, adj. left-handed, and awkward in consequence, or 
by metaphor.— PuLYERBATOH, ' Ketch out, yo* heck-*onded^ avenless 

KECKLE-8T01IACHED, adj. squeamish ; queasy. — Pulverbatch* 
' Pm so despert heMe-atomached lately, I should 'aive my 'eart out if I 
wuz to see a yar in anythin'.' 

Ash has, * Keckle, to keck, to heave the stomach.' He derives 
* keck ' from Du. k^cken^ to cough. Cf. Xickle-stomach. 


KEDLOCK, sb, Sinapis arvensia^ Trild Mostard, Charlock. Qj. com. 
Of. Kerloek. 

KEECH [kee'ch], (1) sb. a cake of consolidated fat, wax, or lallow. — 
Pulveebatch; Wem. (1) 'Theer's a good heech o* fiit on them 
broth, tak' it off carfolly.' (2) ' Fve got a good heech o' beeo-wax 
thifl time ; I shall tak' it to the Soseb'iy 'Firmary, they'n ^ the wnth 
on it theer/ Compare ' tallow-ea^' in 1 JT. Henry /F., H. iv. 252. 

Naree says, * It is highly probable that tallow-A;eecA is here the right 
reading,' and in support of his opinion quotes 'Dr. [Bp.] Percy' 
as follows : — ' A keem of tallow is the fat of an ox or cow, rolled up 
by the butcher in a round lump, in order to be carried to the chandler. 
It is the proper word in use now.' 

Shakespeare applies the term keech to a butcher's wife— 2 K, Henry 
IV,, n. L 101 ; and to a butcher's son— Wolsey— Z: Henry VIIL, 
I. i 55. 

(2) V, n. to consolidate, as warm &t, wax, Ac. does in cooling. — 
FuLVEBBATGH ; Wem ; Oswestry. ' Dunna mess vore fingers d5th 
it awilde it's warm, let it keech, an' then it'll break off aisy — them 
mole candles dunna do to carry about.' 

KEEP [kee'p], (1) v,a., pec, to maintain. Com. ''£'s a right tidy 
fellow, but hanna-d-a chance to get on ; 'e 'as 'is poor owd mother to 
Jbeep, an' a crippled sister — 'e says if it wunna fur them 'e 65dna stop 
naigeiin' [working like a negro] 'ere.' 

(2) 9b,t pec, maintenance. Com. ' A chap like that inna wuth 'is 
keep J an' say nuthin' about wages.' 

(3) «5., pec. pasture. ^ Com. ' Theer's bin a good Miamas spring — 

filenty o' keep to las' till Chris'mas if the groun' should keep Dar* 
free from snow].' See Out at keep. Cf. Feed. 

(4) V, a, , pec, to attend, as of the market — Shrewsbury ; Pulyeb* 
BATCH. Qy. com. ' I 'ear our owd neighbour's gwun to Hye twix 
Wenlock and Bridgenorth, so they can keep which market they'n a 

* Rose, .... My Father is a Farmer within three short Miles o' 
the Town : we keep this Market — ^I sell Chickens, Eggs, and Butter, 
and my Brother Bullock there sells Com.' — Farqxthar's Becruiting 
Officer, Act III. Scene — The Market-Place [Shrewsbury], 

Ash gives keep in the same sense. 

KEEVE. See Cave (2). Ash has ' A:eet;e,'— which he calls * a local 
word,' — * to overturn ; to empty a cart' Bailey — ed. 1782 — gives, * To 
keeve,^ in the same sense as * Cheshire.* 

KEFFEL [kef -rij, (1) sb. a sorry, worthless horse. — Pulvxrbatch ; 
Wellijtoton; Newport; Wem. Eichardson— a Derbyshire man— 
uses this word: — *01d Bobin at a distance on his Boan keffei.* — 

Clarissa Harlowe, voL ii. p. 130, ed. 1774. 
W. ceffyl, a horse. Cf Kirby. 

(2) »6. a lazy, good-for-nothing fellow.— /(iem. *Couldna Turn 
'God bring yo* a bit'n a jag o' coal ? ' * Well, I dunna know— they bin 
poor keffiU^ boath mon an' 'orse.' Cf. Drummil. .... * 

iiL [kel'], (1) 8b, the omentum, or caul, of a slaughtered pig. — 


' Bim or kell wherein the howels are lapi' — FloriOy p. 340, in Hal. 
Mr. Halliwell says kell means ' any covering like network.' 
* Kelle, RetictUum, retiaculum,^ — Prompt, Farv,^ p. 270. 
See Mr. Way's Note, idem. Cf. Veil. 

(2) »h. a film, or scale, on the eye ; a cataract. — Newport. An old 
man at Edgmond said of his wife, * 'Er*8 got a kell o* won oi, an' 'er's 
dark o' the tother.' 

KELTEB [kel'tur'1, (1) sb,, obsolsA wealth; accumulated money. — 
PuLYEBBATCH. '^The daughter'll be a ketch fur somebody, the owd 
chap 'as yeps o' kelter.* Jamieson has * kdteTf money.' 

(2) V. a. to amass ; to collect. — Ibid, ' I've bin out kelterin* all day, 
but got mighty little pelf.' 

KENCH [ken'sh], (l)8b. a twist or wrench, — a sprain. Com. *I 
thought it wuz on y a bit of a kenchy but agen momin' it wuz swelled 
as big as two, an' Dr. Wildin' said as theer wuz a splinter broke, an' 
I mim g56 o' my club, fur I shouldna be uprifrfur a month.' 

(2) sb, a big piece or lump. — ^Wem. ' The Missis give 'im a reet 
good kench o' bread an' chees', an' send 'im off.' Kenchin* is an 
altematiye term used in precisely the same way. Cf. Slench and 

SXNSPECBXE, adj, conspicuous — a term applied chiefly to dress. 
— Corte Dale. Probably an imported word. See Kenspeckhy in 

KEOTJP [ki'ou'p or kyou'p], (1) v, «. to bark, or yelp, incessantly, as 
a cur does. — Ptjlyerbatcii. ' I couldna got a bit o' sleep fur that 
dog kyoupin* all night.' 

(2^ sb. a yelping cur. — Ibid. * I 'ate thom lickle kyoups, they binna 
wutn thar keep, let alone payin' fur.' Cf. Keout. 

(3) V. n, by metaphor — ^to scold. — Ibid, *1 56dna live 65th that 
56man whadever 'er'd gie me — 'er kyoups from momin' till night.' 

(4) $b, a scold. — lUd, * The Missis wuz sich a kyoup,* 

KEOXTSE [k^ou's or kyou's], v. a, to chase ; to drive away. — 
Pulverbatch; Worthen; Clee Hills. *The pigs bin i* the 
garden — ^w'eer's the dog, to keoiise 'cm out ? ' Cf. Scout. 

KEOirr, KEOTJT-DOO [ki'ou't or kyou-t], ab, a little, sharp, vigilant, 
barking dog. — Pulverbatch ; Wem. * Snap's a rar* kyout, 'e oonna 
let nobody go$ nigh the 'ouse athout lettin' *em know.' 

Cf. ' Make bandog thy acoutwatchf to barke at a theefe.' — Tusser, 
Qood hutibandlie lessons, 1. 19, p. 20, ed. E. D. S. 

•O.Fr. eseouty estre en escout, Reenter attentivement, ^pier.' — Bub. 

Cf. Keoup (2). 

KEBLOCK [ki'er'iuk or kyer^luk], same as Kedlock, q. v.— Craven 
Arms; Clee Hills; Ll^low. 

KERBT, (1) sb, a clamorous inquiry about anything. — Whitchurch. 
* Theer wuz sich a kerry after it.' 


*O.Fr. querre; qu^rir, faire une enqu^te, dexnander, roqu^rir.* — 

(2) Bb. a noisy troop or pack, as of children or dogs. — ^Newport ; 
ELLEsaiERE. (1) 'Oh! 'ere*8 a kerry 6* lads; lef s run.' (2) 'Them 
ohildem bin like a kerry o' 'oun's up an' down the place.' 

KESIEBi sb, a form of the proper name ChriBtopher. — ^Nkwpobt. 

* he said, " come hither Ketter Norton, 

a ffine ff ellow thou seemes to bee ; 
some good councell, Kuter Norton, 
this day does thou giue to mee.'' ' 

Risingt in the North, IL 61—63. Percy Folio MS,, 
vol. ii p. 212, ed. Hales and Furniyall. 

Mr. Halliwell giyes *Kester' as a 'North* form, 

JUSTGH, (1) V. a., var, pr. to catch. Com. 

(2) sb, a part of a song. — ^Pulverbatch. < Whad sort of a fimsbin' 
night *ad'n*ee — ^pretty g(X)d singin' ? ' ' Aye, seyeral right good songs, 
beside a ketch or two ; out Mr. John Oakley's ** Pedlar Jew " wuz tne 
best thing I ever 'eard, an' the best sung.' 

' Come,^Ho8tis, giye us more Ale, and our Supper with what haste 
you may,* and when we haye sup'd, let's haye your Sone, Pisoator, 
and the Ketch that your Scholer promised us, or else Ooriaon will be 
doged.' — The Compleat Angler^ ch. xi. p. 208, ed. 1653* 

KETCH-O'-FBOST, sb. a slight hoar frost. Com. 'Theer wnz a 
bit of a ketch-o'-froa* last night, an' these w'ite frosses al'ays brings 
rain.' Gf. Duck's-frost. 

[kek's], sb, the dry stalk of the hemlock, and of some 
other species of umbelliferous plants. — Pulverbatch ; Wbllinotoh ; 
Weh. Qy. com. ' Ben, I toud yo' to brinff some kex in fdr spills ; 
yo' gwun at them matches as if they comen nir nuthin', but yo'n fine 
it out some dark momin* w'en theer is none.' 

* And as glowande gledes * gladieth nomte ]na workmen, 
pat worchen & wcuLon ' in wyntres nines. 
As doth a kex or a candel * ^at camte nath f3rre & blaseth.' 

Fiers PL, Text B., pas& xyiL L 219. 

* As hollow as a gun ; as a kex.* 

Eay's Proverbs, p. 222. 

See Way in Prompt. Parv., p. 278. W. cecye, hollow stalks; 

KETS [kai'z and kee'z], (1) sb. ph the clustering fniit of Frdxinus 
excSlsior, common Ash. Qy. com. 

* Jloe fraccinum, a kay of a nesche.' — Nominale, xy. cent, in Wr. 
yocabs., yoL i p. 228. riee Kay (1). 

S2) Bh. the fruit o{Acer Pseado-pkUanw, greater Maple, or Sycamore, 

(3) tib. ph, ob$.? iron tips used for shoeing bullocka — Corvs Dale* 
yTBH^ [kib'u'J, sb.f obsoU, a long walking-staff, held — ^not at the top, 


as an ordinary walking-stick is, but — in the middle, Hke an ' alpen- 
stock.' — Wem. Suck a stick was once quite common in Shropshire, 
and may still[1874] occasionally be seen. Cf. Qibbed-stick* See 
Kibble (3), in Hal. 

KIBBLE [kib'l], v, a, to crush, or grind, coarsely, as of barley, pease, 
&a Qy. com. ' P^t tiiat bag o' barley across the owd mar* an' tak' 
it to 'Abberley mill, an* get *em to kibble it aw'ile yo' stoppen, or we 
sha'n be short o' feed afore Sunday's o'er.' 

IllbBLETY fkibiti'l adj. stony, and, as a consequence, rough and 
jolting : said of roads.— Whitchurch. See Cobbles (1). 

EIBE, KITE [ki'eib], PuLVBBBATCH. [kei-bl, Clun. [kerv], 
Shrewsbttbt, 8b» an implement used by cot^ge gardeners for 
'stocking' up the groimd between the potato rows prior to the 
operation of earthing the potatoes. It is aoout a foot long, and four 
inches broad at the cutting end : the handle is three feet and a half 
in length. The form of the implement is similar to that of an adze, 
and it is used in the same way. Cf. Caif (1). 

KICKLE-STOHACH, sb, a squeamish stomach.— Wbm. See KeoUe- 

KID [kid*], (!) sh. SL bundle of small sticks for firewood. — ^Wbllingh 
ton; Newport; Wem. 

'Kyd, fsLgot Fa$m {fascicultu. P.). **A kidde ubi fagott." — 
Cath. Aitg. " Kydde, a fagotte, falovrde" — ^Palsq.' Frompt, Farv» 
and Note$. Cf. Fag^t (1). 

(2) V. a. and v. n. to make up bundles, or kidSf of small brush- 
wood for fuel — Ibid. * Yo' can cut that brash an' get it kidded.* 

KIDDLE [kid'l], If. n. to emit a flow of saliva from the mouth ; to 
slayer. Qy. com. ' The child kiddles badly cuttin' its tith, but I 
al'ays think it's best— they binna so likely fur fits.' 

KIDinrO-BIB [kid-K'n bib], sh. a baby's slavering-bib.— //nU 

* Hoc Bolmarium^ A* slayeryng-clout,' occurs in an English Vocabu- 
lary, xy. cent., in Wr. yocabs., yol. i. p. 203. 

KIDKAW [kid'mau], sh. the stomach of a calf prepared for rennet. 
— ^Worthbn, ThewaveU; Cbayei^Arms; Clun. C£ Mawskin. 


KILL, sh., var. pr. a kiln. Com. * They tellen me as them f urrin 
'tatoes bin ktU-diied afore they comen 'ere^ so they bin no good f^r 

'The kil house ^ is named in an Inventory . . . Owlbuxy Manor- 
House, Bishop's Casfl^ 1625. 

* The dog of the kill, 
He went to the mill 
To lick miU-dust : 


The miller he came 
With a stick on his back, — 
Home, dog, home ! 

J. 0. Hjlluwell*8 Nursery Ehymes of 
England, CCCLIX. 

♦Kylne (f)or malt dryynge {Kyll, P.). l\B)trina^ C. F.'— iVomjrf. 

KILLODDT [^il'odi*], v. a.» obs. to diy hemp-stalks over a fire made 
in a hole in the ground. (See below.) It was the first process in hemp 
dressing. — Pulvebbatch. See Tewter. 

KULODDT-PIT, «^, ofjs. the hole in the ground in which the fire 
was made for kiJloddying the hemp-stalks. — Ihid, There was a 
killoddy-pii on the ' Oreen ' at Castle Pulyerbatch : it was in use about 
the year 1800. ' I 'ear Medlicotfs lost another yeow i' the killoddy- 
pit ; it's a great 5dnder to me they dimna fill it up, it hanna bin used 
this ten *ear, an' this is the second — if nod the third — ^ip theVn 
fund djed in it.' The ' Oreen,' and the ' Oaken ' — an adjacent hiU— 
were formerly a sheep- walk. 

KILLOW [ki'l'oe], v. n,, ohsoU. to dry by the heat df the sun, as 
grass or herbs.— Pulyebbatch. (1) *The 'ay d^nna kiUow as lung 
as this weather lasses — it wants more sun.' (2) * Dunna shift them 
yarbs out o' the sun, they binna kiUowed anow.' C£ Glint (1). 

KIMET [ki'ei'mit and keinnit], (1) adj. dizzy : said of sheep that are 
suffering from hydatids on the brain. — PtTLVERBATCH ; Clun ; Cobvb 
Dale. * The Maister's killed the owd ship — ^we sha'n a kyimH mutton 
fur dinner an' kyimet pie fur supper — agen the end o* the wik we 
sha'n all be as kyimet as the ship.^ See below. Of. Old. 

(2) ad/, silly; half-witted.— Shbewsbitby; Pulvebbatch; Cltjn; 
Webi. * Thee bist as kyimet as a noud ship— turnin' round an' starrin' 
about fur things w'en they bin under yore nose.' 


they bin aVays so kimit ; I like a good nag's-yedded 

* When I com nar to Skeil-hiU, I fund oald Aberram Atchiseon 
sittin on a steul breckan steins to mend rwoads wid, an' I az't him 
if I med full my ledder pwokes frae his heap. Aberram was yarra 
kaim% an' tell't ma to tak' them 'at wasn't brocken if I wantit steins, 
sooa I teirt him hoo it was an' oa' aboot it.'— ' Joe and the G^logiBt,' 
in 7'he Folk-Speech of Cumberland, by A, C. Oibson, P. S. A., p. 4. 

Mr. Oibson adds the Olossarial 5fote, ^ Kaim't, literally crooked, 
but used to signify cross or peeyish.' 

The Cumberland kaim't and the Shropshire kimet point to an origin 
conmion to both. W. cam, crooked. Of. Xim-k&m, below. 

XIM-XAMy (1) adj. all awry. — Wellington. 

* Sic, This IB clean kam. 

Bru, Merely awry ' 

CorioiftHUSj III. i. 305. 



?) <^i' perverse. — ^Wem. * Let*8 a none o* yore kim-ham ways.* 
cam. Of. Ximet (3), above. 

SnnTEL, (1) sh, the shallow tub in which butter is washed and 
salted when fresh from the chum. — Newport. 

* Chum and kimnel,* — Auctioneer's Catalogue (Forton Hall), 1875, 
Cf. Butter-mit. 

(2) $b.t oha, a brewing vessel; a cooler (?\ 

' The Seller one hymnell . . . one small hymntll ... one tundish.' 
— Inventory . . . Owlbury Manor-House, Bishop's Castle, 1625. 

' He goth, and geteth him a kneding trough, 
And after a tubbe, and a kemelin,* 

Chauceb, C, T„ L 3622. 

' She's somewhat simple indeed, she knew not what a kimnel was, 
she wants good nurture mightily.* — Beaumont and Fletcher, The 
Coxcomb, iv. 7, in Narea 

Bay, amongst his * North Country Words,* gives *A Kimnel, or 
KemHn, a Powdering Tub.* 

* Kymlyne, or kelare, vesselle (kynlyn,, S. P*), Cunula. In a roll of 
2 — 5 £dw. I., among the miscellaneous records of the Queen's Bemem- 
brancer, a payment occurs, ^^ Stephano le loignur, pro j. Kemhelind 
suhtus cistemam Regis, vijd.*' The Latin-Engl. Vocabulary, Boy. MS. 
17, 0. xvii., ^ves, under the head **ad brasorium pertinencia,'Ky mneUe, 
cuna; Kunlione, cunella»** Thos. Harpham of York bequeaths, in 
1341, **unum plumbum, unam cunam, quoe vocatur maskefat, et duos 
parvas eunas quce vocantur gylefatts, duos kymelyns, et duos parvos 
barellos" — Testam. Ebor. i 3. ** Kynmell, quevue, quevuetie" — Palsq.' 
Prompt. Parv. and Notes, 

KZHD [kin-d], (1) v. a. and v. n. to ignite. — ^Whitchurch ; Elles- 
MERE. (1) ' I conna kind the fire wiim these chats, they binna dry.' 
(2) ' The nre wunna kind this momin', do whad I wull.' 
O.N. kynda, to set fire to. Cf. Tind. 

(2) [kei'nd], adj. genial; flourishiDg; thriving: — 'the groun's 
nice and kind; ' ' the plants dunna grow so kind under them trees ;* 
* the pig looks mighty Hnd: Com. Cf. Kindly (2). 

f 3) [koi'nd corr* kayh'nd], adj. healthy ; wholesome : said of the 
skm. — Newport. * 'Sir's got a noice koind skin on 'er own.* Cf. 
Clane (4). 

XnrDLE [kin-dl], (1) «&.— in kindle— \a to be with young. (1) Of 
rabbits. Com. (2) o&6o28. of kittens. — Pulyerbatch. 

' Kynled, or kynddyd in forthe bryngynge of yonge beestys. Fetatus.' 
--Prompt. Parv. Cf. Kittle (1). 

(2) V. n. to bring forth young. (1) Babbits. Com. (2) obsols. kittens. 
— ruLVERBATCH. 'Wha'n'ce think? — the cat's kindled in Betty's 
ban' -box an' spiled 'er best bonnit.' 

* Orlando, Are you native of this place P 

* Rosalind, As tne cony that you see dwell where she is kindled.'-^ 
As You Like It, III. u. 358. 

* Kyndlyn, or brynge forthe yonge kyndelyngj's. Feto. The expres- 
»ion '^genimina viperarum,'' Vulg., Luke iii. 7, is in the Wicuffite 


Tereion Tenderad '*KyndlyngiB of eddria. . . /' In the^^St. Alban's 
Book mention is made of '* a kyndyll of yonge ^cattes." Palagraye 

fives the verb to " kyndyll as a she hare or oonjr dothe, whan they 
ring forthe yonge." • . . Compare Germ, kindlein, pr6U$,^ — Pnmji, 
Part', and Notes, 
Cf. XitUe (2). 

KIVDLT [kei-ndli'l (1) adv, heartily. — Shrewsbury ; Pulvbrbatch. 
Uy. com. ' Well, X wuh yo* good-night, Miasia, an' thank yo' kindly 
fur me.' 

* The ground of al goodnea cnratia aohnld be the cause, 
And knyt hem kyndly togednr al the clerg6. 

With mero6 and with mekenee the trenth for to teche. 
The oomawndmentia of Crist to kepe kyndly 

ftote }e ben acheperdys al one.* 

JoHK At7DELAT*s Fotmi, p. 36. 


• •••«« 

In walks the little dog, 
Saya, " Pussy I are you there? 

• .*••• 
Mistress Pussy, how dVe do ? " 

" I thank you kindly^ little dog, 
I £bu« as well as you." * 

J. O. Halliwell's Nur §ery BhymM of 
England, DLXVIL 

(2) adv. well ; thriving.— Pulvbrbatch. Qy. com. • The yerlin« 
[yearlings] looken kindly, Mr. Jones, thev*n got a good slike [sleek] 
coat on 'em.' ' Aye, I fettled 'em well all winter, but w'ether they'll 
pay's a question.' Cf. ' Kuyndeliche ' = well, in tiie following:— 

< ** Peter I " quod a Plou3-Mon * and putte for|> his hed, 
** I knowe him as kuyndeliche * as Clerk do)> his bokes.'' ' 

PierB Fl, Text A., pass. vi. L 29. 

XIH ODOK-COME, eh. a state of pleasure in some new]y-acqTiire<i 
happiness,— Shbewsbttby ; Pulvbrbatch ; Wem. * Poor owd Betty'* 
in er kin'dom'come now *er's gotten Jack wham agen.* 

ZmOFISHEK, sh.y pec. CaUpteryz mrgo, Demoiselle Diagonflj--— 
Weic. C£ Sting-flaher. 

XIKO-O'-THE-WIK, sh. Friday, on which day it is popularly 
believed the weather will attain its climax, be it of shine or shower. 
— Pulvbrbatch. Qy. com. * Fair or foul, Friday's bound to be 

* Friday's a day as*ll &ve its trick. 
The fairest or foulest day i' the wik.' 

Proverbial Weather'Bin^i^ 

* Eight as the Friday, sothly for to telle, 
Now it Bch3rneth, now it reyneth faste^ 
Bight so gan gery Venus overcaste 


The bertes of liire folk, right as hiro day 
Is gerful, right so chaungeth sche array. 
Selde is the Fry day al the tvyke i-likeJ' 
Chauceb, The Knightes Tale, H 676—681, ed. Morris. 

KDITEE [kin-tur'], (1) sb. a cover. — ^Wellington. ''Er's done mo 
a bad turn under kinter on a good un.* 

(2) V, a. to cover. ' Kinter it o'er.* — Ibid, Ct Kiver. 

[kei'p and ki'ei'p], sh. a strong osier basket with a twisted 
handle on each side, of circular form, but wider at the top than the 
bottom : it is computed to hold about half a bushel, and is used for 

g moral gardening purposes. — Shsewsbuby ; Pttlyebbatch ; Corve 
ale; Collieby; Wem; Ellesmere. Til get owd Price in 
Coleham to mak* me a couple o* kipes the right mizzer, fur whad wo 
buy^n at the country shops 6dnna-d-oud 'af e a strike yept, let alone 
level fulL' 

Ash gives * Kipe (a local word), a basket in the form of the lower 
frustrum of a cone, containing about a bushel ; a coarse kind of wicker 
basket, wider at top than bottom.* 
See Xype in Weights and Measures, p. Ixzxv. Cf. Corve, also 

KIBBT, ah. a poor old horse. — Oswestry, Welsh Border, Cf. 
Xefrel (1). 

EISSINO-BXTSH, sh, a bunch of evergreens or mistletoe garnished 
with ribands and firuit, which is hung in the kitchen, or hall, at 
Christmas-tide. Qy. com. * It dunna look much like Chris'mas, nod 
a bit o* *olly an* iwv, let alone a kissin'-bush — scrat an* clane an* 
cook is all our folks thinken on.* 

KISSniO-CBXJST, sb, rough, protuberant crust on a loaf. Com. 
' I like a kissin^-crust 5dth plenty o* good fresh butter on it.* ' Aye^ 
the ems' is sweeter than the kissin\ I tak* it* 

JLLTCHEH, sb.f pee., obsoU, a large caldron or kettle furnished with 
a tap— designed to keep a supply of hot water by the kitchen fire — 
technically called a 'fountam.*— Pulverbatch. Qy. com. *Tak' 
car' to keep plenty o* waiter i' the kitchen, else yo*n 'ave it to-bost.' 

KITE, ah. Tinntinculus Alaudarins, the KestreLc— Oswestry. Cf. 

JuxLIHO, ab, a kitten. Qy. com. < The owd mar* 's as playful as 
a kiUin': 

* A wanton widow Leezie was, 

As cantio as a kittlin ; 
But Och ! that night, amang the shaws, 

She gat a fearfu* settlin ! 
She thro* the whins, an* by the cairn. 

An owre the hill gaed sorievin, 
Whare three lairds' lands met ai a bum. 
To dip her left sark-sleevo in, 

"Was bent that night.' 

Robert Burns, Poems, p. 47, 1. 20. 


Ash gives ' KiUing (not bo common a word), A kitten, a young cat 
' Kytlynge, CatilluB, c€Uunculu$. ** Catulua, a whelpe or a Kytlynge." 
— Ortus.* Projnpt Parv, and Notes, 

* CatuluSf . . a whelp, a kitling, the little yong of any beast'— 
Diet, Etf/m, LaL 

* Chaion, petit chat ; kitten, a kittling,* — Chamb. 

KITTLE [kitl], (1) «fc.— in kit fie— is the state of being with young: 
8aid of cats. Qy. com. Cf. Kindle (1). 

(2^ V. a. to bring forth ' kitlin^.' Qy. com. 

' A Cat kittleth; a Litter of kittleings.' — Academy of Armory ^ Bk. 
n. ch. vii. p. 134. 



\ youxi^ cats. Caller^ to kittle as 

a cat. Fairt set pttits, to whelp, kittle^ kindle, farrow," &c. — CoTO/ 

Way, in Prompt, Parv,^ p. 277. 

* Cfl Kindle (2). 

KITE. See Kibe. 

KIVEB [kivur*], (1) p. «. to cover. — Clun. Tve jest kivered the 
baflket o'er.* 

In Rev, xix. 8, the Wicliffite version— ed. A.D. 1388 — ^has, * And it 
is puun to hir, that sche kyuere hir with white bissyn schynynge.' 

(2) sb. a cover — * put the kiver on.' — Cuts ; Cobvb Dale ; Bbido- 
KORTH ; Much Wenlock. 

(3) $h.f ohsoh. a shallow meat-dish of coarse, brown earthenware.— 
PuLYERBATCH ; Ellesme&e. * Put the men's dinner i* the oven to 
keep whot, an' wauve the kiver o'er it.' The term is fast dying out. 
A redundant form, kiver^dish, is occasionally employed about Pulver- 

KKAB [nab*], v, a. to bite gently and playfully. Horses hiab each 
other when m good temper. Qy. com. Du. knahhehn^ to gnaw. 

KVABBIV', sb. a bite of herbage ; short pasture. — ^Pulverbatch. 

* Yo' can turn the cows i' the little fild — theer's tidy knabhin on it— 
awilde the edgrow gets a bit strunger.' Cf. Brooit. 

KHACKEB Fnak'ur'l, sb. a worn-out horse quite unfit for work. 
Qy. com. * If 'e tak s that poor owd knacker to markit agen, 'e*ll a the 
p'lice on 'im fur cruelty.' 

Ray gives * A knacker y One that makes Collars and other Furniture 
for Cart-horses,' amongst * South and East Country Words.^ 

Mr. Wedgwood says, ' It would seem that the office of idaughteriiig 
old worn-out hordes fell to the knacker or coarse harness-maker, as 
the person who would have the best opportunity of making the skins 

Hence, then, the application of the term knacker to a horse fit onlv 
for the knacker's slauffbter -house— the knacker* s-yard, as it is called. 
Cf. O.N. knackr^ a saddle, 

KHAD fnad*], pret. and part, past, ohtoh, kneaded. — Pulverbatch. 

* This bread's knad too stiff, it'll be as 'ard as a cobbler's w'et-stwun 
afore the wik's out' Cf. Kned. 


KNAOOY [nag-r], adj. cross ; ill-tempered. Com. * I should think 
the owd fellow's put 'is clogs on the wrang fit this momin' — 'e's as 
knaggy as 'e knows *ow to bo.' 
Dan. knag^ a knot. Cf. Nag (1). 

KNAP [nap*], (1) «&. a low hill; a mound. — Pulverbatch. There 
is a little round hill at Castle Pulverbatch called the hnap ; it is one 
of two mounds which appear to have been thrown up and entrenched ; 
the other — lower than the hnapy and square in form — is called the 
' Castle Ring.' They are contiguous, and surmount a natural steep. 

' 1543. 5 March. Agnes, daughter of John Chistoke departed, 
somtyme deacon or Clerk of this Churche, who departed of the 
pestilens the first day of September in the er of our Ix>rd God 
MDxxxij, who was a full honest server of the Churche and taught 
scolers playne song & prick song full well, so that the Churche was 
well served in his tyme ; buryed he was in the churche yard on the 
hnapp uppon the right hand as ye entre into the Porche, abowte vij 
cloth yards fro the porch whose sowle God Almighty take to mcy. 
Amen.' — Register of Sir Thomas Botelery Vicar of Much Wenlock. 

Knap is applied to a hill-top in the following : — * And both these 
riuers running in one, carying a swift streame, doe make the knappe 
of the said hill very strong of situation to lodge a campe vpon.'— 
Nohth's Plutarch, Sylla, p. 607, in Bible Word-Book, p. 285. 

Cf. Nab Scar = Knap Scar Topposite Grasmere). 

Ash gives ' Knap, a little hill rising on all sides.* 

• W. cnap, a knob, hill.' — Strat. 

(2) »b. a slight blow. — Bishop's Castle; Clun. *'E gid 'im a 
knap o* the yad 6oth a stick.' 

Jamieson has this word in the same sense.- Tusser employs it as a 
verb : * Knap boy on the thums.' 

Du. knappen, to crack. See Knoup. 

KNAP-KNEED, adj, knock-kneed. — Pulverbatch. * I've 'eard as 
"a friend in need is a friend indeed," so one met say as poor owd 
Ben's a friend in-kneed, or whad they callen knap^kneedJ 

KNATTEB [nat'ur'J, v. n, to find fault incessantly about trifles. — 
Pulverbatch. * I wish yo' 66dna knatter all the wilde about nuthin', 
the poor wench dunna know whad to do to be right — 'er's farly cowed 

KN ATTEBED, jmrf. adj. peevish ; irritable. — Newport ; Wem. 

KHEADINO-HIT, sh. a four-sided wooden vessel used for kneading 
purposes : it is longer than broad, and narrower at the bottom than 
the top, and is furnished at each end with a close-fitting handle by 
which to carry it. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch.. Qy. com. Some- 
times it is called by one or other of the older terms, kneading-trow, or 
kneading-tumel. See below. 

KNEASING-TBOW [tr'oa*], sh., ohsoh. a thing similar in shape to 
the kneading-mit above, but much bigger, in fact, it is a rude piece 
of furniture, standing on four legs, having a (detached) flat lid which 
fits closely on to it, so that when covered it serves as a table, and is 
about the height of one. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch. 




An Inventory dated at Aston Botterell, about 1758, comprises 
* 1 Neading Troa/e,* 

* Anon go get us fast into this in 
A kneding trough or elles a kenielyn» 
For eche of us ; but loke that they ben large. 
In which we mowen swimme as in a barge.' 

Chaucer, C, T., 1. 3548. 

See Oh (2) (4) in Qramxnar OutlineB {consonants), 

ENEADIVO-TXTSHEL, sb., obsols, same as Eneading-trow, above. 
— Newport ; Wem ; Ellesmere. Of. TumeL 

KHED, same as Knad, q. v. — ^Worthen. A.S. cnedan^ to knead ; 
p. p. cneden^ 

'ftve to be broke agen, to be piit straight.' 

* The verb to knit is used oy old writers in the sense of to unite. 
Thus in Sloane MS. 3548, 1 99, 5. is given an extraordinary nostrum 
'* for to knyt synous |»at are brokyne. Take greyte wormes J>at are 
called angeltwycthys, and lat hem dry in J^e sunne, and J^en beyte 
hem to powder, and strew {'at powder in |>e wounde* and yt shfdl 
knytte to-geder. Frohatum est sepissimeJ*^ ' — Way, in Prompt, Parv.y 
p. 279. 

A.S. cnyttan, to tie ; to make a knot. See below. 

(2) V. o. to join, or close, firmly together. — Pulverbatck. ' Wen 
a mon knits his lips athatn, it shewn s the temperas none o' the best.' 

*^Knyttynge, or ioynynge, or rabetynge to-gedyr of ^ bordys, or 
ojjer lyke. Oum/us.* — Prompt, Parv. 

(3) V. n, to set, or form, for fruit, as blossoms do. — Pulverbatch ; 
Newport. ' I think theer*ll be a good 'it o* apples this time — they 
eeemen to be knit like traces o' Inions.' 

* It is better to knit than blossom.* 

Ray's Proverbs, p. 127. 

* Knyttynge to-gedyr, Nodacio, connodado, connexusj — Prompt, Parv, 

* Nodo, to knit or tie knots, to button.' — Did. Etym, Lat, 

(4) V, n. to cluster, or hang, together, as bees do in swarming. — 
Pulverbatch ; Newport. * I never like to see the bees knit on the 
ground— if s a sure sign of a berrin.' 

Compare Judges xx. 11 : ' They were all knit togetJier as one man/ 

KHIVES AlTD F0EE8, ab, Lycopodium davatum, common Club- 
moss. — Clun, Bopton Castle. Cf. Lamb's-tails. 

XITOBBLE [nob'l], v. a. to hammer ; to knock, but not forcibly. — 
PlTLVERBATCH. ' My Grandmother's knobhled me many a time 66th 
the wil-pin [wheel-pin] Veu I hanna carded the zolla well,' said 
Hannah Bevan [1879], 

KNOCKING AfiOITT, iihr, a common every-day expression, which 
takes in a wide range of meaning — a number of people moving about, 
goi])g hither and thither, are said to be ' knocking about ; * things 


incapable of motion are ' knocking about the place ; ' cnrrent rumours, 
&c., are equally * knocking ahoui;* as, for example, when an old 
ballad-tune was sought to be recovered, an inquiry about it was met 
by the assurance that ' it was knockin* abotU the country, an' some- 
body wuz safe to get it.' 

KHOOB. See Vogfl. 

KHOPPLE [nop'l], (1) V. n. to rule ; to be the head over. — Pulvbr« 
BATCH. * '£ flhanna knopple o'er me.' Gf. A.S. cnaeppy top, in Stbat. 

(2) bI, a small lump. — ^Wobthen. * Cut me a tidy piece o' bread 
an' a nice knopple o' cheese.' 

• O.Du, knoppe (nodiM, huHa^ gtmma), knop, button, bud.' — Stbat. 

KB or. See Posy-knot 

KHOUP [nou-pl V. a. to toll the church-bell. — Clbb Hills. ' 'E's 
on'^ knouped the bell seven times, so 'e'll on'y be 'ere seven year.' 
This observation bore reference to a current belief that when- 
according to the rites of induction — a clergyman tolls the bell on 
being put into possession of his church, the number of years he will 
hold tne living are {are-told by the same number of strokes on the belL 
Knoup is evidently a corrupted form of M.E. knap, to strike, used in 
the sense of to toll in the following : — * 

* M. Mery, . • • fiirewell Roger olde knaue, 
Gbod night Roger olde knaue, knaue knap. 
Pray for the late maister Roister Bolsters soule, 

Ana come forth parish Clarke, let the passing bell toll* 
Pray for your mayster sirs, and for hym rin^ a peale.' 

Router Doitteff Act. lij. So. i^'. p. 46. 
C£ Snap (2). 

KNOW TO, phr. to know the whereabouts of a thing — a more 
definite expression than know of, which is understood to mean rather 
the knowledge that a certain thing is somewhere, than that it is 
in any particular spot. Com. 'Dost 'ee know to the brummock, 
Dick ? ' ' Aye, I sid the wench '2lve it jest now — outtin' sticks fur the 

KHTJBL [nurl'l, (1) sh. a knot in timber. — Pulverbatch; Wbm. 
' Tak' it a bit lower, yo' canna saw through that knurl, it's *' as 'ard 
as brazil" ' 

* NoduB, a knot, a knurl, . .'■»— Dtcf. Etym, Lai, 
8w. knorla, to twist. 

(2) $h. a short, stiff, thick-set person. — Atoham; Pttlyebbatoh ; 
Wem. ' Whad a stumpy knurl Dick keeps ! — 'e dunna erow a bit.' 
' 'E may well be a knurl, 'is nasty owd Faither*s punned im into the 
yerth aumust.' Chaucer has ' knarre* in the same sense : — 

* The Mellebe was a stout carl for the nones, 
Ful big he was of braun, and eek of boones ; 

He was schort schuldred, brood, a thikke knarrej 

The Prologue, L M9, ed* Morris. 



' In Homei^B craffc Jock ^Glton thrivee ; 
Eschylufi' pen Will Shakespeare driyee ; 
Wee J?opey the knurlin, 'tiU him riyes 

Horatian fame ; 
In thy sweet sang, Barbauld, suryiyes 

Even Sappho's flame/ 
BoBSBT BuBNS, Poems, p. 114, L 15. 

XVTTBLED, adj, stunted ; dwarfed. — PuLyBRBATOH. ^ The cabbitch 
dunna come on kindly, they bin all knotted an' knurled — ^theei's no 
growth in 'em,' 

KOLIHO rkoa-linl, sK a rough-tasting apple, like tho crab, found in 

KTEKLOCK. See KerlociL 

KTOITF. See Keoup. 

KTOTTSE. See Keonse. 

XTOTTT. See Keout 

KTPB. See Kipe. 

STYE. BeeSiTe. 

LACE, V. a, to beat; to thrash. — ^PuLyERBATCH ; Cravbn Arms. 
Qy. com. * If that lad wuz mine I'd lace 'im as lung as I could stand 
o'er 'im.' 

Pegge giyes * Lace, to thresh a person, ''I laced his jacket for 
him.'^ l^rth.' Cf. Leather. 

LADE-OATJV, same as Oaun (2), q. y. — Newport. See Ladt/n% 
with Way's note, in Prompt, Parv,y p. 283. 

* A.S. hladan; O.H.Qerm. {h)ladan; O.IceL hla^a, to lade [= to 

LADIES AHD OEHTLEHEV, eh. the flower-spikes of Arum macu- 
Mum.~SHBEW8BX7RT. Cf. Devil's Men and Women. See Cows 
and Cauves. 

LADIES'-PUKSES, ^. pi. the flowers of the Calceolaria. Qy. com, 

LAD-LICKEDy part. adj. beaten, yanquished by a youth. — ^PuLyKR- 
BATcn. * So some o' the owd warriors fyillage pugilists] got beaten, 
I 'ear.' ' A]^e, the owd nns bin 'ard-nsted, but the young uns bin 
nimble, yo' sin, an' so owd Jim got lad-licked.* See Lick (1). 

LAD'S-LOVE, sb. Artemisia abrotanum, Southern-wood. — PuLysR- 
BATCH. Qy. com. Of. Old-Kan. 

LADY-COW, sb. Coccinella septem pimdata^ the Lady-b^ — 
Shrewsbttry ; Wem. Qy, com. 

* Lady 'COW, lady-cow, fly thy way home, 
Thy house is on fire, thy dbildren all gone, 
All but one that lie;s under a stone, 
Flythee home, laay^eow, ere it be gone.' 
J. O.JSalltwell's Nur$ery Rhymes o/ England, DXXXm. 


Mr. HaUiwell says the foregoing stanza 'is of yery considerable 
antiquity, and is common in Torksnire.' 

Mr. Wedgwood remarks that 'the comparison of a beetle to a 
cow seems strange, but in other cases the names of certain animals 
are given to insects of different kinds/ and he instances the large 
black beetle — 'The Devil's Coach-horse' [q.v. ante], called in O.N. 
Jotun-oxif tiie Giant's ox. He says, * The name Lady-bird — rapidly 
supplanting that of Lady- Cow — ^was probably given to the pretty 
little beetle which bears it as being more appropriate to a flying 
creature ; ' but adds that * bird here may be a corruption of bode, or 
budf a name given to insects of different yanda—aham-bode, dung- 
beetle, wool-bode, hairy caterpillar.' He gives as his authority for 
this, ' E. Adams on names of insects in Philolog. Trans.' 

See God-A'mighty's Lady-Gow. 

XADY-GLOVE, eh. Digitalis purpurea, purple Foxglove. — ^Ellbs- 
MEKE. One of the French names for the Digitalis is ' ganU de notre 
Dame.' See Lady's-fingers, below. 

XADY-0BA8S, sh. Dactylia elegant issima^ variegated Cocksfoot- 
grass; the striped 'riband-grass' of the garden. Qy. com. Cf, 

LADTS-FIHOEES, sh. same as Lady-gloTe.— Clun. So likewise 
in French it is ' doigts de la Vierge.* 

LABY-SMOCKi Cardaniine pratengis, common Bitter-ciess. Com. 

' When daisies pied and violets blue 
And lady-smocks all silver white 
And cuckoo-buds of yellow hue 

Do paint the meadows with delight.' 

Lov^s Labour Lost, Y. ii. (f,he Song). 

'This plant (Cardamine) is called in English Cuckowe-flower, at the 
Namptwich in Cheshire, where I had my beginning, Ladie Smocks, 
which hath eiuen me cause to Christen it after my Countrey fashion.' 
— Oebabde^ HerbaU, Bk. II. p. 261. 

' Looking down the Meadows, [I] could see here a Boy gatheiing 
Lillies and Lady-smocks, and there a Girle cropping CulvenLcys and 
Cowslips all to make Garlands suitable to this pleasant Month of 
May.' — The Compleat Analer, ch. xi. p. 214, ed. 1663. 

* Ladies Smock, an Herbi otherwise called Cuckoo Flower,* — ^Bailet, 
ed. 1727. 

LADTS-BIBAHDS, same as Lady-grau, q. v. — ^Pulverbatch. Cf. 

LADY- WITH-THE-TEir -FLOUHCES , the Goldfinch. — Clun. 
Children's term. Cf Sheriff's-Man, See Jack-Nicol. 

LAO [lag'], V. n. to fall behind ; to come slowly on ; to retard. Com. 
'Now then, come alung; 'ou yo' done lag behind.' 

* Then farre behind they come I troe, that strive to run before. 
We mubt goe lagging on, as legges and limmes were lame.' 

Chtjbchyakd*b Poems, p. 68, 1. 27. 

The slow movements of geese coming up from pasture are accelerated 
by the call * lug, lag, lag* See Call- words. 

R 2 


'W. llag^ loose; 'slack; sluggish. Gael, lag, feeble; faint,' in 
Wedo. See Lag-last, below. 

LAO-EITD, (1) sb, the heaviest portion, either of work or of weight. 
—PULVEKBATCH. * Yo* al'ays gin me the lag-end o' the sack.' 

i2) the remainder; the latter end. — Pulyerbatch. 'Poor ond 
ow ! it's very 'ard to know want at the lag-end on 'is days.* 

* Wor. . . I could be well content 
To entertain the lag-end of mv life 
With quiet hours. .... 

1 K. Henry /K, V. L 24. 

LAGOEITS, sh. pLy ohsols. refuse pieces and strips of wood, used to 
* line out' — i. c. make level — ^a'roof, under the tiles. ^—Bbidoitobth. 

LAOOEBHEflTS, sh. pi,, ohsols, fragments ; odds and ends of pieces 
left from work. — Pulvbrbatch. * Pick up yore laggerments, they bin 
all o'er the 'ouse.' Cf. Libbets. 

LAO-IiAST, sh. a loiterer. Com. 'Now then, shift yore fit; I 
warrant yo' bin al'ays lag-last,* Compare K, Richard 111., II. i. 90. 

LAMBS' -TAILS, sh, same as Knives and Forks, q. v. — Cusv, 

Hopton Castle, 

LAKB-TAILS, sh. the catkins of Corylus AveUana — ^Hazel and 
Filbert trees. — Shrewsbtjby; Pulvebbatch. 

LAMKAS-PLTJH, sh. a dark, purple plum, which has its 'due 
season ' for becomi ng ripe at Lammas-tide — the first week in August. 
— Pulvbrbatch ; Wbm. * Whad bin yo' atin', Jack ? ' * On'y a bit 
o' glue off the Lammas-plum tree.' See Glue. 

LAMMEL [lam'il], v. a. to beat — a school-boy's term. — ^Wesllino- 
TON. Qy. com. 

Bailey — ed. 1782 — ogives 'To Lamm, to baste one's Shoulders, to 
drub one.' 

'O.N. lemja, to give a sound drubbing; N, Icemja, to beat,' 
in Wedq. 

IiAB'DBAXE [lan'dr'aik], sh., var. pr. the Landrail. — Clun ; Bbidg- 
KOBTH. See Corncrake. 

LAHOET [lang'it], (1) sh. the iron socket into which the * tree ' of a 
spade fits. — I^lvebbatch ; Bishop's Castle ; Clun. 

(2) sh. a somewhat long and narrow iron stay, such as is used in 
securing a ' hurter ' to the axle-tree of a tumbreL — Pulveebatch. 

' Langate or Languet (from the Fr. langue, a tongue), a long and 
narrow piece of lana or other thing.' — Blount's Oloasographia, p. 363. 

Grose has ' Langot (of the shoe), the strap of the shoe. N.' 

LAhtua [lan'tun], sh., var. pr, a lantern. Qy. com. Cf. Lontnn. 

LAVTUN-FirFF, same as Lontan-pnf^ q. v.— Weic. 

LAP [lap], V. a. to fold; to wrap; to envelop. Com. (1) "Ere, 
lap that *ankercher up afore yo' piitten it away.' (2) 'Fatch my 
5dllen shawl to lap round the child — itll be starved gwein o'er the 
'ill, fur it's a mighty cowd night' 


' |>aii wist William wel * bi )>e bestes wiUe, 
i>at lie ]fe hert & fte hinde * hade t^ere slayne, 
>»^Tn & his loueliche lemman * to lappe in )>e skinnes.' 

William o/Faleme, L 2576. 

The Y^diffite yersion — ed. A.D. 1388 — ^has, * And whanne the bodi 
was takun, Joseph lappide it in a dene sendel.' — Matt, xxvii. 29. 

* Lappyh\ or whappyn' yn clo^ys (happyn to-gedyr, S, wrap to- 
geder in clothes, P.). Involvo, ** Flica, to folde, or lappe. Volvo, to 
tume, or lappe." — Med. Palsgrave gives the following phrases : 
** Lappe this cnylde well, for the weather is colde, enudopez bien, &o. 
Lappe this hoode aboute your head, affubley vous de ce chaperon,** * — > 
Prompt. Parv. and Notes, 

See Lapt, below. 

LAPE [lai'pl, V, a. to lap with the tongue, as dogs, &c. — Whit- 
ckuboh; Ellesmere. 

' And if hym Ivst for to lafe * )>e lawe of kvnde wolde 
That he dronke at oche diche * ar he for thurste deyde.' 

Piere PI, Text B., pass. xx. L 18. 
O.Du. lapen, Idem, 

LAPESIHO [lai'pu'sin], part. pres. dabbling, as in water or ' slop ' of 
any kind.--!ELLE8MEBE. *Them childem bin al'ays lapesin* i* the 
waiter ; I never seed the like on 'em.' 

LAPPED O'EB TOHaXTE, pUr., sU tasted; drunk. — Atohah ; 
Ellesmehe. Qy. com. ' It's as good drink as iver wuz lapped o'er 

LAPT, part. adj. folded ; inwrapped ; enclosed ; enveloped. Com. 

11) ' Han'ee lapi them tuthree things in a good strung paper as 6dnna 
le likely to-bost ? ' (2) *The poor child's scauded 'er fiit despertly.' 
• WhaVee piit to it 'r * Well, we'n lapt it round 66th traicle an' 
flour, it's the best remeddy theer is fur fatchin' the fire out.' 

' The towne is built, as in a pit it were, 
By water side, all lapt about with hill.* 
Ohubghtard's Poems, p. 70, L 2. (Towne of Breakenoke.) 

' Here doth two Corpse lie sleeping here, 
The Husband & the Wife most dear, 
Lapt up in Clay they must remain 
Till Clmst doth call them out again.' 

Epitaph in Clungun/ord Churchyard, 

' '' OhvolvOf to lappe about. Involutus, i, circumdatus, lapped or 
wrapped. Involutio, a lappynge in." — Obtus. **To lappe, volvere, 
convotvefe. To lapp in, intricare, involvere" &c. — Cath. Ano. This 
verb is used most commonly in the sense of wrapping as a garment.' 
— ^Way, in Prompt Parv, 

See Lap, above. 

LARK-HEELED, adj. having a long projecting heel — Pulverbatch. 
Qy. com. 'Bin yo' sure yo'n got the instep o' that stockin' wide 
enough P— 'cause Charlie's rather lark-eeVd, yo' knowen.* 

LABV. See Leam. 

LABBAHCE [laar^'uns], <(., var, pr, the 'Genius* of idle people. 


They are said to have Larranee on their back. Com. ^ ' That chap*s 
got Larranee on H$ back, 'e dunna do *afe a nour^s work in a day.* 

LABSVlt Paar^'am], «6., var. pr. the alarum of a clock. Qy. com. 
* Dick, yo' mind an get up w'en yo' 'ear the larrum,' * las, Miaais'— 
but Dick muttered to himself — 'I get too much larrum [scolding], so 
be'appen I shanna 'ear it ! ' 

LABBVP [laar^'up], v, a. to beat. — Oswestrt. 

' Du. larpt a lash ; larpen^ to thresh in a peculiar manner, bringing 
all the flails to the gfround at once. — Bomhoff,' in Wkdo. 

LABBT [laai^'i'], sh. a confused noise, as of a number of people all 
talking together. — Pulyb&batch. * I 'eard a fine larrtf W night- 
folks gweKn down the Moat lane.* 

LAT [lat*], (1) «&. a lath. Ck)nL Usoally heard in the plural form — 
' one o' them laU,^ 

* LatcUf* explained by Mr. Wright as * laths,* occurs in The Didion^ 
artui of John de Oariande, first h/Af xiii cent., in Wr. yocabs., yoL L 
p. 137. 

' A.a laUa ; O.Du. laUe ; O.H.Germ. laUa, lat (lath), cmmt,' in St&at. 

(2) adj, slow ; tedious. Com. ' Yo*n find it a M job to shift all 
them *urdles by yoreself.' 

« ^nne com |»e kyng Eualao * and fuUouht askes; 
In pe nome of l^e mder * loseph him folwede. 
Called him Mordreyns * *' a Mrf mon" in trou)>e/ 

Joeeph of Arimathie, L 695. 

Mr. Skeat gives the following Glossarial Note, p. 65 : — ' Mordreyns 
is explained to mean " tardieus en creanche,** slow of belief. A lat 
mon = a slow or sluggish man ; lit. a late man.' 

«A.S. last; O.Sax. lai; O.Icel latr; Goth. laU, lat; iardue,' in 

r3) adj. backward ; late. — Shbewsbtjby ; Pulvebbatch. Qy. com. 
'Mr. Clarke's doats bin lot, but they wunna sowed tell after May- 
' Daj, an' the M6at-'all groun' 's never very yarly — an' as the owd 
saym' is — '' lat sowin' mak's lat mowin'." ' See I<at-time, 

LATCH, V. a. to survey the underground workings of a mine, Qy* 
com.— M. T, Called dialling in Derbyshire. 

LATHEB riaadh-ur'], (!)"«&, var. pr. ja ladder. Com. 

' 2*he varte howae, two tumbrels with bare wheeles, fowre latJters, 
twelve Gutter powles for the Water Course.' — Inventory . . • Owlbury 
Manor-House, Bishop's Castle, 1625. A.S. Icsdder, Idem. 

(2) [laa'dhur*], adv,, oheoU. rather.— Pulyekbatch* Cf. Lother. 

LATHT riath'i'], (1) adj. thin; spare of frame. — ^Pulvkbbatch. 'I 
think o pfittin; Jim to a trade, Vs a poor lathy lad — nod fit f^ 'ard 
* Lelhy or weyke, Flexibilia'— iVomp*. Parv, 

(2) adj\ light and poor in the ear : said of grain. — Ibid, * If U be 
a poor ild this time, the ears bin despert lathy an' green.' Cf 


LATITAT [lati'tat], bK^ oheols. senseless talk. — Pulverbatch. ' Kone 
o* yore UUitat; j& bin about as wise as a snckin' gtilly.' 

LATHESS, same as Lattanoe, below. — ^Ellesmbrb. 

LATTAVCE, sb. an impediment in the speech. — Pulvbrbatch; 
Wem. ' It's a sad denial to the poor lad '&vin' sich a lattance in 'is 
speech.'^ ' Ah I 'e can swar fast enough.' iMt, with a kindred mean- 
ing of hindrance, occurs in the following : — 

' ** And as that I am feithful knvcht and trew. 
At nycht to vow I enter fhall sjaine. 
But if that ^th or other lai oertan, 
Throw wich I [may] have fuch Impediment, 
That I be hold, magre myne entent." ' 

Lancdd of the Lath, 1. 958. 
A.S. ketan, to hinder. 

JJlTTESISQ [Iat*nin], part. adj. retarding. — ^Pulvbrbatch ; Wem. 
« This oowd weather's mighty latl^nin' to the tillin'.' 
A.S. Icetan. See Lattin', below. 

LATTEBKATH [lat*ur'muth], sb. same as Aftermath, q. y.--LuDL0W. 
• Whad sort'n &laUermuth han yo' P ' 
' Lateward hay, laiermatk.' — noUyban^$ Dictionaries 1593, in Hai*. 
A.S. lator^ later ; and A.S. base, matt. 

LAT-TIME, sb, a backward season. — Shrewsburt; Pulvbrbatch. 
Qy. com. ' It's a many 'ears sence we 'ad'n sich a lat-iime as this 
[1879] — ^I remember one 'ear w'en the damsons wun as green as grass 
at Churton Wakes [1st Sunday after Sep. 27th], but that mus' be 
forty 'ear ago, or close upon it ' [1839 P]. Gf. Lat (3). 

LATTin*, part. ojdj. hindering — 'the rain is very lattin'.' — Clek 
Hills. Of. Lattening. 

LAXTOHIVO-BIBD, sb. the Green Woodpecker.— Weh. See EcaU. 

LAWN [lau'n], eb.^ obsols. a term still employed by some of the older 

gentry to designate the park-like area which is ac^acent to their 
ouses, and through which mna an approach, formerly called the 
'coach-road' — now, the 'carriage-drive (at Berwick this has an 
extent of half a mile or thereabout). — Shrewsbury,* Newport; 
Oswestry. Qy. com. The laum is distinguished from the park 
proper by having no deer in it ; the home stock graze its pasture, 
out when its acreage is very extensive it is occasionallv let as a 
' ley ' — as at Berwick. * 1 canna tell who rents Berwick faum sence 
Mr. Goush o' Gravel 'HI 'eld it, but I sid a lot o' ship an' cattle i' the 
park as I went by, an mighty good sorted things they wun.' 

' " And ^us I went wide-whore * walkyng myne one^ 
By a wUde wildemesse * and hi a wode-syde, 
Biisse of (k) briddes * [abyde me made,] 
And vnder a lynde vppon a launde * lened I a stounde, 
To lythe ye layee * ^ iouely foules made." ' 

Piere PL, Text B., pass. viii. 1, 6^. 


' clothed al in gteene» 

On honting be thay riden ryallT. 
And to the groTe, that stood ful faste by, 
In which ther was an hert as men him tolde, 
Duk Theseus the streyte wey hath holde. 
And to the launde he rydeth him ful righte, 
For thider was the heix wont have his nighte.' 

Chaucer, The Knighles Tale, 1. 833, ed. Morris. 

' First Keeper. Under this thick-grown brake we'll shroud ouraelyes ; 
For through this laund anon the deer will come ; 
And in this ooyert will we make our stand. 
Culling the principal of all the deer.* — 3 K. Henry VL, HL i. 2. 

* then went they downe into the Laumdc 
these Noblemen all 3 
eche of them slew a hart of greece 
they beet that they cold see.' 

Adam BeU, Clime of the Cloughe, and WiUiam of 
CUmdeslee, I 419. Percy Folio MS., vol iiL 
p. 92, ed. Hales and FumiyalL 

Mr. Fumiyall gives a footnote : — ' Lavmde, a dear space in a forest,* 
A Glossarial Note — ^p. 658 — ^by Mr. Viles, says — * ** Lawne, a plain, 
untiUed ground." — J3i*«o&ar'« Did., 1656,' and adds, [other] 'old 
dictionaries define laund, ** a piece of ground that neyer was tilled," * 
and instances * Oaken Lawn, a rugged common bordering Salop oa 
the Staffordshire side. 

Granted the foregoing, it seems probable that a &rm called the 
Lawn, situated midway oetween Castle Fulverbatch and Habberley 
(Salop), has retained the ap[>ellation it bore when jet 'untilled 
ground.' A rabbit-warren which skirts it on one side is known as 
the * Lawn Hill.' 

Ash gives * Lawn, an open space between woods.' 

Bailey — ed. 1782 — ^has * Lawn, a great Plain in a Park, or between 
two Woods.' 

* Lawnde of a wode. Saltus, Camden, in his Bemains, explains 
laund as signifying a plain among trees. Thus in the account of the 
hunting expedition, I})omvdon, 383, the Queen's pavilion was pitched 
at a ** laund on hight,'' wnence she might command a view of all the 

game of the forest **Indago, a parke, a huntyng place, or a 

. lawnde."— Oetus. **A lawnde, eaUusr^CATH. Awo. ** Launde a 
playne, launde,'* — ^Palso. *' Lande, a land or launde, a wUd untHled 
shrubbie or bushy plaine." — CoTO.' Prompt, Parv, and Notes, 

W. Uan, a dear space. 

LAWTEB [lau'tur'], sh. the complement of eggs for a 'sitting' laid 
by the mother-bird before she broods : a term of the poultry-yard. — 
Shrewsbxtby; PtJLVBRBATOH ; Worthen; Wellington; Wbm. 
' 'Er's a capital goose, 'er brought twelve gullies the first hetch, an' 
'er's laid seven e^^ o' the secont lawter,* 
Grose gives ' Laster, or Lawter, thirteen eggs to set a hen. N.' 

LAT, V. a. This term, when applied to a thorn-hedge, means, to renew 
it by cutting it down on both sides, hewing out the old wood and 
stumps, leaving— or placing — standards at given distances, and then — 



haying first carefully split them lengthwise — laying down the young 
shoots, intertwining them basket-fashion between the uprights. — 
Newpobt; T^T.T.TtRirRTMe. CI FleaclL 

LAYEBS, sb, pi. the quick-thorn shoots which are laid down to 

form the hedge. — Ibid, 

* PI. D, hge, a row of things laid in order . • • afleger, a layer or 

offset of a plant laid in the ground to strike root.' — ^Wedo. 
« Cf. Pleachera. 

LATLOC [lai'luk], (1) «&., Syringa vulgaris, common Lilac. 
Qy. conu 

' Then all comes crowdin' in ; afore you think 
The oak-buds mist the side-hill woods with pink, 
The cat-bird in the lavlock bush is loud. 
The orchards turn to heaps o' rosy cloud.' 

J. B. Lowell. 
adj\ the colour * lilac.' Qy. com. 
lyloc for lilac was the pronunciation of &8hionable, * high life ' folk 
in the days of George lY. See Philology of the English Tongue, p. 149. 

LAT KE Df , phr, cost me. Com. ' That melch cow lay me in 
£20, but 'er's a rar' good un.' 

LAT-0'£RS-FOBrMEDDLE£S, sh. an undefinable term, used to ward 
off a child's troublesome inquisitiveness. — Shbewsbuby ; Pxtlyer- 
BATCH. 'Whad'n'ee got i' the basket, Mother?' * Lay-oWa-fur" 
meddlers, an' yo' sha'n to sarred first.' Perhaps the idea of a switch, to 
lay over the shoulders, is meant to be conYeyed in this figure of speech. 

LAZE, LAZnrO. See Lease, Leasing. 

LAZT-BACK, eh., ohsols. the frame for holding the bakestone over 
the fire.-— Bbidonobth. Cf. Kaid (3). 

LEAF, (1) sh. a layer of fat spreading oYer certain portions of the interior 
carcase, as of pigs and poultry ; &e leaf of a pig is melted down for 
lard — the leaf of a goose for goose-oil — ^the leaf of a fowl for chicken- 
oil, and so on. Com. The sense of leaf here given is in unison with 
l£r. Wedgwood's assertion that ' the radical meaning [of haf^ seems 
something flat.' Or. Xf irac (lop-as), a scale. 

(2) See Lef. 

LKAEW [laaVn and lur'n*], v, a. to teach. Com. ' I should like to 
lam the bwoy my own trade, but 'is Mother's td6k a fancy to mak' 
'im a counter-skipper.' 

' But woldest l^ou for godes loue * leme me my Crede.' 

P. Pi. Or., 1. 402. 

'And, modyr, I pray yow thys byll may recomend me to my 

ffustyrs bothe, and to Syr John StyUe, and to pray hyai to 

be good mastyr to lytyU Jak, and to leme hym well.' — Pa^on Letters, 
A.D. 1467, Yot ii. p. 319. 

* Gal. You taught me language ; and my profit on't 
Is, I know how to curse. The red plague nd ^rou 
For learning me your language ! ' — Tempeeit, 1. ii. 364, 

See Psli, zzy. 4--8 ; cziz, 66. 


A.S. idran; Qerm, lehrenj to teach. Du. keren hsa the twofold 
meaning of to teach and to learn, just aa Pioy. E. learn haa 

LBftSE [lai'zl, Shrewsbury ; Pulyerbatch ; Wobthen ; Ellesmere. 
Qy. com. [lee'z], Newport ; Whitchttrch ; Oswestry, v. o. and v. n. 
to pick up and gather together the scattered ears of com in a harvest- 
field ; to glean. ' It wimna use't to be so i' the poor owd ^Aister^s 
time, he aVays loost the neighbours in among the mows, to laiae afore 
the mob comen — ^but now yo* mun stop till every shofs out, an' the 
ell-rake dragged o'er till theer inna-d-a ear lef .' 

' " Ac who so helpeth me to crie * or sowen here ar I wende^ 
Shal haue leue, bi owre lorde * to k^ here in heruest, 
And make hem mery ^ere-mydde * mausre whoso bigruocheth it."' 

Fieri PI., Text B., pass. vi. 1. 68. 

* Gleaning or Letting or Songoinff, is gathering of the loose Ears of 
Com^ after Binding and Loa£ng. — Academy of Armory, Bk. TTT. 
ch. iii. p. 73. 

* Gotn. lUan, to lease, gather, collect; Matt. vi. 26; viL 16. Germ, 
and Du. lesen; E. hoK, to glean.' — Seeat*8 MoDBO'Oothic Dictionary, 

LEASIVG [lai'nn or lee*zin]y according to localities above, «&. 
the com that has been leased^ whether tied up in bundles or — ^in the 
case of short ears — collected in the ' ear-bag' [q. v.^ of the gleaner. 
•Weer's yore Faither workin' to-day, Tumr' * E mna workin' no- 
weer — 'e's throshin' the lainn* i' Kite's ba m [ Cothercot]. ' 

'As the waggoner of Mr. Menlove, of "Wackley, near Ellesmere, 
was walking l^uikwards and whipping one of the horses in the 
harvest-field, a few days since, his reet got entangled in some IwMng 
which threw him down, and the wheels passine over him, he wajs 
killed on tiier spot' — Sciopian Journal, Sept. 19th, 1804, in Bytgones, 
July 23rd, 1879. 

LEASOW [lez-u'], sh. a pasture -field. Com. The term is also 
applied to a corn-field, but this is a degenerate use of it : the old folk 
in Corve Dale at this date [1874] reprove the younger ones for 
employing the word * com-leaaow,* * T the lane w^n a ou^ht to be 
i' the leasow ' is proverbially said of one who is not in the nght place 
at the right tima 

' Pa9cua, laaswe,' occurs in an Anglo-Saxon Vooahtdary, zi. cent, 
in Wr. vocabs., vol. i. p. 80. 

Mr. Wright gives the following note: — 'This is the modem 
leasow — a word still in use, in some parts of England, in the significa- 
tion of a pasture-field.' In John x. 9, where the A. Y. has ' pasture,' 
the Wicliffite version — ed. A.D. 1388 — ^has ' lesewis : ' — ' And ne schal 
go ynne, and schal go out, and he schal fynde leeeuns/ 
' A.S. totu, a pastoe ; oommon. CL I^emmar, 

LEASTWAYS, adv. at least. Com. 'I 'ope Jack'll goo ootb 'is 
Faither to. work soon — lecuiuoays, the Maister promised me 'e'd 
tak' 'im.' 

Leastways is a corruption of leaei-wise, a form which Mr. Pegge 
notes as being a substitution, by the ' Natives of London,' for ' at 
least.' He vindicates the word from vulgarity by quoting its literary 
use, — * " At least- wise." — Life of Lord Herbert of Cherhury, p. 9,' — 
and says, ' Weiae is a German word^ signifying manner ; . and will as 


fidrly combine with least as with those words which are its usual 
associates, viz., like-vnae, ©(Aer-wise, &c.' — Anecdcie$ of the English 
Language, p. 56, ed. 1814. 

LEATHEK [Icdh-ur*], v. a, to beat; to thraak Com. 'Yo* tell 
'ixn, if 'e dunna let yo' alone comin' throm school, yore Faither 11 
leather *im athin a ninch on 'is life.' 

Qrose has * LecUher, to beat N.' Der. < leathering.' 

LEATHE^BAT, ab. Long-eared Bat. — Bridonorth. See Billy-bat, 
also Flitter-mouse. Cf. Leathering-bat, below. 

LEATHEBINO, eh, a beating ; a sound dnibbing. Com. ' I gid 
'im sich a leatherin* as *e neyer wuz maister on afore.' 

LEATHEBIVO-BAT, same as Leather-bat, above.— Clun. 

LEAVE [leev*], v. a. to let ; to allow ; to permit. — Shrewsbury ; 
Ellesmebe. a term chiefly used in asking for a favour to be granted. 
(1) ' Missis 'as sen' to know if yo*ll leave "er 'iive a can o* waiter out 
o' the pump, an' 'er'li thank yo' kindly.' (2) * Mary, axe yore Mother 
if 'ej^ll leave yo' g66 alung 5dth me to the Club.' 

• " Now god leue neure," quod repentance • " but |>ow repent |>e rather, 
pe grace on pia grounde * Id good wel to bisette, 

Ne )^e ysue after )^ * " ' 

Fiers FL, Text B., pass. v. L 263. 

' And leue sho mo him y-se 
Heye hangen on galwe tre, 
pat hire haued in sorwo brouth.' 

Havelokthe Dane, 1. 334. 

Bee Mr. Skeatfs 'Qlossarial Note ' on leue^ in Ilavelok, p. 131. 
A.S. lyfan; Germ, er lauben, to allow; permit 

LEDOEH [lej'h'n, sometimes 1^'h'ndj, v. a. to close the seams of 
wooden vessels which have opened, either from bavins been left too 
long dry, or in consequence of the ' grouping ' being broken ; in the 
former case simple immersion in water wiU ledgen the tub or pail, in 
the latter it is cooper's work. — Wem ; Ellesmebs. 

Compare * Legge, oner twarte byndynge (ouer wart, S. ledge. P.). 
Ligaionum,' in Frompt Farv. 

LEECH. See Beast-leeoh. 

* Lechty mann or woman. Medieus, mediea* "A leche, aliptes, 
empiricuSf medicus^ cirurgicus,'* — Cath. Ang. *' Leche, a surgion, 
servrgion," — Palsq. The appellation was used to denote those who 
professed any branch of the healing art, as well as the ladies, who 
frequently supplied the place of the regular practitioners.' — Frompt, 
Farv. ana Notes, 

AS. IcBce; Dan. Icsge, a physician; surgeon. 

LEF, (1) ffft., var, pr. a leaf. — Shrewsbury; Pulverbatoh. Qy. 
com. 'I dunna know exac'ly whad time it wuz Ven the Squire 
come 'ere, I know the trees wun i' the lef-^hut they al'ays gwun to 
Lonnon the beet part o' the 'ear.' 


* '' Ac ^w art like a lady * ptA redde a lessoun ones. 
Was, omnia probate ' and >at plesed here herte. 
For ^at lyne was no longer * atte leues ende. 
Had [she] loked ]>at other half * and l>e Uf tomed, 
[She] shulde haue founden fele wordis.*' . . .' 

Fiert FL, Text B., pass, ill L 337. 

•A.a led/; O.Du. loo/; O-Pria. la/; O.IoeL lauf; O.H.Germ. 
laub; Gk>th. lauba, leat' — St&at. 

(2) $b, a large leaf— usually a cabbage leaf — upon which laspbenies 
are dispoeed, as upon a platter, and so carried to market, and sold. 
— Ibid, * They wun sellin' razVries at 4d. a le/ i* Sosebry o' Satur- 
day; they binna tied to mizzer by the le/, but they bin genarlly 
about a pmt, an* I should^think^these one nigh a quart' 

LEVVOW. See Lin&ow. 

LEHT-COBV, sb,f obeoU, spring wheat — Newport. A.S. leneten^ 
the spring. * See below. 

LEHT-ORAnr, sh, barley, oats, and pease (but not wheat) — which 
are sown in the early spring-tide — are included in this term. — 
Subswsbuby; Pulye&batch. 

* As Ijmne-seed & lik-seed * & lente-eeedes aUe ; 
Aren nouht so wor^hi as whete *....' 

Pieri PL, Text C, pass. xiii. 1. 190. 
See liB&t-tilling. 

LEVTH [len'th], sb, length. Com. A form of frequent occurrence 
in the early writers. 

' & )fUB of len]fe A of large * ^at lome {^ou make ; 
pre hundred of cupyde) * ^ou holde to pe lenjfe. 
Of fyfty fayre ouer-^wert • forme |>e brede.' 

Alliterative Poems, The Deluge (A.D. 1360, ctrea). 
Specim. Early Eng., xiiL U. 314, 315. 

' Item, j. peoe of fyne l3rnen clothe, yerd brode, of 1^'. yerdys of 
lenthe.' — Inventory. . . . A.D. 1459, in Pasion Letters, voL L p. 480. 
* A.S., O.Icel. lengH; O.Du. lengde, length.'— Strat. 

LEVT-SIDVESS, sb, the spring seed-time. — Shbewsbubt ; Pulvsb- 
BATCH, Qy. com. A.S. leuctentid, the spring-time. 

IEHT-THLIH*, 8b. the crops of Lent-grain. See dho^^--Ihid. 

LEP, (1) V. a. and v. n. to leap. — Shrewsbury; Pulverbatch. 
* That mar* 's a right good un to /ep ; *er took the quick-'edge into 
the Broad-meadow, air lep it like a Duck.' 

' ^anne ^ he yp listeli * & loked al a-boute.' 

WUliam o/Pideme, 1. 702. 

' He was so wimble and so wight. 
From bough to boueh he le]^ped light' 

SPENSER, The Shepheards Calender, March, 1. 453. 

(2) sb. a leap.— Much Wenix>ck. 

^3) V. n. to boil soft and tender: said of pease. — Glee Hiixf. 
*' Tnem pase leppen well.' See below. 


LEPPER8, sh. pi. grey pease that soften well in boiling. — Pulver- 
BATCH. ' I can get a couple o' shillin' a bag more fur them pase — 
they bin mob go^ leppersf 

LEPPnT-PASE, same as above. — Church Strbtton. 

LESTIAL. See EestiaL 

LEWH [lou'n], «6., ohsols. a church-rate. — Shrewsbury; Pulver- 
batch; Worthen; Cluk; Wellinoton; Wem; Ellesmere. 'It 
inna lung sence the ^eum-getherer wuz 'ere, an* theer's another lewn 
cast las' vestry-meetin'.' 

'November, 1582, a cessemente or hwne/ was laid upon the 
parishioners for repairs. — Churchwardens^ Accounie, St. Mary^s, 

' 1690. Kugh Greenly being'poore his feaune not paid, 00 - 00 - 08.* 
'—Churchwardens^ Accounts^ Clim. 

* 1776. Collected by Lewn, 5 - 12 - 3.' — Churchwardens^ AccounUy 
Hopton Castle. 

' October 16*, 1840. At a vestry meeting held in the Parish 
Church .... for the purpose of granting a leum for the use of the 
Church,' &C. — Churchwardens^ Accounts, Ellesmere. 

A.S. kkn, a loan. 

LEWH-FAPEE, sh,, obsoU. a rate-paper.— TZ^'ef. 

LEW-WAEH [loo*], adj, tepid ; lukewarm. Qy. com. * Sally, 
fill the three quart can o' waiter fur naidin' [kneading], nod more 
than lew-warm — the weather's *ot enough to piit it out o* the pump.' 
LeW'UKirm is a redundant form. O.E. lew means warm, as shown in 
the following citations : — 

' Hwan ^e deuel he[r]de that, 
Sum-del bigan him forto rewe ; 
With-drow ^e knif, ^at was lewe 
Of >e seH children blod.' 

Havehk the Dane, L 498. 

* Y wolde that thou were could, ethir hoot ; but for thou art lew^ 
and nether cold, nether hoot, Y schal bigynne to caste thee out of 
my mouiih.^'—Apocaiypse, iii. 16. WicliflBte Version, ed. ad. 1388. 

Jamieson gives ' Lew, Lew-warm, tepid.' Of. Olue-warm. 

LEZZEE [lez'ur'], same as Leasow, q. v.-^Newport. 

' Hcec pascua pascuos est locus herhosus pascendis animalihus aptus, 
Anglice a lesur.^— if;8f. Bibl. Reg. 12 B. L £ 13, in Hal. 

LIABLE, adj., pec. eligible. — Newport. An Edgmond woman 
asked if she were liable to a blanket from the Provident Society. 

LIBBET8 [lib-its], sb. ph rags in strips. — Pulverbatoh. * Pike up 
yore Uhheis an' laggerments, an' nod '&ve 'em all o'er the 'ouse-flur 
a-this a-way.' Compare ' Uppc^ which has the sense of a slip, a 
shred, in the following : — 

' And sith ))at )>iB sarasenes * sciibes, & luwes 

Han a Kppe of owre byleue * ' 

Piers PI., Text B., pass. xv. 1. 493. 
Ot Laggerments. 


LICH-FOWlt [lei-ch foul], sb. the European Goat-sucker. — ^Wkm, 

* Lich'fowle, tHe reputed unlucky Night-Baven, so called from the 
Saxon Lie or Lich, i. e. a dead corps ; Country people hy corruption 
call these Scritch^Owlea, or Lich-OwlesJ — Blount's Oloa&ographia, 
p. 374. 

See Lich'Owl, in Nares. C£ Night-hawk, also Chum-owL 

LICK, (1) v. a. to beat; to thrash. Com. 

' But, Davie, lad, Tm red ye're e;laikit ; 
Tm tauld the Muse ye hae negieckit ; 
An' gif it's sae, ye sud be lichk 

Until ye fyke ; 
Sic hauns as you sud ne'er be faikit, 

Be hain't wha like.' 
£oB£BT Burns, Foenu, p. 103, 1. 27. 
See I«ad-licked. 

(2) V. a. to surpass ; to excel — ' that licks all as oyer I sid.' Com. 

UCKnrO, 8b. a beating. Com. 

LIGKLE [lik'l], adj., var. pr. little. Qy. com. See Tl in Orammar 
Outlines {consonants), 

LICK THE CBAME-MTTBDLE, phr. a figure of speech borrowed 
from the dairy — and applied to the dairy-maid — ^to express 'lives 
welL'— PuLYEKBATCH. For example see Callow. Cf. mundle (1). 

LIDS, sb, pi, pieces of wood from twelve to eighteen inches in length, 
laid horizontally on the props that support the roof of a mine, for the 
purpose of giving them sidditional firmness. Com. — M. T. Pieces of 
wood of like kind are called caps in Derbyshire. 

LIE, V, n,j pec, to sleep — 'the child lies with its mother' — *7ie# by 
itself.' Com. 

'Wherfor I have purveyd that ye shall have the same drawte 
chamer that ye had befor ther, as ye shall ly to your selfl' — PasUtn 
Letters, A.D. 1453, voL i. p. 251. 

LIEF [lif-1, aJr. soon; readily; willingly. — Shrewsbury; Pulver- 
BATcn. Qy. com. 'I'd as lif sit i' Powtherbitch stocks fur a nour, 
as rd g65 to Church i' that fine bonnit to be starred at.' 

'And as for your tenants of Drayton, as I canne understond by 
hem, they be ryght gode and trew hertyd to you to ther powers, and 
full fayn wold that ye had it a yen in peasse, for they had as leffe al 
most be tenants to the Devell as to the Duke.' — Paston Letters, A.D. 
1465, voL ii. p. 194. 

'Jaques, I thank you for vour company; but, good fedth, I had as 
h'e^have been myself alone. —^« You Like It, ILL iL 269. 

Mr. Oliphant remarks with reference to Caxton's Eenard the Fox, 
A.D. 1481, that 'it contains many old Teutonic words, now obsolete, 
which we could ill afford to lose : ' he eniunerates some of these, and 
amongst them is ' lief.' — Sources of Standard English, p. 286. 

See Lieve, below. 

LIE r TEE LUVO FITHEBS, phr. to sleep in the straw in a 


bom or out-bousa Qy. eonu ' To' bin np yarly tbis momin', Jack ; 
but I *6pect yo' lied ^ the lungfithers las' nigbt.' See Lie. 

LIE XTP, V. n. to be boused at nigbt : said of borses, cattle, &c. — 

LIEVE [lee-v], adv. same as Lie^ above. * 'E'd as lieve goo as not' 
— ^Newpobt, 

'I once saw it laid down in an old-fksbioned book of good 
manners/ says Mr. OUpbwit, * tbat it was vulgar to say, ** I would as 
lieve do it." For all tbat, let eacb of our Englisb writers wbo bas a 
well-grounded bope tbat be will be read a bundred years bence, set 
bimself beart and soul to revive at least one long-neglected Englisb 
word.' — Sources of Standard English, p. 318, 

LIEVEKy adv., cmp. sooner ; ratber ; more willingly. * '£*d liever 
goo till stop.' — Ibid. 

' So fp^t liking & loue i baue * fyat lud to bi-bold, 
|>at i baue leuer \>&t loue ' ^an lac al my barmes.' 

William of Paleme, 1. 453. 

' Barow swor to me be bis trowtb tbat be bad lever tban xl«., and 
xL tbat bis lord bad not comawndyd bym to com to Gressam.' — 
Patton Letters, ▲.D. 1450, voL i. p. 111. 

* For lever bad I die tben see bis deadly face.' 

Sfekser, F, Q., Bk. I. c. ix. st. xzxii. 

LXJfXJsS, sb. a smart blow — * jest gie 'im a good li/terJ — Shrbws- 
buby; Wem. Gf. Bifter. 

UFT-OF-BEEF, 8h. tbe upper part of a leg of beef cut lengtbwise. 
— Glun ; Glee Hills. Gf . Slench. 

LI7T-0F-P0BBI, sh. tbe 'fore-quarter' of a porkling pig, i.e, tbe 
• band/ * breast,' and * belly-piece.' — Shbewsbuby. 

LIO, sh, a lie. Qy. com. 

UGOEB, 8b. a 1\&T.—Ibid. ' If Jack toud yo' tbat, it's a %, an' 'e's 
a ligger — ^yo' can tell 'im as I say so.' 

* Folk wbilk I ne knewe serued to me ; 
In boring of ere me bogbed to be, 
Outen sones to me lighed f^aL' 

Metrical English Psalter, xvii. (AD. 1300, ante), [P*. 
xviii. 45]. Specim. Early Eng., II. 1. 113. 

' A.S. ledgan; Du. and Germ, leugen; 0.£. %, to tell lies.' 

LIGHT, (1) V. n. to dismount; to aligbt Com. 'Maister, tbe 
Squire cisdled tbis momin', but 'e o6dna light as yo' wunna-d-in, — ^'e 
took a glass o' ale at tbe 'orse-block, an' said 'e sbould want tbe 
grey-'un o' Monday.' 

' par |>ai l^am tbo^bt to rest and slepe ; 
bar did t^ai Man for to light 
Bot son ^ai sagb an vgli sigbt. 

Quan lesus sa^b >am glopnid be. 
He lighted of bis moder kne.' 

Cursor Mundi (a.d. 1320, circa). 

Specinu Early Eng., vii. 11. 231—238. 


* I woulde bane lyghUd from my borasey and taken mj swerde by 
the poynt, and yelded it into bys graces bandes.* — LATiMZBy Strmontj 
iiii. p. 119. 

* '' but light now downe, my lady gay, 
Ught downe & bold my boraee, 
wbilest I ft your &tber ft your bretber 
doe play ys at tbls crosae.'* ' 

The Child o/EU, IL 33. 34. P«rey FoKo MS., 
yoL L p. 131, ed. Hales and Fmiiyal]. 

See Oene$is xxiy. 64. A.S. lihian, to aligbt from a borse. 

(2) V, fi. to descend and settle, as a bird after fliebt. Com. ' Is & 
gwein to light f ' • Wy, 'er 'as W— canna yo' see ?*^ 

* wbon god sende an Angel * in-to GbJile, 
• ••.«••• 
to A Maiden ful meke * ^at Marie was boten. 
And seide, ** Blessed beo ^u floor * feirest of alle ! 
^ boligost witb-Inne pe ' scbal lenden and /lAie." ' 

Joseph of Arimaihiej h 81. 

See Matt. iiL 16. Compare ' Let tby mercy lighten upon ns,' in tbe 
Te Deum Laudamus (Prayer-Book yersion). AJS. Uhtcui, to descend. 

(3) V. n. to fiall in witb by cbance; to come npon unexpectedly. 
Com. 'Very often w*en yo bin lookin* fai one thing yo* light on 
another — I wuz breyetin* fur tbe nail-passer, an' lit on freddy's sQyer 
pencil as wuz eid up fur lost.' 

' And in sucb sort that bis oflbrine migbt be acceptable to lupiter, 
and pleasant to bis citizens to behold : did out downe a goodly stnugbt 
erowen young oke, which be lighted on by good fortune.* — ^North's 
Plutarch, * Eomulus,' p. 30, in Bible Ward-Book. 

(4) adf, thin; poor: said of crops. Com. 'Them crops looken 
despert light,' A.S. le6ht, light (of weight). C£ Sbire. 

UOHT-BOWT, sb. a tbander-bolt. — ^PuLyniBATCH ; Newport. Qy. 
com. ' Theer's bin a power o' damage done by the storm las' Monday, 
no less than three light-botfftB fell, an' a mar'^an' cowt wun killed at 
'Abberley — ^I sid one gwein ziggle-zaggle down the sky, an' ^ndered 
Veer it A6d fedL' Compare 'leyin [= lightning] bolt' in tbe 
following : — 

' The morning dawned full darkly, 

The rain came flashing down, 
And the jagged streak of the levin~hoU 

lit up the gloomy town : 
The thunder crashea across the beayen, 

Aytoxjn, The Execution of Mofdroee. 

Spenser has ^levinrhrond' for thunder-bolt. See F. Q., Bk. YII. 
c. yi. st. XXX. 

LIOHT-CAKE, sb, some as Flap, q. y. — Ghuboh Strktton ; Cluk. 
Cf. Pikelet. 

LIGHTED, part, past, obs. confined ; deliyered of a cbild. — PuLyfiR- 
BATCH ; Much Weklock. ' Gran, Mammy's sen' me to tell yo' as 
we'n got another babby — ^'er wuz lighted atore Dad come wham las' 


night.' ' Ah, well-a-day wratoh I theer wnz anow on yo* afore, 'er 
nee'na a sen' yo' throu' the snow to tell me that.' 

'1802. March 5. a poor Straing woman Lighted on the road. 
- 2 - 6.' — Pariah Accounted Much Wenlock. 

' And miracles of mydwyres ' & maken wymmen to wenen, 
pat ^ lace of oure ladie smok * liiU}^ hem of children.' 

P. PL Cr„ I 79. 

' And I shalle say thou was lygM 
Of a knaye-childe this nyght.' 

Toumeley Myaieriu^ p. 107, in Hal. 

< Lighted^ a woman when brought to bed is said to be lighted^ i. e. 
lightened. North,' in Peoos. 
A.S. gelihtan, lighten (make lighter). 

LIGHTSOME, (1) adj, cheerful; gay.— Pulverbatch. <'£r wuz a 
good-tempered, lighUome girld, but 'er soon droupt off.' 

' & a lighUome bugle then heard he blow 
ouer the bents soe broune.' 

Sir CawUne, L 80. Percy Folio MS,, voL iii p. 7, 
ed. Hales and FurmyaU. 

(2) adj, brisk : said of beer. — Ibid. * It wunna strung, but nice 
lightsome drink.' 

LIOHT-TIMBEBED, adJ, light of bone: said of horses chiefly. 

LIKK See Grammar Outlines (adverbs), p. Ixxzi. 

LIKELY, adj., pec. hopeful ; promising. — Pulvkrbatoh. Qy. com. 
' Them bin likely ayeuB fur makin' two good pigs, John.' * Aye, the 
'og's a good strung pig, but the gawt's a pidcmn' ater, — ^minces an' 
mommocks the mate about — I'm afeard 'er 5onna mak' much.' 

LIMBER [lim-bur*], (1) adj, lithe; supple; pliant. Qy. com. 
• W'y, John, yo' gotten younger instid o' owder— yo' gwun alung as 
limber an' as lissom as a lad o' nineteen.' ' Aye, I could daince the 
.Sailor's-'ompipe yit, 56th a pretty good fiddler.^ 

'Eer, Verily! 
You put^me off with limber yows.* 

Winter's Tale, I. ii. 47. 

* ** Md, soft, supple, tender, lithe, limber,*' — Cotgb.,' in Way. 
C£ Lissom. 

(2J V, a, to soften ; to supple.— Wem. * 'E limbered 'is jlnts wuth 

LIMS-A8H, sb,, obaoU, 1 a compost of sifted ashes and mortar beaten 
together ; a rough kind of flooring for kitchens or out-houses is made 


UMEB [leimuT^], sb. to ' come limer * oyer a person is to take an 
tmfair a^yantage of him, thus : — ' Three lime-burners g5d to a public 

. fur some yale, two young uns an' a owd un ; the owd un tak's car* to 
sit i' the middle, so as the jug passes backerts an' forrats — 'e gets as 
much agen drink as the youDg uns.' Hence the saying—' 'E's arcomin' 
limer o'er him.' — ^Clee Hills, Cleobury Mortimer, 



LIMHOCKS, 8l. pi rags ; bits.— Atcham ; Wem. ' 'Er's tard 'er 
pinner all to limmocks.* 

LINO, sh Erica Tetralix, Cross-leaved Heath. Qy. com. Dan. 
lyng, heath. C£ Grig (2). 

LINK, V. a, to fasten the doors. — Bishop's Castle, Lydhury North. 
Cf. Make (1). 

LINKEBINO, part, adj. lingering; loitering; 'loafing about' — 
generally used with a reduplicated form — *lonkering.* — ^Pulvek- 
BATCH ; Wem. * Jack, yo' Iock that 'tato-'ouse, an' look roun' the 
buildin' to-night, theer's a lot o' tramps linkerin* an' hnkerin' about 
the lanes— I'U shift 'em if a bin theer to-morrow.' 

LINK-M08S, same as Jealousy, q. v. — ^Pulyerbatch. 

LINNOW, LENNOW [lin-u'], Qy. com. [len-u'l, Wobthen ; Clee 
Hills; Litdlow; Ellesmere, (1) adj. limp; flexible; pliant. ' These 
starched things bin as linnow as the dish-clout, the maister '11 neyer 
piit 'is collars on like this.' ' As linnow as a gloye ' is a current pro- 
yerbial saying. 
Pegge has * Lennock^ slender, pliable. Lane' Cf . Cbrm. linde, soft. 

(2) V. a. to make pliant — ^but the term is not very often used in 
this way. — Ibid. 

UN-PIN, eb. the iron pin which goes through the axle of a wheel ; 
a linch-pin. — Pulverbatch. Qy. com. 

Amongst the several parts of a wheel enumerated under the head 
of * Nomina pertinenda ad Carectarium^^ in an English VbcahtUarif, 
XV. cent., in Wr. vocabs., voL i. p. 202, are, * Hie axis, A' axyUtre,* 
and next in order, * Hoc humuUum, A' lyn-pyne.' 
^Lin-pin, Lint-pin, a. The linch-pin.' — JAMiESOir. 

UNT, sh.y pec. the flocculent dust which collects in rooms, more 
especially in bed-rooms. — Newpoet. Cf. 3>owl (2). 

LINTY, adj. idle ; lazy. — ^Pulverbatch ; Worthbn ; Wellington ; 
, Newport. Qy. com. * Yo' bin as linty as yo' knowen 'ow to be, but 

rU brush yore jacket fur yo' direc'ly. if yo' dunna stir a bit faster.' 
* ** LentM, slowe and febulle, or lethy, moyste." — Med. MS. CAin*. 

" Lentescoy to waxe slowe or lothy, ». tarduni esse." — Ortus,' in Wat. 

Prompt. Parv., p. 302. 

LIP, sb. the tumed-up bit on the toe of a horse's shoe, which keeps 
the animal's hoof from pressing forward when travelling. — Pulver- 
batch. Qy. com. Cf. Oorking, 

LISSOH [lis'um], (1) adj. agile; supple; lithe; free of movement 
in every joint ana limb. Com. 'The owd school-maister gets o'er 
the stiles as lissom as a lad.' * Aye, aye, 'e hanna stood in as many 
wet diches as I han, or 'e o6dna be so limber.' 

Pegge gives * Lissom, limber, relaxed. North.' 

A.S. Uis ; N. tide, to bend the limbs, whence lithe, lithesome, and 
Prov. E. lissom, Cf. Limber (1). 

(2) sh. a layer; a stratum. — CoRYE Dale; Clee Hills. * Yo' 


sin, Sir, in bumin' Ume we piitten first a lisiom o* coal, an' then a 
lissom o* lime-stwun.' G£ List, below. 

(3) [lizmn], same as List, below. — Pulyebbatoh. 

LIST, sb, the close, dense streak sometimes seen in a loaf which has 
not risen properly. — Pulvekbatch. *I canna tell whether it's the 
faut o' the flour or the barm, but the bread hanna ruz well — jest look 
whad a list is all alung the bottom o' the loal' 

' O.Fr. liste, bande . . . de Tahal. ^ta, bande ; allmod. leiste^ 
bordure.' — ^BuB. Compare A.S. list (edge of cloth). 

LITCH [lich-], (1) sh. a bunch of hay or grass. — Corvb Dale. 

(2) sh, a lock of tangled, matted hair. — Cleb Hills. ' Yore yar*8 
all i' litcheSf I conna get the c5om through it.' 

LITHEKMOH'S-LOAB [lidh-ar' munz], sb., obaolsA a greater load 
than can well be carried at one time, but is neyertheless undertaken 
to save the trouble of another journey — a * lazy-man's-load.' — 
PuLVEBBATCH. * Now, yo' bin al'ays txr carrjin' lithermon^S'lodd — 
the one 'afe's tumblin' off, an' vo'n a to fatch it, an' that's 'ow lazy 
folks al'ays hem the most trouble.' O.E. litheTf bad, wicked, has a 
secondary meaning of * lazy ' in some of the early writers. 

' & thou lett them of their leake * with thy Udder tumes ! ' 

Death and Life, 1. 249. Fercy Folio MS., vol iii. p. 67, 
ed. Hales and FumiyalL 

' Some litherhf lubber more eateth than twoo, 
yet leaueth yndone that another will doo.' 

TUSSEB, Fine Hundred Fointes of Good Hushandrie, 
ed. E. D. S., p. 174. 

Bay [1691] gives 'Zither, idle, lazy, slothful' in 'North Country 
Words,' also m * South.' 
Jamieson has ' Lidder, sluggish,' and ' Lythymes, sloth.' 
A.S. ly^er, bad. 

LOACH, r. a. (1) to drink greedily. — Pulvbrbatch. 'I 'ate to see 
Colliers come i' the fild, they bin good fur nuthin' but hach the bottle,' 
t. e. to drink out of the ' bottle.' 

Compare * To lurch, devour, or eate greadily, ingurgito,* in Babet's 
Alvearie, A.D. 1580. Low Latin lurcare, to swallow food greedily. 
Cf. Oulch. 

(2) V, n. to suck hard. — Ibid. ' The babby seems strung, 'e loaches 
away at 'is titty.' 

LOAP-0*-BBEAD, sb., pec, a loaf. Com. * '^ Them as g^vun a borrowin' 
^wun a-sorrowin'" — ^but I shall be 'bliged to borrow a loa/-o* -bread, 
tur the milner never brought the batch till after dinner, an' I canna 
bar onder*8 bakin*.' 

* Hie panis. A' lof of bred,' occurs in an English VocahtUary, xv. 
cent., in Wr. vocabs., vol. i. p. 198. 

LOBBEB-TE-LOT, same as Hobbety-hoy, q. v.— Worthen. 
Cf. * Du. loboor, a raw, silly youth,' in Wed0. 

LOCBXBS, sb. pi pieces of wood or iron placed within the circum- 

s 2 


ferenoe of the wheel of a wamc^n, or * skip,* to ' scotch * it when going 
down an incline. Com. — ^^ T. 

* O.N. lokf anything that serves for a fastening,' in Wedo. 

LODOED, part, adj. laid flat, as by rain or wind : said of grain or 
grass. Qy. com. * That com 661 be despert bad to cut — ^it inna-d- 
on'y lodged^ but tathered.' 

' We*ll make foul weather with despised tears ; 
Our sighs and they shall lodge the summer com, 
And nukke a dearth in this reyoltiag land.' 

K. mhard IL, ILL iiL 162. 
See Tather (2). 

LOFy V, n. and sh. to langh ; a laugh. — Colubrt ; Nswfobt. 

' and fidls into a cough ; 

And then the whole quire hold their hips and loffe.* 

MidsumrMT Nighf* Drear/i, II. L 55. 

Mr. HalliweU says, lo/ * occurs in Mother Hubbard, and ii a 
genuine old form.' A. 8. A/i'AAan, to laugh ; pt. t. ie hl6h. 

lOOOT [log'i'], adj., ohsolsA thick-set; weighty: said of animals. — 
PuLYERBATCH ; Ellesmebe ; Wem. * John's pig weighed more than 
'e 'spected— it looked short, but it wuz loggy' Of. Blocky. 

LOLLOCK [lol'uki, v, n. to lounge, or loll, or idle about — ^Elusshkbe. 
Compare Icel. lulla, to loll about See IiOllap, below. Of. Iioasock. 

LOLLOCXnT-CHEES, eb, an easy-chair ; a lounging chair. — Ibid, 
Compare * Du. lolUbancke, a couch, lounging bench,' in Wedo. 

LOLLTTP, same as LoUook, above. — Shbewsburt; Pulverbatch. 
' Yo'd'n better be i' the fiJlow, Turn, than Mloppin* about the foud.' 

LOXB [lom*], sb, a lamb. Com. An old form. 

' And as a lornb and ennosent. 
To be lad to sacrefyce to fore present, 

Of Ann and ICayface ; 
Of Pilate, Erod, and mon4 mo.' 

John Aubelay's Poenu^ p. 60. 

' For as the lomb toward his deth is brought, 
So stant this Innocent bifore the kin^.' 

Chauceb, B. 617 (Six-text ed.), Skeat 

* Lombe, yonge schepe. Agnua^ agneUus.* — Prompt. Parv. 

* A.S., O.Sax., CIoeL, Goth., O.ILGferm. lamb, lamb.'— -Stbat. 

LOHHOCK [lom'uk], sb. a big lump ; a thick piece — ' a lommock o' 
cheese.' Qy. com. Of. Lownder (1). 

LOiroOV-LACE, same as Lady-grass, q.y.— Clun. Of. LoTe's-laees. 

LOVE-OIBL, sb. a single, solitary woman, for whom there is no 
kinsman's shieldine; care. Com. 

' . . . A hundred mark is a lone one for a poor lont woman to bear : 
and I haye borne, and borne, and borne, and haye been fobbed off, 
and fobbed off, and fubbed off, from this day to Uiat day, that it is 
a shame to be thought on.' — 2 K. Henry IV., IL i. 35. 


LOHO flung'], adj,, pec, tall. Com. ' Jack says 'e canna bar this 
new ocotd^ bayly, 'e's as luTig as a lather, an' as thin as a rail ; 'e 
should like to maV 'is coffin out on a spout, an' bury 'im in a suff ! ' 

• " My name is longe Wille."' 

PierB PL, Text B., pass. xv. L 148. 

' Hw he was fayr, hw he was long, 
Hw he was with, hw he was strong.' 

Havdok the Dane, L 1063. 

' If he were as longjiA he is Uther, he might thatch a house without 
a ladder. C^A.'— Bay's Proverbs, p. 200. 

LOHTOFUL, adj, excessively long, as applied to time. — Pulvbrbatch. 
Qy. com, ' To'n bin a lungful wilde gwein to the blacksmith's shop.' 
' Theer wuz four 'orses to be shoe'd afore I could be sarred.' 

LOVO-KHSELIVO, sb., ohsols. the English Litany. — Pulverbatch ; 
WoBTHEN ; Ellesmebe. ' It wuz despert warm an' clos' i' church o' 
Sunday — ^theer wuz three wenten out poorly, afore the lung-kneelin\* 

LOVOSOME, adj. long ; tiresome ; dreary. — Pulverbatch ; Wem. 
' If s a despert lungsome road 'twix the M6llt an' Steppiton, but Tve 
gwun it many a dark night, an' never sid anythm' worse than 
myself.' ' Humph, yo' 'ad'n but one other to see ! ' 

I'rior uses the expression a ' longaome plain.' 

Mr. Earle says, 'This formative [some] is one that is in present 
activity. Li Sir J. T. Ck)leridge's Memoir of Kehle, p. 364, we find a 
new [?j adjective on this modS, namely, long-some : — *' It is thought 
to labour under the fatdt of beinj? long-some.** But perhaps we see 
here only an imitation of the German langsam,* — Philology of the 
English Tongue, p. 332. 

LOHK pong'k], sb, the groin. — Pulverbatch ; Craven Arms. 
' Whad mak's Bob limp athatnP' *'E's gotten a bwile in 'is lonk, 
poor bwoy.' * Whad's ^ piit to it ? ' * Some cobbler's wax.' ' 'E'd 
better a some groun'sel pultis to it to-night.' 

Lanke, glossed the hip-joint, occurs in Stratmann, * and leily is {his) 
leg o lonke,* — ^Wr. Pol. Songs, 156. O.Du. lanke, 0.n.Germ. kmcha, 

LOVKESnrO. See linkermg. 

LOHTUV, sb., var. pr, a lantern. — Puxverbatoh. 'Dick, oot 'ee 
len' me yore lontun to g5d i' the tallit ? — ^mine's got a 'ole in it.' Cf. 

LOaxu A -PUFF, sb,, obaols, hurry ; petulant haste. — Pulverbatch. 
' I gid 'er a bit o' my mind, an' 'er t6ok off in a perty hntun-puff.* 
Cf. Lantun-puff. 

LOOED poo'd], part, o^;., obsols. thwarted ; ' check-mated.' — 
Pulverbatch. ' I thought to a bought that cow, but 'fiind t was 
looed-^ike Maister sen' 'er to the las' far.' From the game of Loo 
(of French origin). 

LOOK, (1) V. a. and v. n. to seek ; to search for. Qy. com. (1) ' Whad 
bin'ee brevitin' i' that box fur, Mary?' 'Wy, Pm lookin* my 


thimble — ^I canna think w'eer it's gwun.' (2) ' 'E says "is brother's got 
a place fur *im, an' that'll be a sight better man '&Tin' one to look.* 

(2) V, n. to expect. Qy. com. ' Now Fve put them cnbberts an' 
drawers straight, I shall look for 'em to be [or, look to find 'em] 
kep' BO.' 

' Certaine of my frendes came to me wyth teares in theyr eyes, 
and tolde me, they loked I should haue bene in the tower the same 
nyghte.' — Latimeb, Sermon iii., p. 83. 

Of. Acts xxyiii. 6. Mr. Halliwell gives look, in the sereral fore- 
going senses, as ' North.' 

LOOSE [loo's], (1) V. a, to discharge, as of firearms, &e. — Shbews* 
BTTET ; Ptjlvbebatoh. Qy. com. * Look at the child ! — 'e's pla3^' 
^th the gon.' 'It ^nna 'urt 'im, I al'ays looae it off afore I 
come in.' 

* Titu$, . . . You are a good archer, Marcus ; 

[^Oives the arrowi."] 

To it, boy ! . . loose when I bid.' 

TitM AndronicuSy TV. iii. 58. 

* I spyed hym behynde a tree redy to lowse at me with a crosbowe.' 
— Palsgrave, m Hal. 

(2) V. a, to let go ; to set free. Qy. com. ' Bessy, remember to 
loose the goose off er nist soon i' the momin'^ else 'er*ll break all *er 

* Pol. You know, sometimes he walks four hours together, 
Here in the lobby. 

Queen. So he does, indeed. 

Pol. At such a time I'll loose my daughter to him : 
Be you and I behind an arras then : 
Mark the encounter : *—ffamlet, IL ii, 162. 

Compare Acts xxyii. 40. 

(3) V. a. to let out. Or. com. * Goo yo' forrat an' loose the cauTea 
out o' the cauve-kit, an' rU come after an' drip the cows.' 

(4) V. a. to let in. Qy. com. * Whad time wuz it w'en yo' loosen 
the cowman in las' night P ' * It wuz aumust momin', but I toud 'im 
as I shouldna loose 'im in agen.' 

LOP-LOLLABB, sb., ohsols. a lazy fellow. — Pdlverbatch, "E's 
sich a o'er-grown lop-lollard, 'e's too lung or too lazy to oud 'imself 
uprit.' Compare IceL luUari, a sluggard. See Lollard in Wedg. 

LOEEY, LITBSY, v. a. to drag along with violence. — ^Whitchurch. 

LOSELLHTO poz'u'lin], adj. idling. — Whitchurch. A formative 
of O.B. losel, a worthless fellow. Cf. : — 

' Somme leyde here legges aliii * as suche losdes conneth. 
And made her mone to pieres * and preyde hym of grace : 
•* For we haue no lymes to laboure with ' lorde, y-graoed be je ! "' 

Piers PI., Text B., pass. vi. I 124. 

Compare also * loselycke^ in pass. xii. L 213, which appears in 
Wright's edition as * iosseUy,* with the gloss given to it, — ' m a dis- 
graceful, good-for-nothing manner.' & Loszock. 


LOT, V. a., var, pr. to allot — ^Pulvbrbatch ; Wbm ; Ellesmerb. 
Mheert to be a Vestry-meetin' o' Monday to lot the pews.' * Be'appen 
they'n do the same as they did'n at oiir Church — lot 'em, an' then 
clap "Free" on 'em at-affcer.' A-S. hle6tan, to appoint or ordain 
by lot. 

LOTH [loth-], adj,, var, pr, unwilling ; loath. — Pulverbatch. Qy. 
com. ' I wuz mighty hth to g66, but they o'er-persuaden me, an* I 

' either |>onked oYet ' many thousand si^es, 
& lau^t se)>e here leue * ^ouih hem hY were.' 

William of Paleme, I 5201. 

LOTHEB podh-ur^, adv,, ohsoU, rather. — Whitchurch. Cf. 
Lather (2). 

LOITK riou'k], sh, a severe blow ; a hard hit. Qy. com. * Wen I 
wuz cnoppin* sticks at the block, a piece bounded up an' gid me sich 
a louk i' the face — ^it met as well a blinded me.' 

LOVSE'S-LATHEB, sK the ladder-like breach made in knitting by 
dropping a stitch. — Pulverbatch. * Wy, 'ere' s a pretty louses-lather 
— one, two, three, four — five bouts back, 'ow's that to be gotten up ? * 

LOTTT [lou't], sh. a clownish, under-bred fellow. Com. ' Nod all 
the fine do'es i' Sosebry 561 ever mak' a gentleman on 'im, 'e's sich a 

* B. Royster, Thou iuftlefk nowe to nigh. 
M, Mery, Back al rude louies.^ 

Roister Bolster^ Act iij. Sc. iij. p. 48. 

' And you will rather show our general huU 
How you can frown than spend a fawn upon 'em, 
For the inheritance of their loves and safeguard 
Of what that want might ruin.' — Coricianus^ TTT. ii 66. 

LOYE-CABBLAGE. See Bk. II., FolUore, &c., ' Customs.' 

LOTE-CHILD, sh, an illegitimate child. — ^Pulverbatch. 

For some admirable remarks on the luse of this term ' love-child^ 
see Arghbp. Trench's Study of Words, pp. 49, 50. 
QL Bttoe-ehild. Bee Chance-child. 

LOVE'S-LACES, sh, riband-grass. — Pulverbatch. 

'. . . vsually of our English women it is called Lady laces or 
painted Orass : in French AiguiUettes d'Armes.' — Gerarde's Herball, 
Bk. I. p. 26. 
Cf. Lady's-ribands. 

LOTE-SPIHVIHO, sb., ohs. a spinning < Bee.' — Pulverbatch. 
' Bin 'ee gweln to Betty Mathus's love-spinnin'y Matty P ' * No, I've 
broke the barrel o' my wil.' * Well, talc yore lung-wil, they wanten 
as many '551 spinners as thrid-^it's men's unseys as a bin m&kin'.' 

Betty Mathews lived at the tumpike-eate house at Castle Pulver- 
batch, about the year 1800, where and when the love-spinning referred 
to above took place. See, farther, Bk. II., Folklore^ &c., ' Customs.' 

LOW [lou-], adj,y ohsols, flavourless ; insipid. — Pulverbatch. * Yo' 
bin mighty spar'in' o' yore saut i' this suppin' — it's despert fou;.' 


LOWV [lou*n], (1) ah, a vertical course of stra^ in thatching. — Corts 

(2) V, n. to grow stout and comely in person : said of youths, — * that 
young fellow loum$.' — Olbb KiUiS. Cx. Bamish. 

LOWVDERy ^1) sh. a thick slice.— Pclyerbatch. • I gid the poor 
chap a good lownder o* bread an* cheese, an' a spot o* freeh drink, an' 
mighty glad 'e wuz on it' Of. Lowner, also Lommock. 

(2) a blow. — Ibid, ' I gid 'im sich a hwndtr as 'e d5nna furget 
soon.' Cf. Belownder. 

LOWVEBi same as Lownder (1), above. — ^Wem ; Ellbsioebe. 

LOZZOCK [loz'uk], V. n. to lie down idly, instead of being at work. 
— Wem. • *B went an' lozzocked i' the 'ay i' the tallant instid o' awin' 
them turmits, as I toud im.' The participle lozzockin' has a wide 
meaning, and is often used as an intensitive to * idle ' — ' a lozzockin* 
idle fellow.' Cf. LoUock, also LoaeUing. 

LVCET-BOVB, sh. the coracoid bone of a fowL-^SHREWSBURT. Qy. 
com. This bone carried in purse or pocket is believed to bring money- 
fortune, whenoe the name — ludty^hone. See CUp-me-tight. 

LTTO, (1) i;. a. to cart; to carry; to drag. Com. Haul- is some- 
times employed when speaking of carrving coal : about Newport they 
tarry hay, and draw coal ; but lug is the term of wide acceptance and 
general usage as glossed above ; anything or everything that can be 
carried, is * lugged,* — fiom a baby to a waggon-load of oom. (\) * They 
wun ^ein to lug barley this momin', but afore thev coula get the 
waggins out it begun to rain.' (2) ' That poor wench seems as if 'er 
could scaoe lug 'er legs after 'er, let alone lug the child — ^I doubt 'er 
inna lung fur this world.' 

' 1794, Feby 6 — Getting on some lime rubbish on Long Meadow, 
the stuff from Tinsley's old house. Luggd the bricks from it to 
build a pit in garden.' — Bailiff's Jjiary, iUton, Oswestry. Byeg<me9^ 
1877, p. 316. 

' Make seruant at night lug in wood or a log, 
let none come in emptie but slut and thy dog.' 

Tussbr's Ftue Hundred PointeB of Good IIu$handrt\ 
ed. E. D. S., p. 177. 

(2) V. o. to pull, as of the ears. . Qy. com. * If 'e dunna mind, Til 
lug 'is ears as lung as a donkey's.' 

• Swed. lugga, to lug, pulL' — Strat. 

(3) 9h. a rod used in roof-thatching.— Ellbsicerb. 

' pu seist ^at ich am manne lo> 
And ever euch man is wi> me wro> 
And me mid stone and lugge l^retel^ 
And me toburstefy and tobete)>.' 

Owl and Nightingale, 1. 1609. 
See Bucklea. Cf. Bpringle (2). 

LXraOPS-TID, sK St. Luke's Day— the time of the Festival of St 
Luke. — Clbe Hills. 

XujulA, interj. Look you ! = See that ! an expression evincing 

fiurprise at — or calling attention to — something being done. — 


LTTKBEBy sh, mischief; trouhle. Com. 'That lad's al'ays i' some 
lumber.* * Whad's *e bin doin* now ? ' * Breakin' windows — ^'is poor 
Mother's got two-an'-ninepence to pay, an' dunna know 'ow to get a 
bit o' bresid fur the rest on 'em.' 

LTJHF, sb. a good-sized child. — ^Worthbn, Cherhury, *How big 
are your children P ' * Oh, they bin lump$.* 

LujnOE [lunj*], (1) v.a. to use unfairly, as of eating food by stealth, 
&c. — PuLYEBBATOH. Qy. com. ' Ate as much mate as yo' wanten, 
but dunna Iwnge it.' Of. Muzige (1). 

(2) V. a. to abuse ; to ill-treat with violence. — Wem« ' 'E knocked 
'im down and lunged 'im shameful.' 

LTJHOEOirS [lun-jus], adj. malicious; spiteful; cruel. Com. 'I 
55dna '&ye that fellow among my cattle on no accoimt, 'e's the most 
lungeaua brute to poor dumb beas as ever wuz about a place.' 

LiniOFTJL, LUHOSOMK See LongfU and Longsome. 

LTJSET. See Lorry. 

LUTJS [loct], sb. a worthless person. — Clbb Hills. *Yo' binna 
thinkin* o' marryin' that mon, Sal — ^w'y 'e's a reglar lute.* Compare 
luther in the following : — 

* I deme men )>at don ille * and ^it I do wel worse, 

pus I line loueles * lyk A lu\>er dogge, 

pat al my breste BoUe)' * for bitter of my galle.' 

Piera PI., Text A., pass. y. L 98. 
A.B. ly^Ser, bad ; wicked. 

L-WOOD, sb. a plantation running in two lines, one down the slope 
of a hill, the other, meeting it at its base in such a way as to give 
the wood — when seen at some distance off — a likeness to the 
letter L ; whence the name given to it. — ^WnrroHnBOH. 

MAESTUB [maes'tur"], sb., var. pr. same as Haiiter, q. v. — 
Wellington; Nbwpobt; Whitchtjbch; Elleshebe. 

MAO [magi, (1) v. a. to teaze incessantly. — ^Ludlow. * Cannayo' be 
queet, an nod m<ig me so ? ' 

(2) 9b. a chatterer.— /5»U The term is sometimes reduplicated, as, 
' I never 'eard sich a mag-mag as yo' in all my days.' 
Poggo gives ' Magging, prating, chattering. Ohesh.' 

KAOPT [mag-pi'], sb., var. pr. the Magpie. — Shbewsburt ; Pulver- 
batoh; Olttn. Qy. com. 

* Devil, devil, I defy thee, 
Magpy, magpy, I go by thee.' 


The form Magpy occurs in a list of bird-names giren by Bandle 
Hohne, Academy of Armory^ Bk. IL cb. xiii. p. 308. 

Cf. Chatter-pie, and Kag (2), aboye. 

See Bk. 11., FolMore^ &c., 'Superstitions concerning Birds and 

MAID, (1) «&. a light portable frame used for hanging clothes upon ; 
a clothes-horse. Com. 
Called < Tamsin [Thomasine] in Kent* — ^Peook 
See Kaiden. (1), below. 

(2) sh.^ oh$. a round straw mat — ^having a bow-handle — used as a 
kind of breastplate to protect the person when lifting a large iron 
pot off the fire : the pot rested against it, and was carried by the 
' ears ' on each side. — Bishop's Castle ; Cltts, 

(3) sh.j obs, same as Lasy-back, q. y. — ^Bbidonobth. 
MAISEF, (1) same as Kaid (1), aboye. Com. 

(2) same as Dolly (1), q. y.— Bridgnoeth, 

MAISE fmai'z], sh, stinking Chamomile. — Wbllington. See Kay- 
thig, also Dog-daisy. 

MAI8TEE [mai'stur*], (1) sb, an employer. — Shrewsbury j Pulvbr- 
BATCH. Qy. com. 

' \)e segges were a-slepe l^an * (^at it schuld jeme, 
al but \fe mest maister * to munge ^e sofye.' 

William of PaUme, 1. 2735. 

(2) %b, a husband. — Ihid, 

(3) Bh, a title of address to a superior or elder. — Ibid, Cf. 
Oaffer (1). 

< O.Fr. maMrey qui, par soite du fr^uent emploi, deyint de bonne 
heure maistre^ d'oi!^ les orthographes meittref mestre^ maitre, . . . chef 
..... du latin magiiter.* — Bur. 

Cf. Kaester. 

MAISTEKIV, (1 ) adj, imperious ; authoritatiye ; assuming the aira 
of a master; oyerbearing. — Pulverra.tch ; "Whitchuroh; Elles- 
MERE. * 'E seems a maiateria* sort o' mon, that.' * Oh, aye ! 'e can 
do the maisUrin^ nart right well, but a bit o' 'ard work d5d shoot 'im 
a sight better.' Spenser has this word in the sense of controlling : — 

* . . . with may string discipline doth tame.' 

F. 0., Bk. IV. c. 

KAK [mak*], v. a. to make. Qy. com. *Whad bin 'ee gwein to 
male o' that ? — it inna-d-enough fur a gownd, is it ? ' 

* Amang squilk was bro|;ht a writte, 
O Seth )7e name was laid on it ; 
O suilk a stem )>e writt it spak, 
And of ^ir offerands to makJ 

Cursor Mundi (a.D. 1320, circa). 
Spfidm. Early Eng,^ yii. 1. 28. 


* An' whyles twalpennie worth o' nappy 
Can mdk the bodies nnco happy.* 

BoBEBT BuBJrs, Poems, p. 3, 1. 34. 

A.S. macian ; O.Fris. mahiay to make. 

[mai'k and mak*], (1) v. a. to bar ; to bolt ; to fasten, as of 
doors or shutters. Qy. com. ' Turn out these dogs an* cats, an' make 
the doors an' shutters, it's gettin' on fiir bed-time.' 

' . . . . . she will well excuse 
Why at this time the doors are made against you.' 

Comedy of Errors, TIT, i 93. 

' Rosalind. .... make the doors upon a woman's wit, and it will 
out at the casement.' — As Tou Like It, lY. L 162. 

^^gS^ gives * Make tJie door, or windows, i. e. fasten them. North. 
Salop., Leic' 

Low Dutch, mak to, to shut, or fiuiten ; ' mak to Jiet door,* shut the 
door. C£ liiBk. 

(2) V. a. to secure by shutting up, as of a dog, a stray animal, Ac 
Qy. com. ' Yo'd'n better mak that dog up i' one o* the bings, far if yo' 
tie'n 'im up be'appen 'ell hong 'imself afore mornin'.' 

A MOCK, phr, to half do a thing — ^to do it neither wholly 
nor perfectly. — ^WSM. ' It's no use 'im miScin' a mock on it, if 'e conna 
do it, 'e'd better let it alone, an' let somebody else try thar 'ond.' Of. 

MAKE-SHIFT, v. n. to manage ; to contrive ; to do with or without 
a thing, as the case may be. Com. ' I'd sooner mak^^shift any how 
than be al'ays borrowin' like they bin.' 

' Good husband and huswife, will sometime alone, 
make shift with a morsell and picke of a bone.' 

TussER, Hustoiferie, ed. E. D. S„ p. 175. 

' Sad will I be, so bereft, 

Nancy, Nancy ! 
Yet rU tiy to make a shift, 
My spouse, Nancy.' 

Robert Burns, Poems, p. 186, 1. 15. 

MALKIH [mau'kin], (1) sb. an oven-mop made of rags. Qy. com. 
* Now then, wet the maukin, an' fatch the tin to p&t the gledes in.' 

' The Maukin is a foul and dirty Cloth hung at the end of a long 
Pole, which bei^ wet, the Baker sweeps all the Ashes together there- 
with, which the ^ire or Fuel, in the heating of the Oven, hath scattered 
all about within it.' — Academy of Armory, Bk. III. ch. vi. p. 293, 

* Hoc tersorium. An**, a malkyn,' under the head of * Pistor cum suis 
Instrwnentis,* occurs in a Pictorial Vocabulary, xv. cent., in Wr. 
vocabe., vol. i. p. 276. 

' Malkyne, mappyl, or oven swepare. Doasorium, tersorium. 
** Malkvn for an ouyn, frot^gon." — Palso. HoUiband renders 
" Wavar^e, the clout wherewith they dense or sweepe the ouen, 
called a maukin." ' — Prompt. Parv, and Notes, 

See Malkin, in Wedo. ,Cf. Slut (1). 


(2) Bh. a scarecrow, made up of old ragged garments into a nide 
representation of a human figure. Qy. com. * The Bayly's piit sich 
a rar' good maukin i' the oom-leasow — anybody o6d think it wuz a 
livin' mon.' 

Nares giyee ' MaUein, a diminutiye of Mary ; of mal and kin. Used 
generally in contempt. HencOj as Hanmer says, a stuffed figure of 
rags was, and in some places still is, called a malkinJ 

* Forby gives maukin as signifying either a dirty wench, or a scare- 
crow of shreds and patches.' — ^Way, 

See below. Of. Mommet ( 1 ). 

3) »h, a sloTenly, showily-dressed — would-be-fine-and-£ashion- 
girl or woman. Qy. com. * Sally, if yo' g5'n to town i' that 
owd doak an* them fithers an' flowers stuck i' yore 'at, yo'n a to carry 
the flag for the biggest mavJdn i' the far.' 

< Bru, All tongues speak of him, 


the kitchen fnaJkin pins 

Her richest lockram 'bout her reechy neck, 
Clambering the walls to eye him.' 

CoriolanuSf II. i 224. 

KALL [maul], same as Beetle, q. v. — Wem ; Oswbstrt. 

' and with mighty nuill 

The monster merdlesse him made to £euL' 

Spekser, F, Q., Bk. I. c. Til. st 51. 

* Malyet, betyl {maJle or malyet, H. P.). MaUeoltu,' — Prompt, Parv. 
O.Fr. mail ; Lat. malkus, a nammer, mallet. 

XALIrBEETLE, same as above. — Clun ; Clee Hills. 

MAKMOOK, MOmOCK [mam*uk and momnk] — ^both pionuncia- 
tions obtain, but the latter is the more usual one — v. a. to cut into 
fragments; to mangle, break up, or crumble away, so as to cause 
waste : said of fo(^. — Shbewsbttby ; Atohah ; Pulvebbatch ; 
WoBTHEK; Wem; Whitchubch; Ellesmebb. 'Dunna mommock 
that good mate, yo'n be ^lad o' worse than that some day.' 

' ... he did so set his teeth and tear it ; O, I warrant, how he 
mammocked it.' — Coriolanua, L iii. 71. 

Bailey — ed. 1727 — ^has ' To Mammock [prob. of Jfan, Brit, little or 
small, and Ock a Diminutive], to break into Bits or Scraps.' 

Ash gives ' Mammock, to tear ; to break into shapeless pieces.' 

Cf. Ort, also Kommock (2). 

HAMMOCKS, MOMMOCKS, eh. pi. fragments; viands 'mam- 
mocked,' or broken up into scraps. — Ibid. * Look at all these 
mommocka throwed about — '* wilful waste brings woial want," 

* Where you were wonte to haue 

cawdaLs for your hede, 
Nowe must you mouche 
Mammocks and lumps of bred.* 

Magnyfycence, 1. 2034, Skeltos's Worki^ L 291. 

Minsheu^-ed. 1617 — ^has *Mammockes, peeoee; Yi. fragments— 


Bailey — ed. 1782— giyes * Mammock [probably of Man^ 0. Br. little, 
and Ock^ Dim.] a Fragment, Piece, or Scrap.' 
Ash has ' mammock^ a e^peless piece.' 

MAHIKnr [man'i'kln], eK^ ohsoh. a masculine woman. — Fulveb- 
BATCH. * It inna to be 'spected as x>oor Mary can top-an'-tayle 
turmits like that great mdnikin as lives neighbour to her — but 'er's a 
tidy little d5man i' the 'ouse.' Compare Shakespeare's *mankindf^ 
used in the similar sense of haying a masculine nature : — 

• Lean, Out I 

A mankind witch ! Hence with her, out o' door.* 

Winter'a TaU, U. iii. 67. 

"MASK [mang'k], $b. a rogmsh trick; a prank. — Clun; Weh. 
' Yo' bin up to yore mankt theer agen — ^bin 'ee P ' 

XANSH [man'shj, t;. a., var, pr. to mash. — Fulvebbatoh ; Elles- 
ME&E. * The Missis said I wuz to mansh the 'tatoes, an' 'er'd piit the 
butter an' crame — an' to mak' 'em good.' 

K'APPEF [mapnl, contraction of Mayhappen, q. v. *M'appen 'er 
met, an' m'appen "'er metna' = perhaps she will— perhaps she won't. — 
Ellesmebe, WeUhampUm, 

* Lai Dinah Grayson's firesh, fewsome, an' free, 
Wid a lilt iy her step an' a elent iy her e'e ; 
She glowers ebbem at me 'vmatiyer I say. 
An' medstly mak's answer wid ** JiTappen 1 may ! " 
" ATappen I may," she says, " m*appen I may ; 
Thou thinks I belieye the**, an' m^appen I may I " ' 

Lai Dinah Grayson, y. i.^ in The Folk-tpeeeh of 
Cumberland, by A. G. Gibson, F.S.A. 

HAR [maa-r'], ^1) sh,^ var. pr. a mare. Com. ''Er's a rar^ good 
trottm' mar — ^^er is.' AS. metre, a mare; O.N. mar, a horse. Cf. 
Mere (1). See A (3) (15) in Grammar Outlines {vowels, &a). 

(2) sb,, var. pr. a mere. — ^Ellesmebe ; Oswbstby. A circuit of a 
few miles in the neighbourhood of Ellesmere embraces seyeral beauti- 
ful ' merea' Not the least remarkable for their loyeliness are ' Black- 
mere' and 'Kettle-mere, which lie contigpious to each other. A 
gentleman riding down the lane which skirts them, said to a boy 

KABCH-MALL0W8 [maaVch mal'uss], eb, Malva sylvSstrit, common 
Mallow.— Shbewsbuby ; Fulvebbatoh ; Clun. Qy. com. • March" 
maUuB stewed into a tay is a mighty good thing fur swellin' as comes 
from rheumatiz,' said Isabella Fearce, of the Twitch^n. 

* The mallow — ^is yery much used by the Arabs medicinally ; they 
make poultices of the leayes to allay irritation and inflammation.' — 
IkmetUc Life in Palestine, p. 323, in Wedo. 

' Malva, aa, es malache, ^loX^xa, iropd rA itak^couv, quod est moUire. 
Th$ herb mallowB.* — Diet. ktym. Lett. 


HABKET-PEABT, adj. exhilarated, rather than podtiyely intoxi- 
cated, by drink — a retiun-from-market-oondition. Com. See Fresh (1). 

MAJLLIN, sb,, var. pr. HypotriorchU (ksalon^ the Merlin. — Bridg- 

MAEMIHT, MABMOT [maa-r'mint], Fulverbatch. [maaVmut], 
Cleb Kills, «6., oIbcIb. a three-legged iron pot — ^holding abont four 
quarts — ^to be hung over the fire. ' Bring me the marmini, to bilo 
some linsid fiir the coVs drench.' 

' 2 Potts — 1 MarmiUf* are comprised in an Inventory, dated at Aston 
Botterell, about 1758. 

' Marmite ; sorte de pot de fer, de cuivre, &c. o^ Ton £Ebit bouillir les 
yiandes dont on fait au potage. A porridge pot; a seething pot. 
" La marmite est bonne chez lui. He Keeps a ^M>d table." ' — Qbaxb. 

HAREED [maaVd], part. adj. petted ; foolishly indulged ; spoilt. — 
Whitchxtrch ; EllesmEre. ' '£r*8 marred that lad tell 'ell neyer be 
no good to 'isself nor nobody else.' 

' Be wise who first doth teach thy childe that Art, 
Least homelie breaker mar fine ambling balL 
Not rod in mad braines hand is that can helpe, 
But gentle skill doth make the proper whelpe.' 

TussER, ed. K D. S., p. 185. 
Cf: Oadiah. 

MARKTEl) ALL O'EB, phr. said of women who after their 
marriage fall off in appearance, and become poor and miserable- 
looking. — Pulverbatch; Wem; Ellesmere. 'Han'ee aid Mary 
Gittins lately?' 'Iss, dunna-d-'er look bad? Aye, 'er's marrM 
all o'er r 

MAESOW [maar^'oe], (1) sb. a friend; a companion; a mate — 'a 
play-marrow.'— Wem ; Whitchtjrch; Ellesmere. 

' <' O stay at hame, my noble lord, 
O stay at hame, my marrow. 
My cruel brother will you betray 
On the dowie houms o' Yarrow." * 

The Dowie Dens o* Yarrow {&rst printed, A.D. 1803), 
in Border MinstreUy, ii. p. 373. 

* With theefe and his marrow * occurs in Tusser, ed. E. D. S., p. 131. 

*Marwe, or felawe yn trauayle (or mate, marowe. P.). Socius, 
rompar. The term marrow used in tnis sense is . • . retained in the 
Northern, Shropshire, and Exmoor dialects. ... It occurs in the 
TownL Myst., p. 110.' — Prompt. Farv, and Notes. 

See below. Of. Butty (1). 

(2) sh. a fellow; one of a pair, as of shoes, &c. — Ibid. (1) *They 
wun off the same ship, Sir ; this leg^s the marrow o' the one yo' seed.' 
(2) ' That inna ihe^marrow o' the boot the child's got on, it belungs 
to another.' 

Bailey — ed. 1782 — has * Marrows, Fellows; as, my Oloves are not 
Marrows,' a * North Country' Word. 

Jamioson gives * Marrow,^ with the seyeral meanings of * a com- 
panion,' * a married partner,' * one of a pair.* 

Soo above. Cf. Butty (3). 


HABVELS [maa-rVh'Iz], sb. pi, var, pr, marbles. — Shrewsbury ; 
PuLVBBBATCH. Qy. com. **0w m&nj marvels 'ast 'ee got, Dick?' 
' Forty, lad — I won fifteen stoneys an' six alleys off Jack Ivans, *side 
whad I 'ad aiore.' Mr. Hsdliwell gives ' marvels ' for marbles as a 
Suffolk word. 

MASED [mai'zd], part. adj. stupefied; confused; made giddy. — 
Pulverbatch; Colliery. 'Poor Jack Bobe'ts fell off the lather 
isterd'y, a-sarvin' the thetcher — 'e wunna much 'urt, on'y a bit mased, 
but 'e met as well a bin killed.' 

* t>ai witerly he coulee no word * long l^er-after spek, 
but stared on here stifly * a-stoneyd for ioye, 
l^at he cast al his colour * and bi-com pale, 
and eft red as rose ' in a litel while. 
BO witerly was )>at word ' wounde to hert, 
pai he ferd as a mased man *....' 

WtUiam of Paleme, L 8S4. 

* She seyde, she was so mased in the see 
That she forgat hir mynde, by hir trewthe.' 

Chattcer, B. 526 (Six-text ed.), Skeat. 

Mr. Oliphant^ speaking of the Ancren Biwle [a.d. 1222, circa'], says, 
' Many Norse words are found for the first time in this workJ and he 
gives a list of these, — amongst them is * Mased, ddirus, O.N. masa, 
to chatter confusedly.' — Sources of Standard English, p. 122. 

Cf. Maskered. 

MASEY [mai'zi'], adj\ confused. — ^Wem. 

MASH, (1) ab. a preparation, as of bran mixed with water, given to 
horses and cattle. Com. * The mar's got a nasty wisk, 'er'd better 
'&ve a warm mash to-night.' 

' Drenches ; Drinks or Mashes given to Horses to cleanse them.' — 
Academy of Armory, Bk. III. ch. iiL p. 89. 

' A commixture, a mash,* — Florio, p. Ill, in Hal. 

(2) V, a. and v. n. to pour boiling water upon the malt intended for 
brewing, mixing it well together with the mashing-staff. Com. 

(3) V. a. and v. n. to infuse, as of tea. — Shrewsbury ; Elleshere. 
Qy. com. ' I'll put the tay to mash aVile I clane me.' 

Jamieson has vwuk in the same sense, and gives ' Masking-pat^ a 

KASHIH0-BA8EET, same as Bet-well, q. v.— Ellesmere. 

MASHHTO-MtfHjlIiE, ah.^ ohaoU. a brewing utensil used for stirring 
the malt in the ' mashing-tub,' and the * drink ' in the ' furnace.' — 
Elleshere, Welshampton, See below. Cf. Mundle (1). 

MASHIirO^STAFP, same as above. — Pulverbatch ; Craven Arms ; 
Church Stretton; Wem. Qy. com. 

* Mashing-staff, pouch and taps.' — Auctioneer's Catalogue (Long- 
ville), 1877. 

KASHIHO-TXrB, sh. a tub — either round or oval in form — in which 
the malt is mashed in the process of browing. Com. 


* Three oak masking'tubs,* — Audioneer'a dskdogtie (Ohnrdi Stretton), 
1877. See Kaidi (2), above. 

KASH-BXTLE, same as Hashing-mnndle, above. — Newport. 

* Mash-rule, ladder, and sieve.' — AucUoneer^s Catalogue (Fortcni 
Hall), 1875. 

^ Maschel, or rothyr, or maecJischerd. Remtdue^ palmula, misctorium. 
This term evidently implies the implement used for mashing or mbanf; 
the malt, to which, from, resemblance in form, the name 'rudder' is 
also given. In Withal's little Dictionary, enlarged by W. Clerk, 
among the instruments of the Brew-house is given " a rudder, or 
instrument to stir the meash-fatte with, mciaculumj'' — Prompt, Parv, 
and Notes. 

KASK, same as Mass, below. — Oswestbt. 

HASEEBED [mas'kur'd], (1) part, adj, confosed; bewildered, as by 
losing the way in fog, or snow, or darkness. — ^Piilvebbatch ; Much 
Wbnlock; Wellington; Colliery; Wem. ' It wuz a great mercy 
the X)oor fellow wunna lost — 'e got maskered i* the snow-storm o' the 
'ill, an' w'en it oliered off 'e wuz miles out on 'is road.' 

Maskered is the malskrid of William of PaJeme, with the I left out : — 

' & told here l^anne as tit * treweli al l^e so^e, 
how he had missed is mayne ' A jnaiskrid a-boute.' — ^L 416. 

Compare ' Mask, v. a. ^ bewilder ; part. " maskede." — Legend of St, 
Brandan, 115,' in CoL. 

(2) part, adj, confused ; ' bothered ' — ' maskered wuth the men's talk^' 

— WEM. 

Pegge has ' Maskered, stunned ; also nearly choaked. N'orUv' 
Cf. leased. 

HASLIK-KETTLE, sh, a brass, or a tinned-copper, preserving-pan. — 
Clee Hills; Ellesmere, WelsJiampton, 

* Maslin ktkle.^ — Auctioneer's Catalogue ([Stoddesden), 1870. 

' Take a quarte of good wyne, and do it in a clone mastelyn panne, 
and do therto an ownce of salgemme. — M8, Med, Bec,y xv. cent.' 
in Hal. 

A.S. moeslen, mcutlen^ brass ; mcssUing, a brass vessel. Cl Keslin- 

MASS, sb,, var, pr. acorns ; mast. — Pulverbatoh ; Ellesmere. 
* Theer's a good 'it o' mcus this 'ear — ^rar' raps for the pigs an' gis.' 

Gbose gives ' Mass, acorns (mast), Exmoor.' 

A.S. mcest, food, such as acorns, berries, and nuts. Geim. mast, 
Perhaps related to GK)th. mats, food. See Mask, above. 

MASTEB-TAU, sb. the left handle of a plough.— Cluk ; Brido- 


* The Master handle is that on the left hand, which he [the man] 
holdeth while he cleareth the Plow from clogging earth.' — Academy of 
Armory, Bk. III. ch. viii. p. 333. 

See By-tail. 

MATE, sb,, var, pr, meat. Com. * We'n 'ad a bit o' mate out o' the 
owd dish,' said a peasant-man, when telling how the old Beotor had 
been able to take ois Sunday duty again. 


* . . . it coste me of my noiine propr godes at tliat tyme more than 
yj. merkes in ma^ and drynke.' — Faaton Letters, A.D. 1450, yol. L p. 133. 
See Keat. 

MAUL [mau'I], v, a, to poll about ; to handle roughly. Qy. com. 
'Shepherd's a mighty good-tempered dog — ^'e lets the childem maul 
'im as much as they'n a mind, an' never snaps 'em.' 

KATTH', MAujnjnA, must; must not. See Oraanmar Outlines, 
p. Ixxz. 

* He begged, for Gndeeake I I wad be his wife, 

Or else I wad kill him wi' sorrow : 
So e'en to preserye the poor body in life, 
I think I maun wed him to-morrow, to-morrow, 
I think I maun wed him to-morrow.' 

BoBBBT BuBNB, Poem$j p. 195, U. 10, 11. 

' With glooman brow the laird seeks in his rent : 
Tis no to gie ; your merchant's to the bent : 
His honour maunna want, he poinds your Rear ; 
Syne driven frae house and hald, where wm ye steer ? * 

Allan Bamsay, The OenUe Shepherd, I. ii. p. 19. 

Mr. Oliphant says that the Scandinavian munnde of the ' Ormulum ' 
18 found as mone in ' Havelok the Dane,' written 80 years later : — 

< I wene that we deye mone 
For hunger .... .'— L 840. 

He remarks that ' this mone is almost the Scotch fnauo.' — 8ource$ of 
Standard English, p. 165. 
Of. Kun. 

■AUVCHEB [maunfihur'], tb, a stone crusher. Com. M. T. Cf. 

MAXTHDEB [mau-ndur*], v. n. to wander about, as if without 
settled purpose. — Clee Hills. 'OVs Jack gwe'fn onP' <0h, Vs 
no good, 'e gwuz maunderin* about like some owd cow.' 
See Mauwler in Hal. Of. Oonder (2). 

KAWDBEL [maun-dr'ill, sb. a pick, sharp-pointed^at each end, 
used in ' getting ' coal. Uom. M. T. 

Pogge gives this word for 'Nortii.' Mr. Halliwell says that it 
occurs in * Howell, 1660, sect 51,' 

KAUT [mau't], sb., var, pr. malt. Com. 

' O, WilHe brewed a peck o' maut. 
And Bob and Allan cam to see ; 
Three blyther hearts, tilat lee-limg night, 
Ye wad na find in Christendie.' 

BoBSBT BuBKB, Poems, p. 200, L 17, o, 2. 

XAWXnr. See Malkin. 

KAWKSED [mauk'st], pari, roughly fingered; rumpled; made 
untidy. — Ellesicsbe. ' Dear 'eait aUve ! 'ow yo'n mawksed that 
appam, Vy it wuz on'y clane on at tay-time.' 

KAWKSnrO, part. adj. sauntering ; loitering. — Shrkwbbitrt ; 



Atoham; Pulyerbatch; Wem; Ellesmerb. * I'ye knit a stockiii 
awUde we^n bin mawknn* the lanes after a bit o' laisin' — a sign we 
hanna 'ad much to do.' 

HAWMSET [mau'mzi'], adj, sleepy; stupid, as from want of rest, 
or from over-drinking. — Pulvebbatch ; Wem. ' Merry nights m&k'n 
sorrowful momin's — Fm despert mawmsey to-day, an' aWnna. be right 
tell I'm pooFd through the sheets agen.' 

MAWH [mau'n], sh,, var, pr. a mane. — Wem. 

KAWSEIir [maus'kin and mau'skin], sb. the stomach of a calf pre- 
pared for rennet — Wobthen ; Newport. A.S. maga, the stomach. 
Cf . Kidmaw, also Bindless. 

HAY, (1) V. «., var, pr, make. — Colliery; Newport. *Oi*ll may 
that warm fur ye.' See A (6) in Grammar Outlines (wnveU, &a). 
See also Mek. Of. ICak. 

(2) pron,f var. pr., emph, me. — Ihid. 

' there he tooke a ring of his ffingar right, 

& to that squier raught itt hee, 
& said, ** beare this t6 my Lady bright, 
for shee may thinke itt longe or Siee may see." ' 

Bonoorth Feilde, L 524. Percy Folio MS., 
ToL iii. p. 254, ed. Hales and Fumiyall. 

'In and near Newcastle, Staffordshire, me is to-day pronounced 
may.' — Glossarial Note by Mr. Viles, p. 560, ibid. 

&QQ Chrammar Outlines (pereonal pronouru). Note (1), and compare 
emph. thee. 

KAY-BE, adv. perhaps. — Newport. 

< Or maybe in a frolic daft, 
To Haffue or Oalais taks a waft, 
To make a tour, an' tak a whirl. 
To learn bon ton, an' see the worl'.' 

BoBERT Burns, Poem$, p. 4, L 27. 

0£ ICay-liappen, below. See Mebbe. 

HAY-TLOWEBS, sb. pi. the flowers of Caltha Paliistris, common 
Marsh MarigoldL — Pulverbatch; Newport. See Bk. n., jPoflfe- 
hre, &o., ' Oustoma connected with Days and Seasons' (May-Day). 

lEAY-GBASSy sb. Greater Stitchwort. — Pulverbatch. See De\irs 

HAY-HAPPElf, adv. perhaps. — ^Ellesmerb, Welshatnpton. 

' And able for to helpen al a schire 
In any caas that mighte falle or happe.^ 

Ohauoer, The Prologue, t 585, ed. Morrisi 

Dr. Morris glosses happe, to happen, befall; 'whence,' he says, 
* happy, mis-Aop, per-^ap», may-mzp. O.E. happen, happy; O.N. 
?ux^, fortune ; W. hap, luck.' 

Gf. Happen, also Behappen. See Happen. 

KAYTHEBJT [mai-dhur'n], tb. stinking Chamomile. — Corve Dam ; 
Clbb HiuiB. 


'Ameroke,' glossed ^mathen (maytJie),* occurs in The Treatise of 
Walter de BiUeeworth, xiii. cent., in Wr. yocabs., yol. i. p. 162. 
See below. Cfl Uoithem. 

HATTHIO [mai'dhig], same as above. — Coryb Bale. 

* Herha putida, maegiSa/ occurs in Archbp, JElfric^s Vocabulary, x. 
cent, and * Hec embroca. A* ma^the,' in an English Vocabulary, xy. 
cent., both in Wr. yocabs., yol. i. pp. 31 — 190. 

Mr. Wright has a footnote on the latter, referring to * maythe ; ' it is 
as follows : — ' Camomile (the anthemis cotvla of botanists), still called 
in some districts may-weed; the A.S. magt^aJ 

'Mayde wede, herbe, or maythys. Melissa^ amarusca,* — Prompt, 
Parv. Ct Maise. 

KEAKIirO [mi'-u'kin], adj, sickly ; ailing ; lacking energy. — 
PuLVERBATGH ; Weh. * Kitty wuz fid'ays a poor meUkin^ thing, nod 
likely to get 'er liyin* like the rest.' 

MEAL [mee'l], sb, the quantity of milk given by a cow, or by cows, 
at one time. Com. * The cows sinken i' thar milk £EU3t, I can see it 
less every meal — it shewns the time o' 'ear.' 

' Each shepherd's daughter with her cleanly peale, 
Was come a field to milk the morning's mecUe,' 

Bbowi^s PastoralSy B. L, Song iv. p. 99, in Nares. 

A.S. mdHf that which is marked out; a portion, — ^time, meaL 

HEAL -MOUTHED, adj, the very opposite of 'plain-spoken' — 
reluctant to speak the honest truth, when to do so might be ' incon- 
venient. ' — PuLVBEBATCH. * Yo' bin so despert meal'mouihed — afeurd 
o' spakin' Ven yo' should'n, an' Ven yo' binna wanted yo' can 
rackle too fast, a power.' 

Mr. Nares says that 'this term, which survives' in the form of 
mealy-mouthed, appears to have been the original word.' He explains 
it as meaning ' Delicate-mouthed, unable to bring out harsh or strong 
expressions, and quotes the following as an illustrative example of 
this usage: — 

* Who would imagine yonder sober man. 
That same devout meale-moutJ^ed predsian, 
That cries good brother, kind sister, &c. 
. . . . who thinks that this good man, 
Is a vile, sober, damn'd polititian ? ' 

Mabston, Sat, ii a.d. 1598. 
Minsheu—ed. 1617— gives, '8523. Meale mouthed, or fisdre spoken. 
Huiusmodi efiam apud Lot : sunt loquendi formuL» qui de homine 
perblando dicunt, mel, et rosas loqmtur, ita et no$ meal-mouthed, 
^uasi qui farinam loqueretur, oujus verba blanda sunt^ et moUia 
instar mrinse.' 

MEAL'8-MEAT, sb, food enough for a meaL — Shrewsbdrt ; Pulvsr- 
BATCH. Qy. com. ' I gid the mon a shillin' an' a mears-mate fni 'is job.' 

' You ne'er yet had 
A meaVs'meat from my table, as I remember, 
Nor from my wardrolie any cast suit' 

Beaumont and FLBTCHEBy Eonesi Man*$ Fortune, 
ii 403, in Wb. 

T 2 


Mr. Wright says of meaVi-meat that it is ' still used in Norfolk.' 
< Forby has MeaVs-victwaU. See ii. 212:—BjlL. See Xeat, below. 

KEAB, (1) «&., ohs. a boundary. — Clun ; Clee Hillb. 

' The forest, as weU as the Honor of Clan, adjoined Kerry upon the 
boundary ; and in a suit, in the time of Queen £Ilizabeth, between the 
Crown and several freeholders and copyholders of Clun, the boundary 
of the forest was minutely set out, and is thus deposed to : — ^At Beilth, 
in the County of Salop, the 8th day of May, in the 18th year of tiie 
reign of Queen Elizabeth (1576), Moris ap Owen, of Beilth, Yeoman, 
of the age of 4 score jrears or thereabouts, being sworn to the meare^ 
of the forest, and haying described them so as to exclude Kerry, on 
being examined how he knoweth the mearea to be as aforesaid, saith 
that '* about sixty years last past, at which time the Lords of Clnn 
had and held Jura Begalia within the Lordship of Clun. And the 
Lords of Kery held also Jura Begalia within the Lordship of Kery ; 
he saw two men hanged, whose names he doth not now remember, 
for certain offences by them before committed and done ; the one of 
the said two men was hanged within the Lordship of Clun, at the side 
of the Brook called the Bithor, by the Steward and Officers of the 
Lordship of Clun ; and the other man was haneed within the Lord- 
ship of Kery, on the other side of the said Brook, within less than a 
bow-diot to the other, by the Steward and Officers of the Lordship of 
Kery ; and saith that the said two men were hanged on one day. — 
From a Paper on ' Ancient Documents relating to the Honor, 'Forests, A 
Borough of Clun,* read before the * Archaeological Listitute ' at Shrews* 
buiy, in Aug^t, 1855, by Thos. Salt, Esq., and * priTately printed.* 

* The minutes of the proceedings of a Court Swainmote of Humphrey 
Briggs, Esq., for his Forest of Clee, . . • held at Emstrey, in the 15th 
year of James 1st, .... describe the boundary line of the *' Cliyee,*' or 
open downs, all round the hill [Brown CleeJ, the seyeral townships 
being divided from each other, at the point where they touch the Forest 
by a landmark, most frequently by an oak called a mear-oak, the 
boundaries being called mears.* — ^From a Paper on ' The Clee Forest 
and the Clee HxtU, by William Purton, Esq., published in the * TranS" 
actions of the Severn Valley Naturalist Field Club * for 1865^1870, 
pp. 7 — ^9. 

* Mere set }k>u whilk ouerga l^ai ne sal, 
Ne tume to hile ]>e land with-aL' 

Metrical English Psalter, ciii. (A.D. 1300, ante). 
[Pa. ciy. 9]. Specim. Early Eng., iL L 19, 

* The Trojan Brute did first that dtie fownd. 
And Kygate made the meare thereof by West^ 

And Oy^ gate by North ' 

Spekseb, F. Q., Bk. in. c. ix. at xlyi, 

' The furious Team, that on the Cambrian side. 
Doth Shropshire as a mere frt>m Hereford divide.' 
Drayton, Polyolbion [a.d. 1613—1622], i. p. 807,inNarea. 

' Meer, marke be-twene ij. londys. Meta, meris, C. F. (diyia, inter- 
finium, K.).' — Prompt Parv, 

Ash has 'Meer, a boundary.' A.S. medre, gemdre; Du. meere; 
O.N. fium, a boundary. 

(2) [mee*uV], sh. a line of stones down a field, whioh haye beea 


picked out of the plough's course, and bo left b^ idle farmers long ago. 
Such is the explanation current at Ditton Pnors (Clee Hills) of me 
mears existing there at this date [1875]. 

Mr. Purton, in his Paper on * The Clee Forest ' before quoted, says 
of the old word mear that, though obsolete as meaning a boundary, * it 
is a singular fact that it was, not many years a^, and probably is now, 
in famuiar use about Ditton Priors, with wmch neighbourhood tliis 
report [minutes of the Brigg*s Court] especially identifies itself. It is 
applied to heaps of stones collected off the fields and left in rows down 
the middle of them. The old meara between the parishes were pro^ 
bably fixed in the same way, the oaks being the more enduring land- 
marks. Sometimes it is a mear oak, sometimes an oak in a mear, in 
one place ** where a birtch did lately stand." ' 

Ash has ^ Meer, a strip of green l>etween ploughed lands.' 

Grose gives * Meer, a ridge of land between different properties in a 
common field. Glouc' 

' In Norfolk, according to Forby, a Mara-balk, or mere, is a narrow 
slip of unploughed land, which separates properties in a common 
field. '' Limes est callis et finis dividens agros, a meere.*' — Med. M.S. 

Cant. Elyotgives ** Cardo, mere^ or boundes which passeth 

through the field.'' The following occurs in Gk)uldman : ** To cast a 
meer with a plough, urbo, A meer, or mark, terminus, meta^ limes," * 

See Meaf-oak, below. 

ME ABED, part, adj., ohs. marked out ; bounded. — Oswbstrt. 

In a copy, dated 1714, of the Terrier of the Oswestry Schools* lands, 
taken in 1635, is the following : — ' Item, One parcel of meadowing in 
a meadow there called GhreirgLodd Jenn Oouth, lyine betwixt ye lands 
of Edward Evans gent on ye one side, and mearea hy two oakes one 
att each end thereof, and ye lands of Robert Powell^ Esq. meared on 
that side by three mear stones* — See Byegones, Sept. 8th, 1875, p. 299* 

Ash gives ' Meered, having a boundary, bounded by a meer.' 

The verb to mer e, to have a common boundary, occurs in a docu- 
ment temp. Henry VIII., 1543, in State Papers, v. 809. See Way. 

See Mear-Btone, below. 

XEA&-OAK, sb., ohs. a landmark, — ' by a landmark, most frequently 
by an oak called a mear-oak,* — Clee Hills. 

< Mos antiquorum in divisione a^orum, ramum ex arbore palma 
decerptum cum fructihus pro termino figere solebunt.' — Minshext, 
— ed. 1617— p. 299. 

See below, also Mear, above. 

MEAK-STOITE, sh,, ohe, a boundary-stone, — ' ye lands .... meared 
on that side by three mear «<07i««.'~-0sw£STRY. 

* " A meyre stane, hifinium, limes J* — Cath. Akg. " Terminalia 
lapis, a mere stone, laide or pyghte at the ende of sundry mens 
landes." — Elyot.' See Way's Note in Prompt Parv., p. 333. 

Minsheu has * Mearstones, rectius mearck-stones, sunt lajpides termi- 
nales, qui unius cujusque terras limitant, et discurrunt. Marck enim 
est limes ut proliace disputat,* 

Ash gives ' Meerstone, a merestone, a stone set up as a boundary 
between lands.' 

A.S. gemitre, a teimination ; limit See Keared, above.. 


MEAT, 8b, food; the generic tenn — so much a day and his meai. 

* This knyght is to his chambre lad anon, 
And is ynanned and to mete yeet/ 

CHA0CEB, F. 173 (Six-text ed.), Skeat 

'A.S. mete; O.IceL mair; Gk>th. maU; O.H.QernL max, meat 
(cibus; esca)' — Stbat. 
Cf. Fleah-meat. See Kate. 

MEATT rmaiti], adj. fleshy: said of cattle. — Pulvkrbatch. Qy. 
com. * Them bullocks binna to say fieit, but they bin mitey — ^chick o' 
the rib.' See Fleah-meat. 

MEBBE jjneb'i'], contraction of Haybe, q. ▼., and the more usual 
form. — Newpo&t. Cf. Vappen. 

HEOBIKS [mai'gr'imz],8&./7Z.,/>g(;. antics; gesticulationa — ^Pulter- 
batch; Eixesmbbe. Qy. com. 'Them childem wun naughty i' 
church, they wun m&kin maigrims an' witherin' one to another all 
the wilde.' See Megrims in Wedo. 

XEK, V, a., var. pr. make — ' niek *er a coop o' tay.' — Colliery ; 
Newport. See A (6) in Orammar Outlinea (vowels, &c.), also 
May (1). 

MELCH [mel'sh], (1) €ujlj. soft; mild, as of wind or weather. — 
FxTLVERBATOH. ' Theer's a nice melch winde this momin' — mild 
as May.' 

(2) adj, milk-giTinff. — Shrewsbttry; Pulverbatch ; Worthen. 
Qy. com. ' Bin uiem barren or m^h, Maister ? ' ' They bin dried fiir 

' Sche was melehe. Lai le/reine,* in Strat. 

XELCH-COW, $b. a cow giving milk ; a dairy-cow — ' a new melch' 
cow,* — Ibid, 

' then at the farm 

I have a hundred mUch-kine to the pail.' 

Taming of the Shrew, U. i. 359. 

' Smolgiuto, sucked or milched dry.' — ^Florio, a.d. 1680. 

' O.H.Germ. melcher, milch (melch).' — Strat. See Baay Helched. 

XEBfAOEBIE [mu'najur*i'], sb., pec, a confused state of things ; a 
litter ; a collection of odds and ends. Com. ' 'Eart aliye, childem, 
whud a menagerie yo'n got 'ere ! ' 

M£]ErOR See Minge. 

KENT, pret mended. — Corvb Dale. 

KEOW [mi'ou* or myou'], v, a, and v. n. to make a wry mouth ; to 
make distorting grimaces. — Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch. * 'E bats 
'is eyes an* myowa 'is mouth like summat kyimet.' 

' Sometime like apes that mow and chatter at me.' 

Tempest, II. iL 9. 

*Ji£owffn, or make a mow, Valgio, cachinncJ'^ Prompt. Parv. 
' Fairs la mtme a guelqu^un ; to make mouths at one.' — Chajcb. 
*O.Fr. mM; Du. mouwe; mouth (mow).' — Pick. Of. Koruma. 


[mee'hV], (1) sb. a mare. — Newport. 

' Forthledand hai to meres ma, 
And grease to hinehede of men Bwa, 
pat j^ou outelede fra erthe brede.' 

Metrical, English Psalter, ciii. (a.D. 1300, ante), 
IPs. civ. 14], Specim, Early Eng., ii. 1. 29. 

' In a tabard he rood upon a mere,' 

Chaugek, The Prologue, 1. 541, ed. Morris. 

*Meere, horse. Egua,^ — Prompt, Parv, 

A.S. mcere; O..H.Genn. merhe, a mare. 0£ Mar (1). 

(2) sh, a large natural sheet of water — a lake. The meres, as a 
lake system, obtain in N. Shr. 

* Our weaver here doth will 

The muse his source to sing, as how his course he steers ; 
Who from his natural spring, as from hie neighboring meres 
Sufficiently supply*d, shoots forth his silver breast.' 

Drayton's Polyolbion [a.d. 1613 — 1622], xi. p. 861, in Nares. 

Mr. Nares remarks that mere is * still used in Cheshire and else- 
where for the lakes of the country.' 

Mr. Halliwell also notes the term as ' still in use.' He quotes the 
following : — * A mere, or water whereunto an arme of the sea floweth.' 
— Baret, 1580. 

* Mere, watur (mer, or see, water, W.). Mare,* — Prompt, Parv, 
A.8. mere, a lake ; pool. See l£ar (2). C£ Pool See Bk. II., 

Folklore, &c., 'Legends.' 

KEBB-BALLS. See Hoss-balls. 

MEBB4SIDE, sb, the margin of the mere. — Ibid, The mere-side at 
Ellesmere affords a most charming walk, the Mere^ardens adding to 
its natural attractions. 

MEBBY-TBEE, sb,, obsols, a tree bearing a small, wild cherry. — 
Wem; Elleshebe. 

* Merise tree* occurs in Phillips' New World of Words, 7th ed. 1720. 

< Merise, espeoe de fruit rouge & noyau plus petit que la cerise. A 
kind of small, bitter cherry.' — Chahb. 

MESinr-KETTLE, same as Maslin-kettle, q. v.— Newport. 

' Brass meslin kettle,' — Auctioneer's Catalogue (Forton Hall), 1875. 

HBSS, (1 ) V, n, to trifle ; to expend time upon frivolous employ- 
ment. Com. * 'Ow lung bin 'ee gwem to mess o'er that crochet ? — 
yo'd'n better by 'afe be knittin' a stockin'.' 

(2) V, a. to squander ; to waste. Com. * 'Er's messed all 'er wages 
away, an* got nuthin', as yo* met say, to shewn fur *em.' 

XBTHEOLIH [mi'theg'lin], sb. a fermented liquor made of honeyed 
water, obtained bv thoroughly washing the * comb,' when drained of 
th^ honey : in a nigh class brew the * comb ' is sometimes washed in 
a little ' n'esh beer ' to hasten the fermentation ; but the strength of 
the liquor is dependent upon the quantity of honey it contains. 
Methe^lin, when well made, and refined and matiured by age, is a 
' cordial' of no mean order — a homely ' liqueur ' of potent quality. — 


PuLTEBiUTOH ; Newpobt. Qj. com. ' 'OVn yore bees tumed out 
this time, Molly P' 'Mighty middHn' — ^plenty o' dry o5om, but 
despert lickle 'oney; I dunna think I shall '&ye a spiggit-staue o' 

* Evans, And given to . « • tayems and sack and wine and 
metheglins:— Merry Wives of Windsor, V. ▼. 166. 

< MHheglin (Br. MeddiglinY a kind of drink in Wales made of Wort, 
Herbs, Spice, and Honey soaden together.' — ^Bix>uirT*s QlossographMk^ 
p. 408. 

Mr. Halliwell Ba3rs, *Mdheglin was anciently made of a great 
Tariety of materials. See a receipt for it in MS. Sloans, 1672, £ 127.' 

See Mr. Way's Note on * must^ in jPrompt Porr., p. 349. 

W. meddyglyn^ hydromel, mead. 


HEZZLSD rmez-ld], adj. affected with a disease to which swine are 
subject — a idnd ox meaisles which appear in the tissues of the flesh, in 
the form of white, semi-opaque spots, and render it quite unfit for usa 
It is popularly supposed that food given to pigs when it is too warm, 
will mduoe a mezxled condition of flesh. Uom. < Tak' car" as yo' 
dunna gie them lickle pigs thar mate too warm, or we sha'n 'iye 'em 

* Hog measeUd kill, 
for flemming that wilL' 

TusBEB, Fitte Hundred Poinies ofChod 
Husbandris [Octobers abstract]. 

'The Measih or Mtade, they are like Hail-stones spread in the 
Flesh, and especially in the leaner part of the Hog ; this is a Disease 
proper to this Beast, for no other in the World (as AHstoUe saith) is 
voubled therewith. • . • . • •' — Academy of Armory, Bk. II. ch. ix. 
p. 181. 

* Mas^l, or mazil, sekenesse, Serpedo, variola, MaBel3rd. Serpiginosus^ 
vel serptgumatus,* — Prompt, Parv. 

' VarioUs : postulsB qmbus cutis sit yaria : MeasiUsJ — Did, Eiym. 

<Du. maese, spot, 'stain, mark; maeselen, measles.' — ^Wedo. 

UTAlTAfl [mei'h'mus], sb, Michaelmas ; the*' Festival of St. Michael 
and all Angels.' — Pttlvebbatoh ; Wem; Ellesmeke. 'We mun be 
thinkin' about the rent, Midmas is drawin* nigh.' Miamas is a variation 
of Mihebnas, a form that sprang, according to Mr. Nares, from a 
current and familiar usage, which for a lone time obtained, of pro- 
noimcing tiie proper name Michad as Mihd, Both words occur in 
Tusser: — 

* Then spare it for rowen, tilt Mihd be past.^ — — 

* Be mindful! abrode of Mihdmas spring.' 

Fiue Hundred Pointes of Good Hushandrie [August]. 

An earlier instance of the form, ' Myhdmas Day,' is found in the 
Paston Letters, A.l>. 1465, yoL ii. p. 244. 

XICH [mich*], v, n., obsA to crouch; to huddle, as in a comer. — 
Pttlvebbatoh ; Wobthek. < The ]>oor owd {Oman's gettin' mighty 
simple, 'er oanna do much but mich i' the cornel.' 


• ** To mich in a corner, deliieo," — ^Ghouldman,' in Way. 
Of. Hootchinff. 

XIDDLEy sb, the waist. Qy. com. ' I dunna like ptittin' a strap 
round a child's middle to dade doth — ^it mak's 'em inclined to peck 

I On hen hire her is fayr ynoh, 
Hire browe broune, hire e^ blake, 
Wil^ lossum chere he on me loh ; 
Wi)' middd smal & wel ymake.' 

Specim. of Lyric Poetry (A.D. 1300, circa), * Alysonn.' 
Specim, Early Eng,, iy. a, L 16. 

' Fnll many Ladies often had assayd 
About their middles that faire belt to knit.' 

Spenser, F. Q., Bk. V. a iii. si xxviiL 

' Myddyl, of f^e waste of mannys body. VaatiUu.* — Prompt, Parv, 

MIDDLIHO, adj. indifferent ; not well, nor yet ill — a poor kind of 
state : said of tiie health. Com. 

XIDDIIHO-SHABP, ndj, tolerably well Com. 

MIDOEH [mij'in], sb. the omentum of a slaughtered pig. — Elles- 

*Midgin, the mesentery of a hog, commonly called the Crow. 
North.'— Pbooe. 
See Kell (1). 

UDOEH'-LAAD, sb. an inferior kind of lard made from the fat of 
^e intestines.— Pulyebbatoh; Newfobt; Ellesmee]^ 

UPF, (1) sb. a pet ; a slight ill-humour. — Whitchurch. 

' She is in a little sort of miff about a ballad.' — Arbttthnot. 
Pegge has 'Miff^ displeasure, ill-humour: He left me in a miff. 
Seeift/inWEDO. Cf . HuiH 

(2) V. n» to take offence hastily. — ^WHircHURGH. ' 'E miffed at it 

HIFFY, adj. apt to take offence ; touchy. — Ibid. 

XIOHTT, adj.^ pec. very. Com. * Rogers the tailor bought a pig 
at the far, but 'e's a mighty poor ayen.' "E'U feed well on cabbitch, 
yo'n see ! — 'ell mak' a tidy lump by Chris'mas.' 

' Ite y* 19 of Marche, 1614, for stoppage of the water of Seaveme 
out of the Churche beinge then a mighty great flood, xyiijd.' — 
Churehufarden^ Accounts of the Abbey, Shrewsbury. 

XIOHTT-BAD, adj. very ill,— in regard of health. Com. 

HILDT [mil'di'l, adj. loose ; fine ; crumbling, as of soil. — Pulver- 
BATCH. ' The fros' 'as done a power o' good, the ground breaks up 
as mildy an' as fine as a !nion-bed.' 

JULRf (1) sb., sing, for pi, miles — 'about two mile across the filds.' 


' At ^ Castel of Carboye * ^ he beden hade, 

was fiftene myle * fro sarraa I-holden, 

And o^r-fiftene myle * fro l^eniie as j^ei leuen.' 

JoBeph o/Arimathu, IL 417, 418. 

A.S. mil, a mile. Cf. Foot (1). 

(2) V. fi., var, pr, to work and labour hard; same as Koil, q. y. 
* 'E's nuHn' at it. —CoLLiEBT. 

(3) r. fk, var. pr, to drudge; to 'moil,' in the restricted sense of 
working in filth and mire, of such kind as would cleave to the 
labourer. — ^Worthsn. ' *0w them chaps bin vnl/tV i' the mixen, they 
bin all o'er muck.' Cf. Moil. 

inT.TCfl EVD-WATS, adv. an undetermined distance ; a long way — 
miles vaguely computed without reference to point or direction, 
whence or whither. Com. 'Everybody wants the thetcher at the 
same time— the Maister rid miUa end-ioays the tother day after a 
mon.' * 'E'd better a mounted the lather instid o' the 'orse ; the owd 
Maister use't to thetch w'en 'e wuz above seventy.' Compare ' mile 
wei ' used in an analogous manner, though with a diverse meaning, 
in the following : — 

' alle )>e surgens of saleme * so sone ne oo^en, 
haue leeed his langour * and his liif saued, 
as ))e maide meliors * in a mile wei dede.' 

William of Paieme, 1. 1578. 

HILDTO [mei'lin], part. adj. dirty and laborioua — * a witZiV job.' — 
CoLLiEBT. See Mile (2), above. 

MILK-FORK, same as Dairy-maid, q. v. — ^Ellbsmsrid. 

MILK-LEAD, sb. a shallow, leaden cistern for laying milk in ; it is 
furnished with a plug beneath, upon the withdrawal of which the 
milk flows through, leaving the cream resting on the Weoct,' firom 
whence it is afterwards removed in a quite pure state. Qy. com. 
' Now, dunna star' about yo' an' let the crame run through, as well 
as the milk.' 

' Two milk leada and frame.' — AtLdioTieer^B Catalogue (LongvOle), 1877. 

MILLEB, sb. Muadcapa griaola, Spotted Fly-catcher — ^the young 
bird. — BRioaNORTH. 

MILNEK, ab. a miller. Com. ' If yo' sin the milner, tell 'im we 
sha'n want a batch grond nex' wik.' 

' Hie molejidinariuB, a milner/ occurs in a Ncmifude, xv. cent., in 
Wr. vocabs., vol. i. p. 212. 

* O.Icel. mylnari; O.H.Q^rm. mulnari, milner,' in Strat. 

MINCIHO, part. adj. tripping; walking with short steps, in an 
affected manner. ' Jest see our Marv I er gwuz mincin* alung as if 
'er wuz daincin* on eggs an' afraid o' breakin' 'em — ^'w's gotten 
despert big-sorted sence 'er went to live at the 'All.' 

• Portia. m hold thee any wager, 

When we are both accoutred like young men, 
I'll prove the prettier fellow of the two, 


and turn two mincing steps 

Into a manly stride ' 

MercJiant of Venice^ TIL iv. 67. 

■IHOE, MEHOE [min-zh], Pulyerbatgh ; Clbb Hills. [men*zh], 
Ellesmere, v. a. to mix ; to mingle. ' Tell the cowman to gie the 
'eifer a good bran mash, an* to minge it up well — nod lave any dry 
lumps in.' 

* Mynge* occurs in the Wicliffite version— ed. A.D. 1388 — * . . in the 
drynke that she meddlid to ^ou, mynge ^ double to hir.' — Bev. zyiii. 6. 
' . . . whos blood FUat myngide with the sacrifices of hem.' — Luke 
ziii. 1. 

*Medle, or mengynge to-gedur of dyuerse thynges. Mixtura»^ — 
Prompt, Parv. 

A.S. mengan ; O.Fria menga^ to mix, mingle. C£ Munge (2). 

HDTOICXJMMIJHBTJS [minj*i'ku'mum*'bus], sh. an agglomeration ; 
an inseparable mass, as of pounds of butter stuck together, or of 
things of diverse kinds shaken together into a state of hopeless con- 
fusion. — PuLVERBATCH. * 061 the owd mai' be fit fur markit o* 
Saturday, Maistor ? — the young un jogs so, we sha'n a the buttor all 
in a mingicummumbui,' The term is clearly a 'coined' one. Cf. 
Minge, above. 

MXJNiJULff fmin'i'kin], ^1) adj\ small; delicate. — Pulvebbatch; 
Wem. ' It s a minikin licxle thing fur six months owd, but a pretty 
Tusser has ' minneJdn Nan,' p. 20, ed. E. D. S. 
' A minikin wench, a smirking lasse.' — Florio, p. 315, in Hal. 

(2) ah. a slight, delicate, affected girl — ' sich a minikin as 'er is.'^ 
Tbid, ' A minikin^ a fine mincing lass,' Kennett MS., is quoted bv 
Mr. Halliwell, who remarks that the word is ' still in use in Devon. 

fTY ^in'ti'], arf/., obsoU. mitey, as of cheese, &c. — Shrewb- 
BURT ; Craven Arms. 

* VermeSf Anglioe myntys,' occurs in a Metrical Vocdbtdarv^ perhaps 
xiv. cent., in Wr. vocabs., vol. i. p. 176. Mr. Wright has the follow- 
ing note upon it : — ' The word mint, in the signification of a mite, is 
stm preserved in the dialecte of the west of England.' 

MI8DEEDED, tidj. miserly ; covetous — ' a misdeeded owd mon.' — 
Cluk, Clungun/ord, 

MISDEEMFTTL, adj\ suspicious. — Pulverbatch; Church Strbtton ; 
Clee Hills. ' Mrs. Morris is so misdeem/ul, 'er thinks every bod v's 
chaitin' 'er — be'app'n 'er mizzers other folk's cloth by 'er own yard. 

' C, Cwtance, Surelj tiiis fellowe misdeemeth some yll in me.' — 
Boister DiMter^ Act irg. Sc. iij. p. 62. 

A.S. d&man, to judge, and Lat. prefix, mis = less. 

nSDEEmn, XISBAnmrL, same as above->corrapted forms. 

laSELTOE-THBTJSE, $b. Turdua viscivarus, Missel -thrush. — 
Wobthen; Clxjn. 


* This liird . • . is not migratory, excepting in bo fiir aa it moyes 
off in considerable flocks into Herefordsliire and Monmouthshire for 
the sake of the mistletoe, which abounds in the orchards there, on the 
viscous berries of which it delights to feed ; whence it has obtained 
its familiar name of missel, or mistUtoe-ihrusK* — Science Goeeip^ 
p. 166, ▲. D. 1873. 

Ct MiMel-bird, below. See Thrice-oock. 

■IBEBD [mei'zar'd], #6., var, pr. a miser ; an ayaricioas man. Qy. 
com. * Aye, Vs jest like all the lot on 'em — 'is Faither wuz as great 
a miterd as eyer liyed, an' 'is owd Nunde too.' 

XISFOBTVHX, ah.^ pec, an illegitimate child-birtlL Com. See 

XISSEL-BIBD, same as IGseltoe-thmsli, aboye, q. y. — ^Bridgnorth. 
Called ' MieeeU Bird, or Shiit,' in the Academy of Armory^ Bk. IL 
eh. xii. p. 279. 

^'^'^nSBL See Moither. 

MXTTEVS [mit'inz], ah, pi. gloyes worn by hedgers and woodmen, 
to protect their hands and arms from injury whilst about their work ; 
they are made of stout hide, and reach halfway to the elbow ; they 
have no fingers like an ordinary gloye^-the hand-part is undivided — 
but there is a pouch for the thumb. Com. ' I lost a capital par o' 
mittine the tother day; I 'anged 'em o' the 'edge Sdth my oajte-bag, 
aw'ile I wuz clanin' the diche, an' somebody stole 'em.' 

' Brushing-hooks, axes, broomhooks and mittens.' — Audioneer'a 
Catalogue (I^ngyille), 1877. 

' Twey myteynee, . . maad all of doutes,' are named, as forming 
part of the apparel of ' The poor Ploughman,' in P. Fi Or,, L 428. 

' To handle without mittine' — CRAY'S Proverhe, p. 60. 

'O.Fr. Mitan, moiti^, milieu . • . . . M. Grandgagnage, derive 

mitan de I'ahal. mittamo (medius) Notre mitaine appartien* 

drait-il i cette famille ? Mitaine est un gant ou il n'y a qu'une separ- 
ation, pour ainsi dire gant s6par6 en deux moiti^s.' — ^Bitb. 

EX [mik's], Qy. com. J^mek's], Pulvbrbatch, v, a, to dean 
out, as of stable or cow-house litter. ' Theer use't to be a lad kep' to 
mex the cows, sarve the pigs, an' do all the rough work.' 

Bandle Holme has, under * Terms used by Cow-herds : '-^' To Mexon, 
is to make clean their Houses from Dung.' — Academy of Armcry, 
Bk. n. ch. ix. p. 173. 

' A.S. mix, meox; Fris. miox, miux; mix (mux), stercus/ — Strat. 


\, ah, a dunghill. Com. 
< Better wed over the Mixon than over the Moor,' is given by Bay 
as a * Cheshire Proverb' and he adds a note : — * That is, nard by or at 
home, the Mixon being that heap of compost which lies in the yards 
of good husbands, than &r on, or from London, The road from 
Chester leadine to London over some part of the Moor-lands in 
Staffordshire, the meaning is,' &c See Proverbs, pp. 23d, 236. 

Pegge has * Mixon, a dunghill. Kent' 
A.S. mixen, a dunghilL 


MIZZLE [mizi], v, n. to rain softly, in small, fine, imperceptible 
drops. — Shbewsbtjby; Ptjlverbatch ; Wellington; Nkwpobt; 

' Up, Colin up ! ynough tlion momed bast ; 
Now g3nines to mizzk, bye we homeward fast.' 

Spenser, The Shephearda Calender^ NoTomber, I. 208. 

HIZZLDFO, part, adj. descending tbicklj, in soft, fine drops, like 
mist, — • a mizzling rain.' — Ibid, 

' O.N. miatr, Q-. mieiy Da. miest, tbickness of tbe air, mist ; misaen^ 
mieateUf mieaelen^ nebulam exbalare, rorare tenuem pluTiam ; miese" 
linge, nebula. — "Kill an,' in Wedo. 

MOACH [moa-cb], v. n, to lounge, or 'bang about,' idly. — Wbm. 
< 'E's no good, 'e does nutbin' but mooch about &om momin* teU neet.' 
Of. * Michy to skulk,' in Hal. 

KOBLE [mob'l], (1) v, a. to muffle tbe bead and shoulders in warm 
wraps.— Shrewsbury. * I neyer sid sich a SSman, 'er mohlts 'erself 
up in that owd 'odd an' shawl, an' sits by tbe fire, tell 'er*s as nesb as 
nesh — 'er*d be a power better if 'er 'ad to knock about like me.' 

** First Player. * But who, O who, had seen the moUed queen ' 

Ham. * The mohled queen ? ' 

Pol. Tbaf s good : * mohUd queen ' is good. 

First Player. * Bun barefoot up aild down, threatening the flame 
With bisson rheum ; a clout upon that head. 
Where late the diadem stood ; and for a robe 
About her a blanket.'"— -J7amW, II. ii. 624— 526. 

(2) V. a. to put on an abundance of warm wraps for general comfort, 
as when setting out for a cold journey, or such like. — Pulyerbatch ; 
Newport ; Wem. * Yo' mun moUe yourself well up, it's a despert, 
raw, cowd night.' The past participle, followed by the adverb up, la 
perhaps more frequently used — ' moiled up.* ^Mind as yo' bin 
mohUd up right well afore yo' start' 

XOO Fii^og'], (1) V. a. and v. n., obaoh. to move from one place to 
another, as of cows changing pasture ; to move off or away. — Pttlyer- 
BATOH. ri) ' TeU John to mog the cows i' tbe momin* — ^it's time as 
they wenten i' the Cote Leasow.' * (2) ' Now then, mog off fur the 
oows, or they 66nna be out o' the foud by six ' (A.1C.). Of. Shift (3) (4). 

(2) V. n., ohsoU. to exchange ; a term of cards employed in the game 
of * Costly.' — Shrewsbury ; Elleshbrb. Qy. com. See Costly. 

KOOOY, eh, a young calf. Com. 

XOIL [mwoi'l and moi'11, v. n. to labour ; to slave ; to drudge in 
dirty work : generally, out not necessarily, used in combination with 
'toil* — *moil and toil.' — ^PuLVERBATCH ; Wem. Qy. com. *Yo' 
met'n munnl an' toil a couple o' 'ours, an' 'ardly set a wisket full— it's 
a despert bad crop, but yo' canna look fur anytnin' else off that wet 
groun , the 'tatoes rot afore they oomen to anythin'.' 

'. . mounchynge in tiieir maungers, and m/oylyngt in their ftaya 
'Sianoures and mansions, and so troubeled wyth loyter3mge in tbeyr 
Lordeehyppes.'— Latxhxb, Sermon on th9 Plough€r$f p. 26. 



Ood husbandmen mnst maile A toiler 
laie to line by laboured feeld.' 
TXTSSER, Introduction to the Booke of Husbandrie, 
p. 13, ed. E. D. 8. 

Bailey — ed. 1782 — giyes • To Moil [mm7, old Word for mule^ q. d. to 
labour like a Mule], to work with might and main, to drudge.' 
Of. MUe (2) (3). 

HOULED, MOILLET [mwolld], PuLVERBATCH. [moi'lh't and 
mwoi'lh't], Chukch Stretton, Leehottoood, (1) adj. hornless. *I 
d5dna-d-a car*d if the Maister 'ad soud that Bishop* s Castle cow 65th 
'er wide 'oms, but to sell my pretty little mwoiUed 'eifer — ^it did 
Tex me.* 
W. moel, bare, bald. Of Ciuli-oow. 

(2) [mwoi'ld], adj. borderless, as of a cap. — PuLVEKBATCH. * I like 
the childem to war nightcaps, it keeps the bousters clane, an' they 
done as well mtooiUed as bordered.* 

MOITHES, MITHEE [moi'dhur^ and meidhnr'], both pronunciations 
obtain, and appear to oe used indifferently, (1) v. a, and v. n. to dis- 
tract; to perplex; to 'bother.* Com. (1) 'Them women's clack 
mitherd the poor chap tell *e didna know whad 'e wuz sayin\* 

(2) ' The Missis 'as gid me sich a power o' jobs all wantin* dom' at 
wunst, that I'm far mithered, an' canna tell which to start on first.' 

(3) ' Do it which way 3ro'n a mind, an' dunna moither me 55th it.' 
J?erhaps connected with Du. moedden ; Germ, ermuden^ to tire. 

(2) V. n. to talk incoherently— to ramble, as in feyerish sleep, or 
delirium. Com. 'I thought the poor child wuz gwein to '^ye a 
faiyer, fur 'er burnt like a coal, an' moithered all night' 

Bailey— ed. 1782 — giyes ' Welly Moideredf almost crazed. CheslC 

MOITHEBED, part. adj. broken into very small flakes: said of 
curds. See Jowters (2). 

HOITHEBK, same as Maythem, q. v. — Corvb Dale, Stanton 

■OLE [moa'l], sh. a mould ; a form. Com. ' Pfit the piiddin' i' 
the round mole, it looses best out o' that.' 

'O.Fr. Mcie, moule; ital. modano, esp., port, ayec renyersement 
du 2, molde ; de modvlus* — Bur. 

MOLLTCOT, sh. a man who busies himself in such household matters 
as are peculiarly the woman's proyince : a derisiye term. Com. ' 'E's 
whad I call a useful man in a ouse athout bein' a molly cot.^ Compare 
Shakespeare's ' cot-quean' as applied to Capulet. — Romeo and Jufiet^ 
TV. iy. 7. 

HOMBLE [moni-bl], (1) sb. a bungling job — ' 'e'll mek a mamble on 
it.'— Newport. 

(2) V. a. and v, bungle ; to do things in a clumsy way. — Urid^ 

KOMBLED-XTP, part. adj. dredsed up awkwardly and ridiculously. 
— Ihid. C£ Moble (2). also Mommocked-up. 


XOMBLEHEHT, «& confusion; disorder. — ^Pulvbrbatoh. 'Mary, 
yo' al'ays get these drawers into a momhlement an' mess whenever yo' 
g6'n to 'em.* 

MOMMET [momi't], (1) sb. a scarecrow. — Corvb Dale, Stanton 

* that ever any man should look 

Upon this maumet, and not laugh at him.* 

Old Play, in Nabes. 

Compare O.E. mawmetf an idol : — 

' Do a-wei \>i Maumetea ' )>ei han trayed \>e ofte ; 

Let broken hem a-two ' 

Joseph of Arimathie, 1. 102. 
Cf. Malkin (2). 

(2) sh. a ghost ; a spectre.— PtTLVSRBATCH ; Ellesmere. ' I'd as 
lif g55 i' the night as tne day, I amma afeard o' mommeta,* 

XOMKOCK, (1). See Hammock. 

(2) V. a. to dissipate ; to squander. — Wem. ' *E mommocked all *is 
money away i' no time.' 

(3) V, a. to tumble; to disarrange; to throw into confusion. — 
Newport. ' See 'ow yo'n mommocked sJ the clane things as Oi*d jdost 

(4) »b. a litter.—/^. 'Eh! ye notty childem — ^mekkin sich a 
mommock all o*er the pleace.* 

(5) V, n. to romp about, putting things into confusion. — Ihid, 
' Dunna mommock about athatns,' is a common form of reproof. 

HOMMOCKED-ITP, part. adj. dressed up fantastically and absurdly. 
Ibid. Cf. Mombled-up. 

KOMMOCKS. See Mammocks. 

MOH, ab. a man. Com. A form of friequent occurrence in the early 

* A mon to haye ii^'. benefyse, anoder no lyrynge. 

This is not Godys wyl.' 

JoHK Audeuly'b PoemSf p. 40. 

MOOHT- DAISY, sb. Chrysdntkemum Leiicdnthemum, great white 
Ox-eye. — Cravew Arms. 

KOOS [moa-ur* and moo-ur'l (1) sb. a tract of low-lying marsh land, 
as the * Wealdmoors,' • Bagley Moors,' &c,—N. 8hr. 

* And BO forleost ^ hund his fore 
And tum|> a^en eft to |>an more 
pe fox can creope bi \>e heie 
And tume ut from his forme weie 
And eft sone cume l^ar to 
ponne is pea hundes smel fordo.' 

Owl and Nightingale, 1. 818. 

* Therto the frogs, bred in the slimie scowring 

Of the moist tnoorei * 

Speksbr, Virgili Gnat, L 2da 


Mr. Halliwell aays that ' in SuflTolk mny nnmdoaed Und is called 
a moor* 

•A.S. fn<fr; O.IceL wi^; O.D0. moor, moer/ M.H.O«nii. mtior, 
moor.' — Stbat. Cf. 

(2) »h. a low, marahjr meadow by the water side. — ^WsLLnroTOir ; 
Newport. The term is used eenericallv — * So and So has a good 
crop of hay off his moors,' the nay itself beinic* neyertheleas, called 
'meadow-hay.' Bat such-like meadows are often distinguished by 
Moor as a proper name — the 'Far Moor,^ the 'Oossy Moor* tM 
' Pigeon Moor%^ ftc Compare Mr. Halliwdl's note abom 

■OOB-HBV, 9h. the Water-Hen. — Bbidovorth. 

' Morken, moor-hen. Wr. Pol. Songs, 168/ in Strat. 
C£ Korant, below. See Dab-chick. 

■OP, (1) bK, obsA a hiring fair. — ^Ludlow ; Bridonobth. See Bk. 
n., Folklore, Ac, 'Wakes, Fairs/ ftc. 

(2) $h. the gall of the Wild Boee.— Shrewbbttry, UffingUm, The 
Tillage school children give the name of mop to the pretty roee-gally 
because they use it as such, for the purpose of cleaning their slates. 

* Mary, we*n tak' dog's leaye an' gd6 through the ooppy this momin' 
to 'unt mops to clane our slates w'en we bin loost out o' school — 
55n*ee come alung P ' ' Aye, I'll come, but we mun tak* cai' as the 
keeper dunna see us ; 'ell gie us mops ^se, an' be'appen Btails as welL' 
See Briar-Boas. 

XOBAL [muVul], «5., pee. the exact likeness ; the express image ; 
the model. — Shkewsbury; Chxjbch Stbetton. Qy. com. 'Dear 
'eart aliye ! that little wench is the yeiy murral on 'er Oran'mother, 
*er'll be the owd Soman o'er agen if 'er uyes to see sixty sa' ona' 

Mr. Nares says ' Moral was sometimes confounded with modd, and 
used for it ; and I belieye still is, by the ignorant.' He quotee the 
following :— 

' Fooles be they that inyeigh 'gainst Mahomet, 
Who's but a morral of Lovers monarchic.' 

ff. CoMt. Decad.j 4 Sonn, 4. 

■OKAVT, same as Koor-Hen, aboye. — Bbidgnobth. 

XOBBAH [maur'-ban], sh. a silly person. — Whitchubch, WUxaXL 

* Whad a crazy owd morhan it is : ' said of an old man who was play- 
ing off some foolish antics. 

KOBF [mauT^'f], «5. a thick, tangled crop, as of hair, weeds, &c — 
PtTLYEBBATCH ; WsM. * Whad a mor/ o' yar that fellow's got! it 
looks as if 'e'd S6th a three-futted stooL' C£ Tellil 

KOBT [mauVt], eh. a great deal; an abundance. — Colliebt; 

' The next thin^ to being a man of property, was to haye possessed 
worldly goods which had been '* made away wi'," it scarcely mattered 
how. Indeed, eyen to haye *' made away wi' a mori o' money" one's 
self, was to be regarded as a man of parts and of no inoonaiderable 

' " To're in a mort o' trouble, Sammy, I mak* no doubt|" remarked 
one oracle, puffing at his long day. 


* " Trouble enow," returned Sammy, shortly, ** if yo* ca' it trouble 
to be on th' road to tV poor-house." ' — ^Frances H, Bubnett, That 
Law 0* Lowrxe\ A Lancashire Stor^^, p. 90, ed. 1877. 

Ash has ' Mort {from the Islandiofc margt, but judged inelegant), a 
great quantity.* 

Bailey— lOd. 1782 — gives *Mort, a great Abundance/ as * Lincoln^ 

* O.N. margt J neuter of margr, much; mart (adv.), much.' — ^Wepo, 

KOBTIFY [mauT'ti'fei], v» a, and e;. «., pec, to vex ; to provoke \ to 
disappoint ; to abase. Com. ' 'E thinks 'imself a mighty fine fellow 
r the Parish, but stop till the vestry-meetin', w'en 'e gets afore Mr. 
Jackson an' Dickin, they'n morti/y 'is ambition fur *im, yo'n see.' 
Compare K, Henry F., L i 26. 

M0BTTM8 [moa'r'umz], sb. pi. mocking grimaces. — Craven Arms. 
' Please, Sir, 'e's makin' morums at me.' Probably connected with 
the old word * mow ' or * moe,' a wry face. Compare the following : — 

* And other-whiles with bitter mockes and mowea 

He would him scome .' 

Spenser, F. Q., B. VI. c. viL st. xlix, 

* Hamlet. It is not very strange ; for mine uncle is king of Denmark, 
And those that would make mows at him while m^ father lived, give 
twenty, forty, fifty, an hundred ducats a-piece for ms picture in little.' 
—Hamlet, II. ii 381. 

* Motoe, or skome. Vangia, vel valgia, Cath. et C. P. {iMchinna, P.).' 
— Prompt. Parv. 

'To make a moe like an ape. Distorquere os.' — Baret, Alvearie^ 
A.B. 1580. 
Cf. Meow. 

XOSET [moa'zi'], adj. dry ; flavourless ; * woolly,* as apples, pears, 
&c. become when over-kept. Com. * Them Ghoose-apples bin the sort 
to keep till Christmas, these yallow uns gwun as mosey an' pithy — 
like an owd turmit.* 

Grose gives * Mosey, Mealy, a mosey apple. GKouc' 

■OSS, sh. a tract of wild marsh land ; a morass ; a peat-bog, as 
* Whixall Moss,' * Brown Moss,' &c—N. Skr. 

* Mossesi, so moorish and boggy places are called in Lancashire.^ — 
Blount*8 Olossographia, p. 421. 

•* O.N. moii ; Qerm. moos moss-grown, swampy, or moory 

places. Donau-moos, JCrdinger^mMS, tracts of such land in Bavaria.' 
— Wedo. Cf. Moor (1). 

MOSS -BALLS, sb. pi. balls — rsometimes called Mere-balls — ^found 
in Colemere, a long, narrow lake, rather more than two miles from 
Ellesmere; they are described by Mr. 0« Christopher Davies as 
follows : — 

' Peculiar to this mere [Colemerel are the green moss-balls 

{Csmferva ^gaaroptla), and brown nails composed of nr leaves. It is 
supposed that the bottom of the mere is troubled with convicting eddies 
and currents, caused no doubt by springs, and that these currents 
eateh up the fir leaves that fall fixim the h'ees on the south side of the 
mere, and i-oll them up, together with particles of conferva*, into balls 



of different suses, even up to two feet in diameter. The moM-balls are 
composed entirely of con/trvce. The cnrrents oonyey these balU to 
the opposite side of the mere, and there they may be found in thou- 
sands at a depth of three or four feet. The cohesion of each ball is 
perfect.' — Mountain, Meadow, and Mere, p. 21, ed. 1873. 

MOTE [moat], sb. Tinea tapetzella, the Clothes-moth. Codl ' The 
Missis says the motes han ete the Maister's top-coat all in 'olee — sarve 
it right an* all ; 'er met a gid it to some poor owd fellow, to a kep' 'im 
warm, an* then it oodna a *ad a niote in it.* 

*And make to pu sachels that wexen not oolde, tresoure that 
failith not in heuenes, whidir a theef neijith not, nether mon^i 
destruyeth.* — Luke zii. 33, Wicliffite version, ed. A.D. 1388. 

* Mou^te, clothe wyrme. Tinea, ** Mought, that eateth clothes, 
vers de drap" — Palso.* Prompt, Parv. and Notes, 

A.S. wio*)»c; O.Du. motte, a moth. 

MOTHER, ab. a slimy, turbid substance concreted in stale beer or 
vinegar. — Pulyerbatch. Qy. com. Both Ash and Jamieson have 
the word in this sensa See Mother, in Webo. 

MOTHERHra-SmrDAT. See Bk. II., Folklore, &c., 'Customs 
connected with Days and Seasons' {Mid-Lent Sunday), 

MOTHEE-LAW, eb,, ohsoU, a mother-in-law. — Pulyerbatch. 'I 
toud *im if 'e couldna afford to tak' a *ouse to laye me w'eer I wuz, 
fur I wunna gwe'in to no mother-law,* See Father-law. 

MOTTO, sb, the mark at which quoits are thrown. — Bridgnorth. 
Pegge gives Motty, for the same thing, as ' Derbyshire.' 

MOULD [moa'ld], v. a. and v. n. to make the dou^h into loave«, &c. 
—Shrewsbury ; Pulyerbatch. Qy. com. ^ * Yo' met'n begin to 
mould up, the oven ool be ready agen yo* bin ; an' get the proper 
skiver, I dunna hke a fork : — 

'* Them as pricken d5th fork or knife, 
06n never be 'appy, maid nur wife." ' 

Amongst the * Terms used by Bakers,* given by Handle Holme, are 
the following : — ' Mould it [the bread], make it into Loaves or Boulls.' 
' Prick the Loa/e, is to make little holes on the top of the Loafe with 
a Bodkin.* — Academy of Armory, Bk. III. ch. iii pp. 85, 86. 

* Moolde breed. Pinso, pistoJ — Prompt, Parv. 

* One muldinge planke, one mouldinge trough with a cover,* are 
mentioned amongst other things belonging to * The Back hJowse* 
in an Inventory, dated at Owlbury Manor-House, Bishop*s Castle, 

The * muldinge planke * would probably be the board upon which 
the loaves were made up, and the ' mouldinge trough * like the ' knead- 
ing-trow * described on p. 239, ante, 

* Hie panificator, An", a mouldere,' occurs under the head of ' Pidor 
cum 8ui$ Jnstrumentis,* in a Pictorial Vocabulary, xv. cent., in Wr. 
vocabs., voL L p. 276; and Mr. Wright gives a note, to explain 
' mouldere ' as * The person who makes uie dough into loaves.* 

MOULD-BOAED [mou-ld buo'h'r'd], sb, that part of a. plough which 
turns the furrows — the ^ breast.' — ^Ellesmers. 


Bandle Holme enumerates ' The Mould Board ' amongst ' The parts, 
of a Plow/ Academy of Armory, Bk. IIL ch. viii. p. 333. 
See Shell-board. 

MOTJLDIWABF [raoa'ldiVaa-r'p], Pulverbatch. [moudi'waar'*p], 
Newport; Oswestry, sb, Talpa Europa^a, the Mole. * Yo' keepen- 
yore dog well, Tummas, 'e's as slike as a mouldiwarpy * Aye, *e keeps 
Isself— e's turned poacher I I 'spect to %Ye *im grinned or shot afore 

' In which like MMwarps nousling still they lurke.' 

Spexsbr, Colin ClouU oome Home Again, 1. 763. 

< « Master, Master, see you yonder faire ancvent, 
yonder is the serpent & tne serpents head, 
the mould'Warpe * in the middest ffitt, 
& itt all shines with gold soo redde/* * 

Earle of Westviorlandey 1. 77. Percy Folio MS,y 
Tol. i p. 303, ed. Hales and FumiTall. 

'• "Taulpe: t The little beast called a Mole or Moldewarp.''— 
Cotgrave. tsi Yorkshire Mowldywarp stilL' Note by Mr. FuRNrvALX. 

Grose gires * MotUd-warpy a mole. N.' 

Afould{i)warp is, literally, earth-cosier, from 'A.S. molde; O.IceL 
mold; Goth, mulda, earth; and A.S. toeorpan; O.Tcel. verpa ; Goth. 
vairpa, to throw, cast' — See Strat. 

■OVLDIWOET [raoa-ldi'wur't and mouii'wur*t], same as above. — 
Shrewsbury; WBixDroTON; Wem. 

' He beareth Argent, a Mole (or Motddtoart), Sable. It is as blaek 
as a Coal, and soft as Yelyet ; naTing only his Feet, and a little tip 
at the Nose, of flesh colour. It is termed a Want, and a AfotddwarpJ 
— Academy of Armory, Bk. IL ch. z. p. 204. 

' Whyles mice and moudiewortB they howkit.' 

Robert Burn's Poem», p. 2, L 4. 
Cf Odnt. 

MOTTHT [mou'ut], sh, an embankment ; a mound, artificially raised, 
as for ornamental grounds. — Pulverbatch. ' I remember seein' the 
poor owd Squire in 'is green coat, potchin' Snowdrops i' the mount 
up the drive, 55th 'is walkin'-stick ; an' they blowen as fresh now as 
they did'n twenty 'ear ag63.' 

MOTJVTIHO [mou'ntin], part, adj., var. pr, moulting, as birds. — 
— Shrewsbxtry; Pulverbatch. Qy. com. ^Whad a pelroUock 
that peckled 'en looks now 'er's mo^inUh' ! ' ' Aye, 'er*ll be like yo', 
Bessie — ^look better w'en 'er gets new clo'es on.* 

* Mowtynae, Deplumacio. ** Mowter, vt<2e monitor — quando avium 
pennce deeiaunt.** — Gouldm.' Prompt. Parv. and Kotes. 

Lat. mutare, to change (the feathers). 

HOITSE-EAB, sb. Stachys Germnntca, downy Woundwort (garden 
plant). — ^Pulverbatch. 

'Jiiowseer, herbe. Muricnla (auricalis muris, K. P.).* — Prompt. 

* Auricula mitrii. TheJiearbe Mouse^eare.* — Diet. Ftym. Lat. 

V 2 



MOUTER [mou'tar'], v, n., var. pr. to rot ; to cTumble with decay ; 
to moulder — generally used in the past participial form. Qy. com. 
' I dunna think the stillige safe for a big barrel, the sides bin tnoutered 
as well as the legs.' 

XOUTH-XAirLDi'O, (1) sh, a volley of abusive language. — ^Fulver- 
BATCH. ' If I could get at 'im I'd gie 'im sich a motUh'-matditC as *e 
never 'ad afore.' See Maul, 

2^ $b. indistinct, drawling utterance; nntunable singing. — Ibid. 
may call it chantin' or whad yo'n a mindy but I cs£ it mouth» 
mmdin', fur nobody can tell whad they sen,' 

XOW [mou'], (1) sK a cluster of standing sheaves — generally six or 
eight— Shbewsbuby; Pulverbatch ; Ellesmsbe. 
Tusser has mow in the sense of a stack : — 

' Sharpe cutting spade, for the deuiding of mow* 

Btubandlie furniture, p. 38, ed. E. D. S. 

* Look to the Cow, and the Sow, and the Wheat-maw, and all will 
be well enow. Somerset,^ — Rat's Proverh$, p. 271. 

A.S. miiga; O.N. miiffr, a stack; a heap. Cf. Stuck. 

f 2) [mou*], V. a., varjr. to mow.— Bishop's Oastle ; Clun. • Dun 
yo see that mon mdwin* them wuts ? ' A.S. mdwan^ to mow. See 

(3) See Meow, 

HOW'BTTBSTf adj\ heated in the stack, as of hay, oats, Ac, which 
have not been seasoned properly before stacking. Qy. com. *Bill 
says 'e thinks the 'ay's toasted a bit too much, but the cattle aten it, 
an' dun well — ^if s none the worse fur bein' a bit mow-humt.* 

* Come bein^ had downe (any way ye alow), 

shoidd wither as needeth, for burning in mow : 
Such skill appertaineth to haruest mans art, 
and taken m time is a husbandly part.' 

TnssEB, Fiue Hundred Pointer of Good Euabandrie 

* Mow'bum is occasioned by the Hay being stack'd too soon, before 
its own juice is thoroughly dried, and by Norfolk pneople ii called the 
^ed Raw ; not such as is occasioned by stacking it when wet with 
Bain, which is a nasty musty and stinks.' — Tuner Bedivivtu (A.D. 
1710), in E. D. S. ed., p. 290. 

Pegge gives * Mow^bumt^hay, hay that has fermented in the stack* 
York.' See Mow (1), above. 

mrCHIH, MTTCKIH [mukhi'n], Clun. [muk-in], Wem, sh, a pig. 
' I've bought a fresh muchin, wim'ee come an' see 'un?' 
W. mochyn ; Qael. muk, a pig. 

HVCK, sb. and v. a. manure ; to manure (land). Com, 

Mr. Oliphant, speaking of The Bestiary — a poem in the East 
Midland Dialect, written about A.D. 1230 — remarks : — ' There are 
many Scandinavian words found here ; ' and he enumerates, amongst 
others, • Murk. Icel. mykrJ — Sources of Standard English^ p, 131. 

KTTCKEBy ab, a state of dirt and confudon. — ^Collibrt. 


HUCKEBED, adj. said of milk that has acquired a bad flavour — 
but not become sour — by being kept in a close place. — Pulverbatch. 
* Bessie, this milk o6nna do fur the child, it's muckered — I doubt yo*n 
'ad it i' the cubbert, else it 6ddna a gwnn like this.* See Muckery, 

KUCKEEnrO, adj\ living, or working, in a dirty, slovenly manner. 
— ^Pulverbatch. Qy. com. * * I like plenty o' clier waiter throwed 
down the dairy; none o' yore muckerin* work, moppin' about the 
milk-pons — ^the butter's sure to tell yo' on it.' 

mrCKEKT, adj. damp; close, as of the weather. — ^Pulverbatch. 
' This muckery weather's despert bad fiir the com, it'll mak' it spurt.' 
Jamieson has * Moch, Mochy, close ; misty.' Of. Muggy, below. 

HTTCKETER, sb. a child's pinafore.~CLEE Hilds. 

Mr. Nares supposes mucketer to be a corruption of ' Muckender/ a 
pocket-kerchief— a mouchoir ; but adds that Baret, in his Alvearie, 
refers ' mucketter to bib,* See MuckeUr^ Mwkender^ in Wedo. 

HUO, 8b. a mist ; a fog. — ^Pdlverbatgh. 

KUOOY, adj, foggy ; damp ; close. Qy. com. ' Theer wuz sich a 
mug this momin' yo' couldna see 'afe-a-dozen yards afore yo' — we'n 
'ad a power o' muggy weather lately.' 

' O.r^. mugga^ dark, thick weather,' in Wedg. 

Compare W. mti;^, smokew 

MTJOWOOD, 8b,y var, pr. Artemisia vulgdris, Mugwort. — ^Worthbn. 
Mugwood seems to be a hybrid form, due probably to some confusion 
between the respective names, Mugwort and Wormwood (Artendaia 
AbHnthium); but compare the following, on the matter of pro- 
nunciation :-^ 

' Mogwort, al on as seyn some, modirwort : lowed folk jyat in manye 
wordes conne no ry3t eownynge, but ofte shortyn wordys, and changyn 
lettrys and silablys, pey ooruptyn ^e o. in to u. and d. in to g. and 
83mcopyn i-smylyn a-wey i. and r. and seyn mugwort.' — Arun£l MS. 
42, f. 36 vo., in Way. 

MULLIOBTJBS, sb. the colic. Qy. com. * Sick of the mulligrubs 
with eating chopp'd hay.' — ^Bat's Froverb$, p. 60. 

KULLOCEI, sb. dirt; rubbish, as of the refuse of masons' work, 
gardeners' sweepings, &c. — Shrewsbury; Pulverbatch; Goryb 
Dale ; Wem. * Whad bin'ee gwein to do 5oth all this muUock t yo' 
mun dier it all away afore Sunday.' 

' The mullok on an hope ysweped waa. 
And on the floor yeast a canevas, 
And al this muUok in a S3rve ythrowe, 
And sifted, and ypiked many a throwe.' 

Chauoer, Q. 938—940 (Six-text ed.), Skeat. 

Grose gives ' MuUock, Dirt or rubbish. N.' 

MuUock is a diminutive == O.E. mull -f ock^ 

< Muk, or duste (mul, K. S. mull. P.) Pulvis. The term mull is 
still retained in the Eastern counties, and in the North, and signifies, 
acooiding to Forby, soft, breaking soil. " MoUe, pulvtr^ et cetera ubi 



powder."— Cath. Awo. Compare Tiow Germ, and Dutdi, mtd ; Aug,- 
Sax. 7/i///, pnlvis. "Mullock, or mollock, vide dust, or dung/' — 
GoT'LPXi.' Prompt Parv. and KoUs. 
Seo Black-mullock. 

HULLOCKT, ailj. untidy ; all in a litter. — Church Stretton. 

KDVCHAH'CE [raum'chans], aJv, Rtnpidly silent. — Pdlterbatch. 
* W'y dunna yo* 8pake, lad ? — an* nod stand mumchanre thoer like a 
dummy in a draper*8 shop.' 

Mr. Halliwell says that ' in Deyon a silent, stupid person is called 
a mnrnchance, Milles' MS. Gloss.' He refers the term to an ' old game, 
mentioned by Cotgrave and others, in which, according to some, 
sileuce was an indispensable requisite.' See Mum^ehance, m Wedo. 

MmntTrFFnr [mumr'uFin], sb. the long-tailed Titmouae.— Ci*u», 
Vlungunford; Bridoxobth. See Oax&bottle. 

HUS, aujc, vb. must Com. 

Mun be maried a Sunday, 
mun be maried a Sunday, 
Who foeuer fhall come that way, 
I mun be maried a Sunday/ 

Boister Doister, The fourth Song, p. 87. 

Mr. Oliphant says that in the ' Oimulum' [a.d. 1200, ctrai] Ormin 
uses * a new Scandinayian auxiliary verb, which is employed eyen 
now from Caithness to Derbyshire. Such a phrase as / mun do this 
iri first found in his work ; the mun is the Scandinayian muna^ but 
mune in the "Ormulum" implies futurity more thui necessity.' — 
Sources of Standard English, p. 104. 

Cf. Maun. 

HUN COBJT [raunf<k'nr*n], sb., obsols, mixed com — ^wheat and rye 
ground together for bread-meaL — ^PxTLyRRBATCfH. ' Muncom bread's 
yery sweet an* good, but theer's nuthin' like a bit o' good Veaten 

' And mene mong-corn bred * to her mete fongen, 
And wortes flechles wroughte * & water to drinken.' 

P. PI. Cr., I 786, 

' Some mixeth to miller the rie with the wheat, 

Temmes lo/e on his table to haue for to eate : 
But sowe it not mixed, to growe so oil land« 
least rie tirie wheat, till it shed as it stand.' 

TUSSER, Fine Hundred Pointe$ of Oood Husbandrie 

Tiisser called this mixed com ' mesUen.^ 

* Mestlyone, or monge come (or . . . mongeme, S.}. Mixtilio, 
bigonnen.' — Prompt, Parv, 
See Way's Note. A.S. mengan, to mix. Cfl Kunker. 

HTINDLE [muiid'l], (1) sb. a utensil yariously employed for purposee 
of stirring, as a mashing-mu9ui/« (q. y. ante), a cream-fnim<2^e, &c. ; 
but the term is most often heard in tne dairy, where the mundle is in 
constant requisition for stirring the cream in the deep 'steans' in 
which it is gathered for the chum. A cream-mtcncUe is a flattish 
piece of wood, sometimes diyided at the lower and broader end in 


such a way as to admit of the cream passing through it, thereby 
maUng the necessary operation of stirring the cream about, much 
more effectual. Com. 

* Mundfe, a pudding-slice. Derb.' — Pegob. 
See Lick the crame-xnundle. 

(2) V. n. to bimgle; to do a thing awkwardly. — Pxtlterbatch ; 
Church Stretton. * Dear 'eart alive ! *ow yo* bm mundlin* o*er that 
bit on a job ; 'ere, gie it me if yo' canna do it no better — ^I hanna one 
bit o* patience to see yo' messin' at it athatn.' 

MunOE [munj*], (1) v, n. to eat greedily and by stealth. — ^Pulvbr- 
BATCH. * That girld's al*ays mungin\ 'er never gwuz i' the buttery 
athout 'elpin' 'erself — 'er met neyer get a meal's-mate, an' look at 'er 
mungey munge^ mungin\* 

* **1 monche, I eate meate gredyly in a comer, ie loppine" — ^Palso. 
Bp. Kennett gives ** to munge^ to eat greedily; Wilts." — Lansd. MS. 
1033.'— Way's Note in Prompt. Parv., p. 342. 

(2) same as Minge, q.y. — Fulverbatch. A corrupted form 

MmrOEK [mnnj''ar'1, v, n. to mutter ; to grumble in an undertone. 
— PuLyERBATCH; Wem. *Wy dunna yo* say whad yo' han to 
say ? — an' nod munger about the 'ouse athatn, like a 'umbly-bee in a 
chum.' Connected with O.E. munge, to tell, speak : — 

' )>an gan Meliors munge * \>e meschef |>at hir eyled ; 
i>at o^er comsede to carp ' of cumfort & ioie, 
& eper munged of l^e mater * \>&t )>sA most louede.' 

William of PaUrne, U. 831—833. 

' A.S. myngian; 0J3.,GeTm. munigon, to admonish.' — Strat. 
Cf. Jnnder (1). 

MuaSXS, ah.f ohsols. mixed com, — wheat and rye grown together 
as a crop, for grinding into bread-meal. — BRrDONORTH, Worjield. 
It is said that the old practice of sowing wheat and rye together in 
this part of Shropshire arose, primarily, from a doubt whether the 
land would produce a good crop of wheat, therefore the rye — which 
was not so likely to faU— was sown also. 

* If soile doe desire to haue rie with the wheat, 
by growing togither, for safetie more great, 
Let white wheat oe ton, be it deere, be it cheape, 
the sooner to ripe, for the sickle to reape.' 

TussER, Fine Hundred Paintes of Oood Htuhandrie 

The term Munker is evidently corrupted from Muncom, q. y. 

MUBOT [mur^gi'l sb. a contemptuous term for a miner or collier. — 
Wellington. Compare * Murche, lytyll man,' in Prompt Parv., upon 
which Mr. Wa^ remarks : — * This name for a dwarf does not appear 
to be retained m any of the local dialects, although preserved, as it 
would appear, in the simame Murchison.* 

XTTBEAL. See Moral. 

MXTSE, 8K1J8E [meu's], PuLyERBATOH; Wbllinoton. Qy. com. 


[mneu'B], Wbh, $h, a small hole or ^lun * through a hedge, made by 
a hare or rabbit in its track, 

' Take a hare without a mtue^ 
And a knare without excuse. 
And hang them up.* 

HowEix*B English Proverbs, p. 12, a, in Narea 

I know your musees, your inlete and outlets, and whereyer 

the rabbets pass, the ferret or weezel may venture.' — ^Ea.ybn80BOYT, 
Careless Levers, 1673, in Wr. 
Cf. Fare (1). 

MTTSET [meu'zi'], adj, inquisitive. — Whitchurch; Elleb 
' Tak' car' whad yo' Hn about, 'er's very mwey.* 

MIISICIAVEB, $h,^ ohsols. a performer on a musical instmment, — 
a musician. — Pulverbatch ; Wem. Qv. com. ' Who 'ad'n'ee tax a 
musidaner at the daincin' P ' ' One o' the blind Tithers [Tudorsi & 
the Gattin played the fiddle [1815]— that wuz aU the music we 'ad n.' 
* He beareth Argent, a Musicioner pla^ringon a IVeble Yial, doathed 
all in blew with a Scarlet Cloak hanging on his back, Hat Sable^ 
Feather Gules. This is the Crest of Fidler in CounirtfUm.^ — Academy 
of Armory, Bk. IIL cb. iii. p. 156. 

WJST, 8h. ground apples (for cider). — Cleb Hills. C£ Pomioe. 

mrST-TUB, ih. the tub into which the apple-pulp is put, in the 
process of cider making. — Ibid. 

' Must tub.*— Auctioneer's Catalogue (Stoddesden), 1870. 

MUZZLE, V. n. to root with the snout, as pigs do. — Pulverbatch. 
'Tell Humphrey Bobe'ts lo send a dozen rings fur the little pigs, 
they bin beginnin' to muzzle, I see.' Mr. Halliwell has this for 
* Devon.' 

OOVS, interf. perhaps a corruption of some Komish adjuiatioir 
having reference to the 'Sacred Wounds,' Com. The term in its 

E resent form seems to be pretty old, and Farquhar may have heard it 
y * Severn Side : ' — 

• Braz, Will you fight for the Lady, Sir P 
Plume. No, Sir, but I'll have her notwithstanding. 

Thou Peerless Princess of Salopian Plains^ 
Envy*d by Nymphs and worshiped by the Swains — 

Braz. Oons, sir ! not fight for her ! 
Plume. Prithee be quiet — ^I shall be out— -^ 

Recruiting Officer, Act m. Scene.— The walk by 
the Severn Side [Shrewsbury], 

HAB [nab-l (1) r. a., «7.1 to dupe ; to trick. Com. The Eev. Wm. 
Gilpin of Church Pulverbatch, preaching to his rural congregation 
in Churton Church — about 1836 — said, ' Some of you, some of you, 
calling yourselves honest men go to the fair to buy and to sell, and 
when you come back, you boast that you '* nabbed the chap I '" 

* Kab me, TU nab thee.*— Ray's Proverbs, p. 274. 



(2) y. a. , «;. ? to seize hold of iniexx)ectedly. Ck>m. * The * * Bobbies " 
'an bin lookin' ont for them poacnin' chaps a good wilde, but they 
nabbed *em at the far.* 

'Dan. nappe, to snatch; snatch at; pluck.' — ^Wedg. 

IT AG [nag*], {\)v.a, and v, n. to irritate the temper by constant fault- 

findmg; to carp. Com. Tm despert sorry for poor Samwel; 'e 

wuz a right tidy mon afore 'e got married, but 'is wife's nagged 'im, 

tell 'e's bin tar druv to drink — as yo' met'n say — ^by a 56man's tongue*' 

' N. nagga, to gnaw ; to irritato, plague, disturb.' — ^Wedg. 

(2) V, n. to keep up a slight but constant ]>ain ; to gnaw, as of an 
aching tootii. Com. ' I oouldna sleep las' night fur the tuth-ache, 
it wunna to say yiolent, but kep' netg^ nag, noggin* all the wilde tiU 
about four o'clock.' 

VAOEB [nai'gur*], sb., var, pr, an auger. — Clun. * Fowre nagera ' 
are enumerated amongst sundry miscellaneous itoms in an Inventory^ 
dated at Owlbury Manor-House, Bishop's Castle, 1625. 

* Terebrwnt nayegar,' occurs in Archbf, JEl friers Vocabulary , x. cent. 
Bee Wr. yocaba, Tol. L p. 16. Nauger is the correct form, not auger. 

VAU-FABSEA, »b. a gimlet. Com. Called a 'Kail-piercer' by 
Bandle Holme. C£ Bore-paaaer. 

SAIHT, ah. an aunt — Shrewsbury; Pulverbatch; Elleshbrb. 
Qy. com. * As yo' comen throm school, Mary, g65 by the Bonk an' 
axe 'ow yore Nunde's ancler is, an' tell vore Naint I'm gwein to 
Soseb'ry o' Saturd'y if 'er wants a narrand.^ C£ Aint, also Nuncle« 

HAKED AS A KOBm, phr, quite naked : said chiefly of an un- 
dressed child, — ' Wy yo' bin as naked aa a roUn.* Com. 

VAXED-LABT, sb. Cokhicum auiumnale, the Autumnal Crocus. — 

HAH, inte/j. and interrog,, obaols. this term is equivalent to the 
' I beg yoiir pardon ' of modern * polite society,' when an obseryation 
has been either not heard or not understood ; it scarcely amounto to 
• What do you say P ' Nan is yery seldom used now ; only a few of 
the aged folk seem to retain it [1875]. — PuLyERBATCH; Church 
Strettow; CLUif. 

Pegge has * Nan, used as an interrogation ; as — Nan P t. e. What 
did you say P Kent' See Anan in Hal. 

HAHCT, sb. the pudding in a pig which is next in size to the 
paunch. — Pulverbatoh. See Boger. 

HAHHT, (1) 8b. same as Hanoy, aboye. Clun. See Hodge. 
(2) »b. the stomach.— Wellington. C£ Duff (2). 

HAHHT-HIHE-HOLES, ah. Lampetra fluvidtilta, the Lampem. — 
Shrewsbury ; PuLyERBATCH. Qy. com. 

HAP-AT-HOOH, same as Betty-go-to-bed-at-noon, q. y. — Ellesherb. 

HATIOH, adv., «Z.1 yery, — * nation cowd.' Com. Pegge gives this 
for ' Kent, Norl, and Suft.' 


HAXiVJS [nai-tiv], adj.^ pec. used elliptically for 'native place/ — 
• Worthen's my native,^ Com. • 

HATU&E, sh.^ pec. natural goodness ; nutrition : said of food. — 
NE^vTonT. A shopkeeper observed to one of his customers [1872] 
that, having tried the Australian meat, he found he oould not recom- 
mend it, for it was * so overdone, there seemed to be no naiurt left 
in it.' 

HAVE [nai'v], sh, a prop to support the shaft of a loaded cart when 
the horse is out ; it is made of a strong oak-branch having three forks, 
which serve for feet — the branch being inverted. — Pulvebbatch. 

Grose has * Nape^ or Nepe. A piece of wood that hath three feet, 
used to support tne fore part of a loaded waggon. N.' Cf. Vamp. 

HAY-WORD, sh. a by-word. — Pulvbrbatch; Cube Hills. *I 
o5nna be the first to be married at the new church ; I amma gwel'n to 
be a nay-word to all the parish.' 

* ... if I do not gull him into a nay-word, and make him a 
common recreation, do not think I have wit enough to lie straight in 
my bed,'— rwW/fA Night, IL iii. 146. 

HEAB, HEAB-FI8TED, adj,, pec, penurious; stingy; grasping. 
CoTn. * It's nuthin' like the same place sence the poor owd Missis 
died, they bin so ntar an' grindin' — nobody likes to g66 nigh the 

' Near, covetous. North. As, He is a near man.' — ^Peooe. 

VECK, V, a. to kill fowls by pulling their necks out, or rabbits by 
giving them a blow on the back of the neck. — Shrewsbubt; Whit- 
CHURCH. Qy. com. 

HECK-HOLE, sh. the nape of the neck. Com. 

HEEDLESS [need'lis], (1) adj., pec, shiftless; helplen.— Pdltbb- 
BATCH. ' I'm despert .sorry fur that mon, 'e's got mxOk a meedUM pieoe 
fur a wife — 'is wages bin gwun afore 'e 'aa 'em — an' 'e's right tidy 

(2) adj,, pec, obeois, nameless: said of an unbaptised infant. — 
Ellesmerb, WelahampUm, 'Whad'n'ee call that child?' 'Oh, it's 
needless yet, poor thing, it hanna bin ohris'nod.' 

VEEDVA, V. a, need not ; have no occasion to be, &c. Com. 

* Hoger, I needna mak' sic speed my blood to spill, 
111 warrant death come soon enough a-wilL' 

Allan Bamsat, r/»e Oentle Shepherd, I. i. p. 9. 

VEELD. See HUd. 

HE'EE-A, contraction of Hever-a, q. v. 

VEESEirni*, part, adj, nesting — seeking for birds' nesta. — Newport. 
See Neat*. 

IEE8T, sh,, var, pr. a nest — Newport ; Ellesmere. See Heats. 

HESH [nesh*], (1) adj. delicate; tender: said of the health or 
physical constitution. Com. (1) *It wunna likely as a poor little 
nesh child like 'er oould do ; it 56d tak' a atruxig girld i' that place.' 


(2) • Yo* lads t>e off out o' doors, an' nod rook round the fire— yo'n be 
as neih as a noud 56man.' 

' Wummon is of neache flesche.' 

Owl and Nightingale, L 1387. 

' *' God saue the Queene of England," he said, 
** for her blood is verry neahe, 
as neere ynto her I am 
as a colloppe shome from the flesh." ' 

King James and Browne, L 119. Percy Folio MS,, 
yoL i. p. 141, ed. Hales and FurniTall. 

(2) adj. poor-spirited ; lacking energy. — ^Wem. * 'Er's a nesh piece, 
'er dunna do above 'afe a day's work, an' 'er's no use at all under a 
cow [milking a cow].' 

'A.S. hnesc; 0.l3u. neBch; Goth, hnasqus; nesh, mollis, tener,' — 

ITEST, adv. next. — Colliery. 

' And sum sais bot )>e nest yeire 

Foluand ' 

Cursor Mundi (A.D. 1320, drca), Spedm, Early 
Eng., vii. L 5. 

A.S. neaJist ; Dan. nast, nighest ; next. Qt Kigh. 

ITEBTS, sh. pL [nee-zn], Shrewsbury ; Newport ; Wem ; Oswestry. 
fnesi'z], Shrewsbury; Clun; Oorve Dale; Ludlow, [nis'i'z], 
ruLVERBATCH ; WoRTHEN ; Clun. [nis'ts], Shrewsbury ; Pulver- 
BATCH ; WoRTHEX ; Clun. [nea'sts], Ellesmere. Of the different 
plurals of nest obtaining in the Shrewsbury district, it may be obseryed 
that neesen is one chiefly employed by uie aged folk ; a fact which 
seems to point to the conclusion that it is in $e the oldest form of all 
that are here giyen. 

VEVES-A, adv. not a, or one. Com. * Theer's fiever-a spot o' milk 
i' the 'ouse.' 

' he had neuer a penny left in his pursse, 

neuer a penny but 3, 
& one was brasse, & another was lead, 
& another was white mony.' 

The Heir of Lin, n. 3S, ^ PercyFolio M8., 
yol. L p. 176, ed. Hales and FumiyalL 
See MaH, zzyii 14. 

HEVES-A-OHE, none ; neither. Com. * Never-a-cne on 'em ossed 
to'elp.' Qee Qrammax (hitlin»B {indefinite pronouns). 

JiJSW-FAVOLED, arfj. new; new-fashioned; noyel, as of some 
pursuit or 'hobby.' — Shrewsbury; Pulverbatch; Ellesmere. 
Qy. com. (1) '111 a none o' them new-fangled ways; I like things 
done as they bin use't to be, an' I know yo' canna mend 'em.' 
(2) *Wy, dear 'eart aliyel Jenny, whad new-fangled fashions han 
yo* got i yore yed now f ' said a Welshampton woman to her daughter, 
who was just come home from her ' place with newly-acquired tastes, 
which she was busily disclosing. 


' So newe/angd ben they of hir mete, 
And louen nouelries of propTe kynde.* 

Chauoeb, F. 618 (Six-text ed.), Skeat 

' At Ohristmas I no more desire a rose 
Than wish a snow in May's new-fangled mirth.' 

Love $ Labour Loei^ L i 106. 

Mr. Oliphant says that Chancer was the first to use ^Newfangei* 
Mr. Nares and the editors of *• The Bible Word-Book* alike remark of 
New-fangled that it is 'not yet quite obsolete.' See Fangle^ ia 
Wedo. Of. Fangled (anfo). 

VEW-TIS-TIDE, $b., ohsoh. the New-year's-tide ; the beginning of 
the year.— PuLYERBATCH. A couplet which sets forth that the days 
attam a slightly increased leng^ at this season runs as follows : — 

' New-vie-tide 
A cock-stride.' 

HEX'-TO-ITEX*, adv, in order of succession ; consecutively, — ^ three 
nights nesi^-to-nex'.'-r-SHBEWSBnBT; Clun. Qy. com. 

VICE, adj. oyer-particular ; fastidious — ^in regard of food. Com. 
< 'E shall shift 'is fit from under my table, 'e's gof n so despert nice, 
theer's nuthin' good enough fur 'im.' 

* Portia, In terms of choice I am not solely led 
By nice direction of a maiden's eyes.' 

Merchant of Ventee^ LL L 14. 

' More nice than wise.' — ^Eay's ProverbBf p. 203. 

BIOH, adv. and prep, near — ^regularly compared, as, ^ 'E never come 
nighj fur all 'e promised.' *Draw up nigher the fire.' ''E st5od at 
the top nigheit the Maister.' Com. 

• — was nei^e atte de^e.' — WiUiam ofPcdeme, 1. 1611. 

' And neigh the castel swiche ther dwelten three.' 

Ohaxjceb, B. 550 (Six-text ed.), Skeat 

* ProBpero. ^ Why, that's my spirit ! 
But was not this nigh shore P 

Arid, Close by, my master.* 

Tempetif I. ii. 15. 

A note in the Bible Wbrd-Booh says that nigh is ' a common pro- 
vindalLran in Suffolk.' See Db. Mobbis's Eitiorical English Aoddenee, 
p. 108. 

A.S. nedh, nSh; sp. nfhet, nigh, nighest, of which the oomp. is 
nearra. Cf. Kest, eXao Aiiigh. 

HIOHT-HAWK, eh. the European Goat-sucker. — Cluk, Ctungtm- 
ford Hill and Shdderton Rocks; Oswestbt. See Nyghie Crowe in 
Prompt. Parv. with Way's Note. C£ Ohum-owl, also liioh-fowL 

HIOHT-JAB^ same as above. — ^Bbidonobth. 

VTLD [nil'd], (1) «5., var. pr. a neeld— old form for needle. Ck>nL 
'Come an' look my knittin'^M^d — ^theer's a good child.' 'Wy yo'n 
stuck it i' yore cap, Ghran 1 ' Slight stitching that won't hold is said 
to have been ' sewed 55th a wut [hot] nild an a burain' thrid.' 



* We, Hennia, like two artificial ffods, 
Have with our neelds created bom one flower, 

Both on one sampler ' 

MicUummer Nighfa Dream, HI. ii. 204. 

' AcuSf nelde,' occurs in a Semi-Saxon Vocabulary, in Wr. yocabs., 
vol. i p. 94. A.S. nddl, a needle. 

(2) $h, a needle used in stemming holes for blasting. — ^Pulyeb- 
BATOH, AracoH, Qy. com. M. T. Of. Pricker. 

BILE, same as Caplin, q. v. — Corvb Dalb ; Ludlow. 

VIMBLE-TAILOB, sb. the Long-tailed Titmouse. — £ridonorth« 
See Bottle-tit. 

HIHS-COBVS, sb.^ d, the last after-supper pipe. — Cleb Hilus. Qy. 
com. * 111 gOd an' a my ntite-com^, an' then I'll be off to bed.' 

HiNETEl), adj. addicted to evil waya Com. ^'Fs a nineted 
pippin * : said of a vicious youth. 

HIHTE [nei-ntl, (1) v. a. to beat Qy. com. ' BiUy, if yo* dunna 
come back an get on wuth that leasin' Fll ninte yoi-e 'ide fur yo' ' : 
so said ' Jack-the-Bot's ' daughter to her boy. 

(2) V. n, to ^ along.— Clbb Hills; Ludlow; Bredonobth. 
' They wun oomin' alung as fast as the pony could ninie,* 

VIPPIT [nip-it], V. n. to go quickly ; to hurry. — Cbaybn Abms* 
< Wen I^eard the whistle, didnad I nippit f ' 

HISOAL [niz'gul], {I) sb. the smallest and weakliest of a brood of 
any kind of domestic fowls. — Pulyebbatch. ' Tve nussed this poor 
lickle nisgal in 551 this two days an' nights, an' see 'ow peart 'e's 

(2) $b. the smallest of a litter of pigs. — Olun ; Ludlow. 

VITTT [nit'i'], adj, bright ; sparkling : said of ale. Com. ' I wuz 
fritteneid w'en I tapned the ale, it looked jest like barm i' the jug ; but 
Ven I poured it i' uie glass it wuz nitty, an' as clier as sack.* 

' Nihd {nitidus), clean, . . . fair, bright' — Bloxtnt's Olosaographia, 
p. 435. 
'Lat. nitido, to make bright or clear.' — Did. Etym. Lai. 

HO, adv,, pec. not. Com. ' Well, I cama w'ether yo' dun it or no, 
it's all the same to me.' 

HOBBLETT, same as Voggety, below.— Wem. 

HOBBT, 8b. a sucking foaL — Shrewsbury ; Pulvbrbatoh ; Cravek 

HOD, adv. not Com. See T (1 ) in Grammar Outlines (eotisonants). 
HOD 'APB BAD, phr. very good. Com. 'Well, Joe, did they 



express aj>|>foval or opinion in this negative, doubtful fashion is a 

charactenstic of Shropshire folk, and. until it is understood, is often a 

source of vexation to strangers who dwell in thmr midst, as when a 


clergyman recently oome to his benefice heard himself thus appraised 
' Our paas'n inna $o bad as some, that^s all I 'are to say fur 'im ; ' — he 
was much disturbed, till a friend assured him that the remark was 
meant to convey the speaker's decided approbation of his rector. 

VO DAHGEB, interf. Not at all likely ! Nothing of the kind !— 
a deprecatory exclamation constantly in use, dpropo$, or malaproe, to 
the occasion. Com. ' So I 'ear yo' bin gwein to be married, Turn. 
' No duinger, Missis^axiu' i' church inna marryin', an* I amma come 
to that yit.' See A (13) in Qrammar Outlines {voweU, &c.). Ct 

VOOOEH' [nog'nl, (1) adj\, obsols, made of nogs,^-coBTfse refuse of 
flax or hemp. — Fulverbatch ; Clee Hills. 

* In the trunk cU the end of the Presse, Imprimi$ eyghtenne payre 
of hempten sheets and six paire of noggtn sheets vij".' — Inventory . . . 
Owlbury Manor-House, Bishop's Castle, 1625. 
Cf. Herden. 

(2) adj., ohsoU. dull; stupid; rough. — ^Pulvebbatch ; Clee Hills; 
Much Wexlock ; Wellington. * A noggen mother's better than a 
gowden faither : ' so said old Molly Johnson of Wrockwardine, then 
[1857] in her ninety-fourth year ; she was speaking of a young family 
left motherless, and she gave it as the * experience of life ' that the 
homely old proverb was a true saying. 

VOOOEH-TSDDBD, same as Voggle-yedded^ below.— Wem. 

VOOOETT [nog'uti'j, adj. big ; clumsy, as of the head of a walking- 
stick. — PuLVERBATCH, Arscott. * Han yo* sid my stick ? ' • No ; whad 
sort wuz it — a 'ooked un ? ' * No ; a iwggety-yedded un.* CI Kobblety. 

HOGK}IiEK, 8b.f obsols, a stupid person ; a blockhead — Pulverbatcii. 
See Voggling, below. 

VOOOLE-TEDDED, adj., ohtols. thick-headed; stupid. — Pulyer- 
BATCH. "E*s a noggle-yedded auf— nuthiu' bettor.' Cf. Koggen- 
yedded, above. 

VOOOLIKO, ndj.f ohsoU. bungling; blundering. — Pulvbrbatch. 

* Well, yo' han maden a nogglin* job o' that, any ways.' * Whad did*n*oe 
spect different, w*en yo* knowea as I wuz nuthin* but a noggler afore 
I started on it* See Koggler, above. 

VOO-H&H [nog'mun], «5., ohs. a country weaver. — Pulvbrbatch. 
< Poor owd Spake [Speake] the nog^man called to beg a spot o* drink ; 
it's 'ard times 66th 'im now nobody spins — 'e tells me 'e gets a bit o* 
vom from the factory, an' waives it 'imself, an' it shoots them folks as 
bin too lazy to spin fur tharselves.* Sometimes a rope-maker was 
called a nog-man. 

HO OBEAT SHAKES, phr. not good for much ; * below par.' Com. 

* *Ow bin'ee, Matty ? — ^I hauna sid yo* this lung wilde.' * Well, indeed, 
Fm no great shakes ; I*ve bin tossicated ^th one thing or other, the 
bwoy breakin' is leg an' that — ^'e met as well a bin killed.' 

irOOSy obsols. same as Eerdes, q. y. — Pulvbrbatch ; Clee Hills. 
Ber. * noggen ' (1). 


HOVE, ado.f pee. a very short time ; next to no time, as of going or 
coming. Com. * Now, Ted, I want yo' to run a narrand for me, an' 
yo' mun be none away, else the Maister odl be 'ere afore yo.* 

HOH-PLTJSH, sb., var, pr., pec. a position of difficulty or disad- 
vantage. — PuLVEBBATCH. Qy. com. 'Poor owd Mr. Ambler! *e 
wiiz the best mon i' the parish 5oth 'is chem — 'e 66dna see a poor 
neighbour at a non-plush fur a bit o* coal, or anythin' else as men or 
'orses coulden do.' 

VOVSICAL, adj,f var. pr. nonsensical — in a disagreeable way. — 
PiTLVERBATCH ; Wem. * Never 'eed whad that fellow says, 'e's al'ays 
on ooth 'is nonsical talk.' 

VOOK-SHOTTEV, (1) adj. having many sharp turns and angles.— 
Whitchitrch, WhixalL An old farmer cautioned a certain person 
against taking a short cut across some fields because the way was 
very - neuk-ihottenJ 

* — that nook'ShoUen isle of Albion.' 

K. Henry F., IV. v. 14. 

'Layamon [a.d. 1205, circa] has the word nook (angulus). . . . 

.' The poet, speaking of a mere, says, ''Feower 

noked he is.'* . . . There are some other common words, which he 
is the first English writer to use.' — Sources of Standard English, 
pp. 114, 115. 

(2) part. adj. stationed — as a matter of idle habit — ^in the chimney- 
comer: — * Sich a neuk'Shotten thing inna wuth 'er saut' — ^Whitcitubch, 

* Kate sits i' the neuk, 
Suppin' hen broo ; 
Deil tak* Kate, 

An' she be a noddin' too.' 

BoBEBT BuBirs, Poems, p. 276, L 1, c. 2. 

See Oo (12) in Grammar Outlines (voujelSf &c.). 

HOOV-SFELL,«&. the labouring-man's luncheon-time. — ^Wellington. 
Pegge has ' Noon-scape, the time when labourers rest after dinner. 
Lane' Cf Bait. 

HOPE, BTTB-VOPE [noa-p], sb. Pyrrhula ruhkilla, the Bullfinch. 
— Bridonobth. Nope = ope = aupe^ and avpe := a/pe, the word used 
for bullfinch in the following : — 

* ^nightingales, 

And alpes, and finches, and wode- wales.' 

Rom, of the Rose, 1. 658. 

' To philomell the next, the linet we prefer ; 
And by that warbling bird, the wood-larke place we then. 
The reid-sparrow, the nope, the red-breast, and the wren.' 

Dbayton's Folyolhion, Song xiii., in Wr. 

Bandle Holme gives ' Nope ' in a category of birds, ' Canorous, or 
of a Singinff kind ; ' but as he includes * Bulfinch ' also in the same 
list, he probably did not identify them as being one and the same 
bird. — Academy of Armory, Bk. 11. ch. xiii. p. 309. 

* Nope, a bulmnch. Suff.'—PEOGE. See Alpe in Hal. Cf. Plum- 


VOPES, sh. pi.f 069.1 children, — a term employed amongst the mining 

populatioB. — COLZJERT. 

Compare £.E. 'knape; A. 8. cnapa; O.Fris. knapa; 0j3ax. cnapo; 
O.IceL knapij a hoy/ in Stbat, 

VOS, conj,, pec, than, — ' better nor that/ — Cleb Hills ; Ludlow ; 

• ** & more nor this, he dyes for your Lone, 

Therfore, Lady, show some pittye." * 

WiU Stewart and John, 1. 83. Percy Folio MS^ 
Tol. iii. p. 219» ed. Hales and FumiyalL 

* For some few bags of cash, that I wat weeU 
I nae nudr need nor carts do a tnird wheeL' 

Allan Ramsat, The Gentle Shepherd, lY. ii. p. 66. 

Ghrose giyes ' nor ' for than as * North*' 

HOBATIOV [noar'ai'shun], sb. a fussy, discussional talk about a 
matter, — 'much ado about nothing.* Clearly an oration is meant. 
Com. * Poor owd Nelly ! 'er went off yerra s5odden M5ond'y wub- 
a-wik. Ah went in theer o' the SSond^ eyenin*, an' as soon as iyer 
Ah looked at 'er Ah seed as 'er were tuk for dyeath, an* Ah sez to^'er 
daater, '* Merier/* Ah sez, ^' yer M5other looks yerra baad." " Eh ! " 'er 
sez, " Ah dunna think as *er s no wus till wot 'er 'as bin. " " Merier," 
Ah sez, '* tae moi woord fur it, *er*s strook fur dyeath, an' yo' 'ad ought 
to sen* fur the doctor — cither the doctor or the paarson," Ah sez, ** fur 
theer^U be sich a noratwm all o'er the pleace if we letten 'er doi wi'out 
annyun ; " an' Ah went across baack agen to our 'ouse an* axed moi 
Maester, wud 'e goo fur the paarson to owd Nelly ? — an* 'e'd taen Is 
boots off, an' were j5ost goom' dop the steers, an' *e sed, *' No, they 
med ^ thersens,* — an' Ah sez to 'im, '* My laad," Ah sez, ** Ah'U 
do moi dooty by owd NeUy as Ah expec' to 'l^ye someun to do it by 
may," an' wi* thaat Ah set off fur the Bector mysen, jSost as Ah 
were, an' dark at noight, an* twelye o*clock afore e raught baack to 
owd Nelly*s, an* the fus* thing as *e did — soon's iyer 'e got in — *e brot 
out a spot o* braandy out*n 'is pockit, an' 'e axed me, "Ad Ah iyer-a 
fresh egg i* the *ouseP" an' Ah sed, <*Eh dear! yes, Sir," Ah sez, 
** plenty o* eggs ; ** an' *e toud me to breek won an' part the yolk fio' 
the woite, an olend it 5op wi' the braandy ; so Ah blent it &of as '0 
toud me, an* 'e gi'ed it owd Nelly *issen, an' it sim*d to ndonsh *er 
loike, an' 'er continnied on till momin*^ an' went off yerra quoite j^ost 
after we'd 'adden our brekfasses — Ah knowed *er were s<T6ok fur 
dyeath soon as iyer Ah seed 'er o' tiie S5ond*y noight' [Edgmond. 

VOSE Tnoa'z], v. a., pec, to take the blossoms off black cuirants and 
gooseoerries preparatory to preserying them. Q^. com. * We nceed 
about eight quaH» o* black currants after ndlkin' time, an' then theer 
wuz A great side-basket o* gooseb'ries to noee* 

XOTTAMT [not'u'mi'], sh,^ a thin, meagre penson,— one worn 
to 'skin and bone' by illness or worry; an anatomy. It was 
remarked of a certain * faddy ' mistress, concerning her maid-seryant, 
that * 'er'd werrited the poor girld till 'er wuz a raS nottamy I ' 

HOW JUST, adv. a point of time immediately preceding the present 


Com. 'Wy, Maister, w'eei'n'ee bin? The Squire wuz 'ere now 
jest, an' wanted to see you.* CI Just now. 

VOWT [nou*t], sb, nothing ; naught : a tenn employed by the 
rougher class of speakers. — "Wjojjnqton ; Collieby ; Newfobt, 

' l^an was ]>e godwif glad * and gan it faire kepe, 
)>at it want^ nouii * >at it wold haue.* 

William of Paleme, L 72. 

A.S. ndwiJU, naught. 

HVCHID, part, adj,, ohs, ? stunted in growth in consequence of 
haying been ill-fed and neglected : said of animals. — Pulyebbatch ; 
WoBTHEN. ' That pig o' Molly Bobe'ts's is nuchid; itll never come 
to nuthin* .' 

Bay giyes ' NusVd, Starred in the bringing up/ in South and East 
Country Words, 

See Oh (3) in Graminar Outlinas {consmanU, &c.}. Qt Stoken. 

HTJITCLE [nungk'l], sh, an uncle. *Dun yo' call yore Nunde a 
noud mon P W'y my Nunde Ben liyed to be a 'undred an' two, an' 
yore's inna-d-above four-score ! ' 

Mr. Nares says that Nunde was 'originally a familiar contraction of 
mine unde, and was the customary apjjeUation of the licensed fool to 
his superiors.' So Shakespeare has it in K. Lear, L iT.,y., where the 
Fool repeatedly addresses Lear as Nunde, 

Mr. Nares also says that in Beaumont and Fletcher^s FUgrim, TV, i,, 
'when Alinda assumes the character of a fool, she meets Alphonso and 
calls him nunde; to which he replies by calling her naunt, by a 
similar change of aunt,* Cf. Kaint. See N (1) m Grammar Out- 
lines {consonants, &c.). 

HTJVTT [nun'ti'], adj. handy; convenient. — Clbe Hills. *Ah! 
they 'adna sich nwnty things to get on $6th the work forty 'ear ago.' 

HITBKEB [nur'-kur'], sb. something that is more than good — of 
superlative worth or excellence. — ^Ludlow. ' Whad sort'n a milker's 
that cow, Maisterf 'Whad sort'n a milker? Wy 'er's a reglar 

VUESEBT [noi's'r'i'], sb,, pec. a nursling.— Wbm. 

WSS-BOWy sb. the Shrewmouse. Qy. com. See Artiihrow. 

VTJTCKACBZB, sb, Sitta Europoea, the Nuthatch.— Bbidgnobth. 

HXJVITU0U8 [nuvi'chus], (1) $b., o6*.1 a rarity; a dainty; a 
• bonne-bouche.'— PuiiVEBBATOH ; Wobthen, Minsterley. * I went to 
see poor owd Mrs. Farley o' Wren'aU [Wrentnalll an' 'er gid me a 
piece o' Marigold-cheese — it wuz a nuvituous ; I hanna sid one fur 

(2) adj,, ohsols, ? nourishing. — Chuboh Stbbtton. 

OAF. See Aufl 

OAK-BALL, sb. an oak-apple. — Shbewbbubt. Cf. Chdl (4). See 
Bk. IL, Folklore f &c., * Customs connected with Days and Seasons' 
(Twenty-ninth of May), 



OAHED, part, adj, made hard by congestion of the milk-dacte : said 
of a cow's udder.— WELLraroTOK ; Wbm. • That brind'ed cow's elder* s 
badly oaned: See Cans, below. Cf. Pounded (2). 

OAHS, OOVS [56-h'n'z1, Pultirbatoh. [oo-nzl Chuboh Strbttok, 
sh. pi, lumps in the uader of a cow, consequent upon the milk-ducts 
haying been overcharged. * Betty, yo' mun rub that cow*8 elder, 
theer*s oSna in it as *ara as a stwun.* 

OASnrS [oa'zinz], sb. chaff mixed with light grain. — Pulterbatch. 
' Jack, yo^ hanna ^afe winnud that com ; I got a blind-sieve fftU o* 
oa9in$ out on a strike.' See below. 

OAZEZ, sh. pi, light grains that are winnowed out, covered with the 
husk or chaff.— -Clee Hills. C£ Tail-ends. 

OB [ob'], sb. a third swarm of bees in one season from the same 
hive.— Clee Hills. C£ Bunt (2). See Play (2), also Oast (7). 

OBITCH*S COWT. See Forty sa' one, &c 

ODDLDTOS, sb, pi. things of diverse sorts or sizes. — Pulverbatch. 
* Them 'tatoes i' that wisket's oddlirCsJ' 

*■ A thread-bare shark ; one that never was a soldier yet lives upon 
lending His profession is skeldering and ocUing; his bank Paul's^ 
and his warehouse Pict-hatch.' — ^Ben Jonson, Every Man out of his 
Humour, in Nares. See Mr. Naies' Note upon it. 

OBB-MABK, 8b,f obsols. that portion of the arable land of a farm 
set apart for a particular crop as it comes in order of rotation under 
the customary cultivation of the farm. Thus, a farm on the ' four- 
course ' system, having 200 acres arable land, apportioned into equal 
parts for grain and green crops — ^as wheat followed by turnips, barley 
or oats by clover or vetches— would have 50 acres odd-fnark. — ^Clee 

OBBMEHTS, sb. ph odds and ends. Com. < The Maister bought a 
lot o' oddments at the sale at Betchcot; some on 'em wun useful 
enough, but the most part wtm rubbitch.' 

OBBS, (1) z;. a. to alter; to set to rights. — Pulverbatoh; Cravsit 
Arms. ' We mun odds this, it 56nna do to lave it athatn.' 

(2) ih. difference. Com. 'To'n find the odds w'en yo' gwun to 
another plack.' 

[3) adj, different. Com. * To' bin odds to me if yo' can drink sich 
ly- vengeance as this.' 

O'EB-iJrnVST, prep, over - against — Weh ; Ellesxerb. See 

O'EB-OET, (1) V, a, to escape, as by trick or strategy. — Pulver- 
batoh ; Clee Hills ; Newport. * They wun jagffin 'un off to jail, 
but 'e managed to der-get 'em.' Cf. O'er-run (1), below. 

(2) V. a, to recover firom ; to get over. — ^Pulverbatch. * That 
child's never farly o^er-got the maisles ; theer's bin summat lankerin' 
about it ever sence.' 

O'EBrLOOKEB, part, adj, bewitched; spell-bound; fascinated, as 



by an 'evil eye.' — ^Pulveebatoh. *I should think we wnn o'er- 
looked to laye the Qreen an* oome 'ere— we'n 'ad nuthin' but ill-luck 
eyer senoe.' 

' Beshrew jour eyes, 

They have o^er-looVd me and divided me.' 

Merchant of Venice, HI. ii 15. 

Of. Merry Wive$ of Windsor, V. v. 87. See Bk. II., Folklore, &c., 
« Witchcraft.' 

O'ES-BTTH, (1) V. a. to escape by flight. Com. "£ o'er^mn me, 
else 'e'd a 'ad a good strappin'.' Cf. O'er-get (1), above. 

(2) V, a, to leave, as of work, or some unfinished task. Qy. 
com. ' I'v' bin despert onlucky d6th my pou'trv this 'ear ; theer's 
three 'ens o'er-ruf» tnar nists after the eggs wun cnipped.' 

(TBS-SEElf, ^ar^. o^y. blinded; deluded; deceived. — Pulverbatch; 
Clun; Ellbsmere. 'Fur my part, I never thought 'er any great 
sluJLes, but the Missis wuz despertly o'er-teen in 'er. 

' Thou, CoUatine, shalt oversee this will ; 
How was I overseen that thou shalt see it ! ' 

Shakespeabe, Lucrece, L 1206. 

OSSTB [oaor'ts], prep, in comparison to. — Pulvbrbatch. 'The 
corn's frummer i' the yed oM» as last 'ear.' Of. ToArtd. 

OPF, prep., pee. from, — ' took it off 'im.' Com. 

OFFIL [ofil], eb., var. fir,, pec. e^erj part of a carcase that does not 
oome under the recognized category of the larger pieces and joints, — 
as of a pig, all but the flitches and hams. — ^Pulverbatoh ; Elles- 
MERE. Qy. com. ' I dunna like to see the flitchen cut afore Maf - 
Day, an' it nee'na be, if the offU is used carfuL' See Ohine of Pork. 

OILS [ei'lz], eh. pi., pec. lotions and liniments of all kinds. Com. 

OLD-OIBLy ah. an ' old maid.' Com. See OirL 

OLD-MAH, 8b. Southern-wood. Com. See Lad's-love. Cf. Old- 

OLB-MAH'S-FLATTHIirO, same as Bennet, q. v. — Jbid. 

OLD'TLTTSYLER, sb., d. the ace of spades. — Clbb Hiujs. Cf. 
DeiTil's Bedstead. 

OLD-WOMAH, eb. Artemisia argentea, Silvery Wormwood. — Clun ; 
Whitchitbch, Tiktock. GL Old-man. 

OLLEBV, eb. Alntts glutinasue, the Alder. — ^Corvb Dale. 

*Alnu$,^ glossed *€Ur,* occurs in an A. 8. Vocabulary ^ zi. cent., in 
Wr. vocabs., voL i. p. 79. 0£ Orl, also Owler. 

OMBER. See Homber. 

OH [on*], (1) a prefix = un. See On-meroifol, On-tidy, &c., 

below. Qy. com. in Mid. and 8. 8hr. It is an old form. 

X 2 


' pe wordes achoUe be ised 
Wi)»e-oute wane and edie ; 
And onderatand, hi moje bi sed 
In alle manere specba 

Ine lede ; 
)>at euerich man hi siffge mo^e 
And cristny for nede. 

William of Shobeham (a.d. 1307—1327). 
De BaptUmo, Specim, Early Eng., vL L 66. 

(2) prep, ol Com. 'They tooken out on 'im, or else Vd a 
o'er-got 'em.' 

< Were such things here as we do speak about? 
Or haye we eaten on the insane root 
That takes the reason prisoner ? ' 

Macbeth, I. iii. 82. 

(a) prep, in combination with lay : — To lay on, to beat. ' They 
laiden on the poor chap.* 

'. . . Lay on^ Macduff.' — Macbeth, Y. yiii. 33. 

(3) adv, in combination with a verb. Ck>nL 

(a) To be on, (I) to work or bustle about. ' They umn on aU day 
lung.* * Now yo' bin on, bin 'ee P ' 

(2) to talk about, usually in the way of complaint. ' *£'& 
bin on 5oth me agen about that cowt gettin' i' the fild.' 

{b) To come on, to thriye ; to grow. ' Yore lombs hanna comen on 

(c) To go on, to scold. ' Dunna gdd on to the child, 'er couldna 'elp 
it.' ' They wenten on to the young 5dman shamefuL' 

(d) To hold on, to pause. ' ^Oud on, Surrey, tUl I come up.' 

(e) To keep on, to continue ; persist ' They keppen on, an' o5dna 
let it drop.' 

(/^ To take on, (1) to feign. ' 'Er took on as 'er wuz mighty bad.' 
' 'E took on 'im soft.' To take on eoft is to assume an air of 
hopeless stupidity, as country people often do in a witness- 
box when callea upon to giye eyidence upon some point 
which they wish to ignore. 

(2) to ffrieye; to lament. ' 'Er took on sadly w'en a toud'n 
'er as Yedut wuz djed.' 

{g) To think on^ to remember. TU buy some more yam o' 
Saturd'y, if I can thiiik on.^ Of. Bemember. 

ONBEAB [onbaer'*], t;. a. to remoye the stratum of earth lying oyer 
the stone : a quarrying term. — Oluk ; Bbtdokoiith. 0£ Barin'. 

OVBEAEIHO [onbaer'-in], sb, a superincumbent weight — ^PuLyER- 
BATCH ; Oluk ; Bbidonoiith. * That beam's despert wek for sich a 

OKCOMMOH, adv., pec. yery. — Shrewsbury ; PuLyERBATCH ; 
WoETHEN. Qy. com. * I'll tak' a bit more, if yo' plaisen,— yore 
piiddin's onoommon good.' 

' Wi' that I pulled my yittles out, and zat a horse-barck, atin 


of 'em, and oncommon good they was.' — B. D. Blacehore, Lorna 
Doone, A Bomance of Exmoor, p. 243, ed. 1878. 

OHBEHIABLE, adv. very; extremely, — ''er's ondenlable spicy.' — 
Shrewsbtjby; Pulye&batch; Worthen. 

OHDEB [oa-ndur'], (1) sb,, ohsols, the afternoon. In places where 
this term obtains the day is divided into morning, middle of the day, 
ondcTy and night. ' I tnonght to a finished the f&t o' my stockin' 
this andevt an* now it's aumiist six o'clock at ni^ht, an' it inna done. 
I've been despert linty.' The word onder Isb.'j is used more or less 
throughout the tcutem half of Shropshire. A Ime drawn from Ei<le8- 
HERE to Middle, thence to Pulverbatch, and on to Ludlow would 
roughly determine its range on that side. 

Mx, Gamett says, * This word [onder] appears in our glossaries in 
nine or ten different shapes^ all equally corrupt. The mie form is 
undorUy or undem; Goth, undaum, A.S. undem, G. untem. The 
word is sagaciously referred by Schmeller to the prep. unteTf anciently 
denoting Mween [cf . Sansk. antar, Lat. inter, the true co^ates of our 
under'j, q. d. the intervening period ; which accounts for its sometimes 
denoting a part of the forenoon, or a meal taken at that time, and 
sometimes a period between noon and sunset. It occurs in the former 
sense in Ulphilas, undaumi-mat [lit. undemmeat], Luc. xiv. 12 ; in 
the latter in the Edda [Yoluspa], where the gods are said to have 
divided the day into four parts — myrgin, morning ; mitheandcig, noon ; 
undern, afternoon; a/ian, evening.'---GARNETT's Philological EssayB^ 
p. 59. Cf . Evening. 

(2) V, n., ohwls, to continue to work well in the after part of the 
day. — Graven Arms, Norton ; Corve Dale, Stanton Lacey. * '£'s a 
rar chap for work i' the momin', but 'e dunna onder well.' 

^3) V. n., ohwls. to go down: said of the sun. — Pulverbatch. 
le sun's beginnin' to onder. ^ 

OVDEB'S-BATTK See Onder, above, and Bait. Cf. Fonr-o'olock. 

ONE DOG, OVE BULL, phr. signifies ' fair play.' — Colliery. 
This saying had its rise in the practice of bull-baiting — a brutal 
custom which lingered on in Shropshire till about the year 1841. The 
BMriiM is stiU l£e name of a small space in Ludlow, at the top of 
Corve Street. 
See Bk. U., Folklore, &c., 'Wakes, Fairs,' &c. 

OVB-WAY-DBiNK, ab. beer of medium quality which contains the 
full strength of the malt and hops apportioned to it — no ale having 
been first drawn, nor weaker beer afterwards made, firom the brew. — 
Pulverbatch; Worthen. Qy. com. *Tak' a jug an' draw some 
one-way^drink for the wilrit.' 

OVOADT, ry adj. awkward ; inconvenient. — Pulverbatch ; Clee 
Hills. ' To'n find that ampot mighty ongain I doubt ; for whad yo' 
wanten it's too big a power.' See Gain (2). Cf. Ungain. 

(2) adj. intractable. — Ibid. 'This pony's so ongain I canna get it 
nigh the 'orse-block.' See Gain (3). 

OHHTTMAH, UHHITMAir [oneu'munl Pulverbatch. [uneu'mun], 
Ellesmbre, adv. extraordinarily. * I*oor fellow ! 'e*8 onnuman thin ; 
'e's gwun to nuthiri' but skin an* bwun. ' 




0HLES8, eonj. unless. — Pulvkrbatch; Worthen. Qy. com. in 
8. 8hr, * I wuz £5d&st to g6d alung 5dth 'er ; 'er said onless I went 
'er naint 55dua loose 'er out.* 

' At this court, for ayoyding a oontrouersye betwext John wigley 
and John Chepp ooncemmg the right vse of a way at a plaoe called 
the water-b^de, Bichard Gfenins and G^rfi;e ffaulkoner, produced in 
court as witnesses for and on the beha& of John 'Wigley, being 
sworn before the stuard and homage, depose and say as followeih. 
L Bichard Genins sajrth that Margery Davies, sometime dwelling on 
Chep Street, wold not remove her habitacion ovla^ she might baue 
away oonyeniently and ouietly to passe from the kings him way to 
and firom a pasture called Hadwell, &c. — ' The Boll of the Uourt Leet 
of the Manor of Bromfield, Shropshire, for the 2nd October in the 
4th year of James I. (1607).' EnglUh G%ld$, Their Statutes and 
CuetwM, £. E. T. S. 

OHLTTCKT, mTLXrCET [onluk'i'], Pulvbrbatoh ; Worthek. [un- 
luk'i'], Ludlow; Ellesice&e, adj\ In one or other of these forms 
the term is general, meaning mischieTOUB, as appUed to bad boys, or 
to cows, &o. breaking fence. 

(1) * Theer's that onlxuky bwoy bin chuokin' stwuns agen at them 
gis, an's broke one o* thar wings.' Of. Ontidy. 

(2) ' The cow's so (yrducky 'er*s f55ftst to 'Sye a yok on.* Sometimee 
they say, ' 'Er^s got 'er onlucky baids on ' — ^referring to the yoke. 

OntEBCIFTJLLT, adv.^ pee, excessivBly; extraordinanly. — Pulvkr- 
batch. <I should think yo' han got a rig out this May — yo* bin 
cnmercifuUy fine.' 

OmiO, V. a. and v. n., ohsoUA to undress. — Pulverbatch ; Wem. 
' Now, MissiB, dinner's waytin'.' ' Well, gie me time to onrig ; yo* bin 
in a despert 'urry ; yo'd'n better '&ye the dinner to meet one 'aJd way 
to church.* 

0H8H00TY, adj, uneven ; irregular. — Pulverbatch. Qy. com. in 
8. 8hr, ' Ow bin y^ore turmits this time P * ' Well, they bin mighty 
onehoGty ; they'n missed five or six huts together.' 

OVBHUT [onshaet* and onshut*], %:a, to unyoke the horses from the 
implements. — Pulverbatch. Qy. com. ' Yo'd'n better mk^hft an' 
g56 wham ; it inna fit for mon or 'orse to stond out i' this rain.' 

Oompare ^ ouKhet^ — explained as 'un-shut, «. e, opened' — ^in the 
followmg : — 

' Gymp gerraflouris thar royn levys otucAet, 
Fresdi prymross, and the purpour violet.* 
Gawin Douolas (A.D. 1613), Prol. of the XTI, Buk of Eneadoe. 

Specim. Eng. L\t.y xiii. L 121. 
See Shut (1) and (5). 

OVTIDT, VHTIDT [ontei-di'], Pulverbatch; Worthen. [un- 
teidi*], Ludlow; Ellesbcsre; adj, loose or depraved in habits. As 
with * Onlucky,' so with this term — ^whether the prefix take the form 
of *on' or *un'— it is current throughout the county, *QaUueC 
* Onlucky,' * Ontidy ' are the three degrees of comparison as regards 
ill conduct, ontidy beinff the superlatively bad. * Them three voung 
youths bin bad uns — Jack's as gcdluB a dog as ever lived, Sam s that 


onlueky V 8 al'ays in some lumber, but Turn's right OTttidy ; I doubt 'e'll 
stretch a auter some day.' 

•On-tydy Intemptatua (irUempttu, du'n4ipua, intemperatua,),* — 
Prompt, Farv, 

OITWEEDY, adj. soon done or got through. — Church Stretton. 
« Missis, that flour^s bin mighty onweedy ; it*s done a'ready. ' Of. Weedy. 

Sol, «6., var, pr. wool. Com. in Mid. and 8, Shr, * Al'ays strokes 'er 
the right way o* the d8l. Miss/ said an old fanner, who wished to 
point out to a young lady how it was he got on so well with his wife. 
See W (2) in GhraSnxnar OatlixieB (ccnaonanUj &c.). 

dOLEBT, sh. an owl, — ^the tenn is applied geneiically. Qy. com. 

One night in the early part of the present century a certain Alick 
Toung lost his way in the Eastridge Oopny. He cried out, 'Lost, 
lost ! * in the hope of being heard, and of gaining hel^. A voice 
replied, ' Who-o-o.* * Alick Yoimg, the saddler. Sir, of Minsterley,' 
said he. * Who-o-o,' repeated the voice. Again the man answered 
as before, and again came the * Who-o-o.' Alick Toung in some 
wav recovered the lost path, and himself told the story of how he 
had answered an ' iSdlerfs who f ' in Eastridge Coppy. 

There is a Shropshire saying — ' I live too nigh the 56d to be afeard 
of a ddleH,* 

AS. ule; IceL ugla; Qterm. eule; Lat. nltUa; an owl. 

' Uulula. An owle or howlet.' — Diet, Etym, Lat, 

See Billy.liooter. 0£ Owlerd. 

OOLEBT-HOTH, ah, one of the order Lepidoptera Noctuidee, believed 
to be Flusia gamma, Qamma Moth. — PuLVERBATCH. The local name 
of * ddlert* is j)robably given to this moth from its nocturnal habits. 
Flying about in the dusk of autumn evenings, it often at such times 
finds its way into dwelling-houses. 

OOLLEHLT, adj,, obsoh. simple-minded ; credulous. — Pulverbatch. 
'I al'ays liked Tummas as a neighbour; 'e wuz a good-natured, 
SdUenly mon — ^if 'e couldna do no gCHDd, 'e'do no 'arm.' 

SdHBTA BE BALD, phr. won't be advised. Qy. com. < I've toud 
'er an' toud *er whad that fellow wuz, but 'er ddnna be aaidy an' now 
'er's got to sup sorrow by spodntles.' 

OOVS, (1) See Ky Sons. 
(2) See OAiis. 

OdllT, ab, a mole. — Pulverbatch; Worthbn; Much Wenlock; 
CoRVE Dale. Qy. com. in 8, 8hr. * If yo' wanten a fftfn^y-skin.pus, 
yo' shoulden gdd to owd Wilkes, the rot-ketcher; 'e ketches dt^nta an* 
stoats an' po'-cats an' all sorts o' varmint.' 

* Talpa/ glossed ' wont,* occurs in a Metrical Vocabulary, perhaps 
xiv. cent., in Wr. vocabe., vol. i. p. 177. 

* AS. wand; want^ont), talpa,* — Strat. 

Of . Kouldiwort. oeeauh voceVlen. See Bk. II., Folklore, &c., 
* Superstitions concerning Animals ' {molea), 

SdnTT-TTJKF, ab. a wanty-tump, — a mole -hill. — Ibid. Sec 
Tmnp (1). 


SOSTED, sh. a term used to denote quickness. — Pulverbatch; 
Chxtbgh Stbetton; Oleb Hills. 'They wenten like the ddsUd.^ 
' They erowen like the ddgted,^ The notion of a ball of worsted (pro- 
nouncea ddttUd) set free in rapid motion m it falls and rolls away from 
a knitter is said to be impliea in this curious expression. 

OdT, wilt : used elliptically for ' wilt thou.' See OTUmiuir Out- 
lines, vtrh Will, p. IxY. 

' Ketch out, Wi f * The speaker was one of two boys, who, toiling 
up the Wyle Cop (Shrewsbury) under the weight of a heavy basket 
ox clothes, had set down their load, and, after resting for a few 
seconds, were about to resume it Just as tiie boy spoke, two clergy- 
men passed. ' Did you hear that. Sir P ' said the younger one to his 
companion, the Bey. William Gh>rsuch Bowland. 'No; what was 
itP' 'The boy said. Sir, '*Kdch oirf, ««;"— take hold, wilt thou?' 
This incident occurred in 1846. 

Odt s> M.E. wolt. See Db. Morbis's Eutancal Evglish Accidence^ 
p. 187. 

OOTES [oo'tur*], same as Haitener, q. v. — Clee Hills; Wem. 
Hotter = heater is meant See Hot. A.S. hdi, 

OOZT [oo-zi'], adj,^ pee. dull; sluggish. — Wbm; Whitchurch; 
Ellesmebe. ' That wench dunna seem to oss yery well, 'er's that 
oozy 'er hanna won bit o' stir in 'er — 'er^s as lazy as Ludlam's dog that 
laid 'im down to bark.' 

Bay giyes this quoted proyerb ' with a diiferenoe ' — ' that lean'd his 
head against a wall to bark.' — ^p. 219. 

OPPLE, «6., var, pr. an apple. Qy. com. 

OPPLK-GOB, sh. a dumpling made by enclosing an apple in a lump 
of dough, and boiling it — Shbewsbuby; Cbaven Abms; Olvn; 
Wem. Of.Ck)b(l). 

OPPLE-SCOPPLE, V. n. to scramble for sweetmeats, as children do. 
— Clxtn. 

OBL, same as OUern, q. y. — ^Ludlow, Herefd, Border, There is a 
yillage called Orleton a few miles to the S. W. of Ludlow, but in Here- 

OKNARY, (1) adj. J var. pr, inferior; ordinary. Com. *Whad! 
Jack's a-wham agen — ^I thought *e went to the Bonk.' ' Aye, but the 
liyin' theer wuz so omary, the bwoy couldna stop.' 

(2) «5., var. pr. a public dinner for femners attending the markets; 
an ' ordinary ' — a * table-d^hote.* Com. * A poor far, f doubt — theer 
wus a despert fi'eow at the Unicom omary.* 

'Ladies' Obdikaby. — At the TaJhot on Tuesday , the Baven on 
Wednesday, the Tidhot on Thursday, and the Raven on Friday.* 

'Gentlemen's Obdinaby. — ^At the Raven on Tuesday, the TalM 
on Wednesday, the Raven on Thursday, and the Talbot on Friday.* — 
From a ' Correct list ' of Shrewsbury Baces in 1774, reprinted in 
Salopian Shreds and Patches, yol. i. p. 68. 

' Ordinaire, maison oxi Ton donne & manger. An ordinary ; an 
eating-house. Jusqu'A quand mangerai-je a Vordinaire f How long 
shaJl I eat at the ordinary $ * — Chamb. 



OBT [atur't'], v, a. to pick out the best part of a mess of food and 
leave the rest — * the pig oris *iB mate.' — Glee Hills. 

Jamieson giyes ' To Ort, v. a. To throw aside proyender.' Of. 
Mam.mook (1). See below. 

CRTS, sb, pi, broken meat ; scraps ; fragments that are left — ^not, 
like * mammocks,' in a worthless state — but fit to be eaten. Com. 
'To' bin too nice, a power; if yo' canna ate good arta from the 
Maister's table, yo' mun clem tell yo' binna so bally-proud.' 

* Let him have time a beggar's oris to crave, 
And time to see one that by alms doth live 
Disdain to him disdained scraps to give.' 

Shakespeabe, Xucrece, L 985. 

See Troiliu and Cremda, Y. ii. 158. 

* Evening orU are good morning fodder.' * To make oris of good 
hay.'—EAY's Proverbs^ pp. 103, 205. 

• OrtuB, releef of beestys mete. Bamentum.^ — Prompt Parv, 
See OrU in Wedo. 

OSS [os*], (1) V, a. to offer; to attempt. Com. * 'Er'U never oss to 
piit any thin' in its place as lun^ as 'er can get through 'em.' 

Bay gives ' Oasing comes to bossing ' as a ' Cheshire ' proverb : he 
ezphuns ' aasing* as 'offering or aiming to do.' — ^p. 48. 

(2) V. n. to show promise ; to * shape.' Com. ' I think the chap 
knows his work, 'e oeses prel^ well.' Cf. Ause. See below. 

OSSMEHT, ab, attempt, as indicative of skill — Shrewsburt ; Vvh- 
VERBATCH ; OswESTRT. ' I doubt 'ell never do no good — I dunna 
like 'is OBsmeni,' 

OXFEIT. See Awkward. 

OUT, adv., pec. away from home, as upon an excursion or a visit. ' I 
shall be out for three weeks.' Com. 

OUT AT TACK. See Taok (3). 

OUTCAST, sb. the surplus weight or measure gained by millers and 
maltsters in converting wheat and barley into flour and malt. Qy. 
com. See Weights and Measures, pp. Izzxvi, Ixxzviii. 

OUTRACK, sb.f obsols, a tract of land, formerly waste. — Fulver- 
BATCH. The name still lingers on, but l^e outr(ick, as such, is a thing 
of the past. There were three ouiracks in thejparish of Church Pul- 
verbatcn, viz., Pulverbatch, Wilderley, and WrentnalL They were 
uninclosed lands leadine from the cultivated ground to open common. 
The Pulverbatch outracK abutted at one end on ' Waken ' [Oaken] — a 
sheep-walk — and at the other upon Cothercot Hill ; the Wilderley 
one led up to the hiUs which stretch towards the Longmynd ; and the 
Wrentnail one oi)ened out on Longden Common. Tne farmers held 
the privilege of turning their animals — sheep, cattle, or ponies — into 
these ouircKks, and from thence to the hills or common. When the 
flocks and herds were taken off the common, they were driven into 
the wUrcukSy which were tiien closed at the opposite end hj a gate or 
barrier of some kind, in order to keep the animals withm boimds, 
while the work of separating them was carried on by their respective 


The ofOracks are now enoloeed : the Pnlyerhatch one has more than 
one small freehold within its boundaries. Comfortable homesteads at 
this date (1874) occupy the place of the ' wa^e and dab' tenements 
erected by the early settlers on the waste : one of these primitiTe 
dwelling-places was standing in the year 1858 or thereabouts It had 
been occupied by the same fiunily of Roberts from fiither to son 
through many generations. 

The first acknowledgment of ' manorial rights ' made by the dwellers 
on the outrack was late in the eighteenth century, when John Fletcher 
was required to pay to the Manor of Oondoyer eighteen pence per 
annum for his house and the ground then attached to it. 

Jamieflon has * Out-rake, An extonsiye walk for sheep or cattle.' 
See Outrake in E. D. S., B. yii Of. Back. See Ohimley-Jawm. 

OutJUDES, eh., pee. a commercial trayeller. Com. * W'eei's young 
Blakeway now ? ' * '£*s gwim to be outrider to some Lunnon 'oose.' 

OYALy OTIL [oa-vull, Whitchubch. [oa-vil], PuLysBBATCH ; 
Worthen; Wem, aaj. conceited; self-complacent; supercilious. 
' Did^n'ee see Bill Jones, 'ow avil 'e wuz in 'is new shoot ? — 'e thinks 
'isself somebody now 'e's a bwun-polisher.' 

OVEH-PEEL, same as Peel, q. y. Com. 

' Strong fire^oyel and poker, and oven-peel,* — Auetumeer'e CaiaU)ffue 
(Church Stretton), 1877. 

OVEff-PIKEL, 8b, same as Fire-fork, q. y. Com. See PikeL 

OTEff-SWEEP, OYEVSWOOP, sb, same as Malkin (1).— PuLysRr 
BATCH. ' If yo' putton the oven-eweep o* the dairy-pegs, yo'n a the 
Missis after yo\' A.S. o/en, oyen ; and ewdpan^ to sweep, brush. 

OVEEOVE FoyuVoay], part past, oyer-hoye = oyer-risen : said of 
bread which has fermented too much when in the dough, and, as a 
consequence, runs flat in the oyen instead of rising. — FiTJ«KflifKRK 

OYES-EIHD [oy-ur'eind], PuLysBBATCH. [oyni^ind], Ellbsmbrs, 
part, adj, a loaf which has so risen in the oyen as to leaye a hollow 
space between the top crust and the body of the loaf is said to be 
over-rind ; and is caused by an excess of yeast, or by unsound flour. 

0VEBWEE8T [oa'yurVeest], part, adj, completely coyered with 
liquid.— Wem ; Ellesmebb. * I say, Mary, dunna yo' forget to see 
as that pork's overweeet i' the brine.' A.S. o/er, oyer ; and weean, to 
macerate, soak. 

OTIL. See Oral, above. 

OWB LAD, OWD HICK, OWD SCEAT, tb, respectiye soubriquets 
for the Devil, of which the first two are most in recniisition. Com. 
* Jack, 65n yo' ff66 a narrand fur me to-night ?--vo'o6nna be afeard 
o' the Owd Laa ketehin' yo'.' < Oh no I ^ussis, I amma-d-afeard o' 
'im, 'e's lookin* after somebody as 'e inna so sure on.' 

' O Thou ! whatever title suit thee, 
Auld Homie, Satan, Nick, or Clootie.' 

Bobebt Bubns, Poems, p. 31, 1. 2. 

OWD LAD'S COEH, same as Devil's oorn, q. v. — Shbkwsbubt, 



OWLEB, eh, the Alder. — ^Wellinoton; Wem. There is a place 
near Wem called ' The Owlera,* and a road called the ' Owlery IjEine.' 
See Orl. Of. Woller. 

OWLESD, «6., var, pr. an owl not quite fully grown ; an owlet. — 
CoBVE Dale, '^em owls an' mvlerday they liyen in a bam, an' 
theer they sitten on a beam : by-w'iles they sin a mouze an' they 
droppen on 'im, an' ketchen 'im, an' gotten 'im i' their baik, an' 
chawen 'im, an' squaigen 'im, an' cruehen 'im, an* sdoken 'im till 
theer inna nuthin* left on 'im, an' then they droppen the quid.' Cf. 

OWVEB [oa-nur'], sh., obgoU,^ a proprietor of barges. — Shrews- 
bury; Bridgnorth. This term is often used as a prefix of title, 
much as one would say, * Captain So and So.' * I see them three 
barges of Owner Lowe's bin lyin' alung side Erankwell Varf yet, I 
s'pose a bin waitin fur a rise i the riyer.' 

* Ow{n)ere of a sohyp, or sohyp-lord. Navarchti»* — PtompU Paw, 

See Trowman. 

OX-ETE, sh. the Great Titmouse. — ^Bridgnorth. See Black-headed 

0X8L0P [ok'slopl, ah., var. pr. Primula ddtior^ Oxlip Primrose. — 
Shrewsbury; EiLlesmere. 

' I know a bank where the wild thyme blows. 
Where md%p9 and the nodding yiolet grows.' 

Midsummer NighVs Dream, JL i. 250. 

See Skeat's Eiym, Diet. Cf. Gowslop. 

PACK, (!)«&., obsols. twenty stones of flour, — ^a survival probably of 
the old custom of conveyance by pack-horses.— Market Drayton, 
Cheshire Border. See Weights and Measures, p. Ixxxv. 

(2) sb. a pedler^s bundle, as of dress-pieces, tea, &a^^HREWBBURY ; 
PULVERBATOH ; Etj.esmkre. Qy. com. 

' A small pack becomes a small pedler.' 

ka.y'b Proverbs, p. 157. 
Du. Gterm. pack, a bundle. 

PACK-(H>ODS, sb. the dress-pieces or such like, carried in the pack. 
— Ibid. * I dunna think it's wuth w'ile makin' up sich poor slaizy 
stuff, yo' met'n potch straws through it — it's al'ays the case doth 

PACKKAH, ab. a pedler who carries a pack. — Ibid. ' Some folks 
thinken they get great bargains off the packmen, but I dunna like 
thar flaunty trash, so I never 'arbour 'em nor taymen — ^g56 to a good 
shop, I say, an' then yo'n be used welL' 

PACK-STAPF, sb. a pedWs staff, serving the two-fold purpose of 
supporting his pcuk, and of a cloth- yaid for measurinc^ his pack- 
goods. — ^Ellesmere. ' As plain as a pack-staff* is an old proverbial 
simile almost sui)erseded at the present day by the equally appro- 
priate, * as plain as a pike- staff.' 


' Not riddle-like, obecnring their intent. 
But padc^iaffe plaine, uttering what thing they meon.' 

ILaix*8 SaiireSf ProL to Bk. iii., in Naree. 

PADDLE [pad'l], (1) sb,, obs, a small spade-like implement which was 
attached to the plough for the purpose of clearing the soil from the 
' breast* when it beoone dogged. Com. Called plough-pcuUUe more 

' The Plow Staff and Paddle, by which the Man cleaneth the Plow 
from clogged Earth or Mould.* — Academy of Armory, Bk. III. di. 
Tiii. p. 333. 

(2) $b. a small crescent-shaped spade used by mole-catdiers. — 

PAHAXnr [panai^kin], «&., obsoU.'i a very small pan, beforetime 
called a ' pimpert,' q. T. — ^Pttlyzbbatch. 

PAHVEL, sb., obs, a pillion. — Bishop's Castlb. Some old people 
in this locality at the present day [1875] remember the pannH bemg 
in use. 

* The tow Stables one pannel . . .' — Inventory . . . Owlbury Manor- 
House, Bishop*s Castle, 1625. 

"' & on OUT Mill horsses full swift wee wyl ryd, 
with pillowes & pannelU as wee shall proyyde." ' 

Kinge and Miller, 1. 174. Percy Folio MS,, 
Tol. ii. p. 155, ed. Hales and FumiTalL 

' Pannell to ryde on, batz, panneau,* — Palsgrave, in Hal. 

PARLOTTE-LEASEK [lai-zur*], sb., obsoU. a person who — ' having a 
friend at court ' — has permission to glean before the field is cleared. — 
PxTLYERBATOH. * By-gom ! I shauna trouble to g55 after that 
leasow — ^the parlour-laisen han bin o'er it.* Cf. Taubers'-leasers. 
See Lease. 

PATCH, ib, a small grass-field, generally lying contiguous to the 
house. — Shbewsbttry; Pulverbatch; Clttn; Cleb Hills; Wel- 
LIKOTON. * Tell Yedart to fatch the mar* up out o' the paicA— the 
Maister wants 'er to g5d to the feir.' Ct Piece (2), also Clos*. 

PATEES rpadhnir'], (1) v. a. to tread down = patter,— '/w/Aenwi 
the snow down i* the foud.' — T^T.T.T-a^rRitTe Cf. Bather. 

(2) V. n. to move lightly over a surface, scarcely touching it, as an 
insect does, — * a Ay patherin* about the child's fiace.'— Pulvebbatch, 
Cf. Pither-pather. 

(3) V. n. to fidget; to shuffle about on the feet uneasily. — ^Weh. 

PAUME [pau'm], sb, the palm of the hand. — Shrewsbury ; Pulver> 
batch. * Tummas is one as ddnna do much athout summat i* the 

' And as >e hande halt harde * and al )>ynge faste 
porw foure fyngres and a thombe • forth with J^e paume* 

Piers PL, Text B. pass. xvii. 1. 157. 

* O.Fr. paume, plat de la main.* — Bur. 


PATTKE-BUHSAT, sb. Palin- Sunday.— /Wc?. 'We bin drawin' 
mighty nigh Aister, nex' SundVs Paume-SundayJ 

* O.Fr. paume; palme, branohe en feuille de palmier.' — Bxtr, 

FAYL [pai'l and paayl*], v. a, to beat ; to thrash ; to punish as 
with fists. — PuLVERBATCH ; WELLINGTON ; Wem. ' If I could raich 
'im Pd payl 'im black an' blue.' This is perhaps a varied form of 
Shakespeare's pay : — 

* Falataff but I followed me close, came in foot and hand ; 

and with a thought seyen of the eleyen I pay*d,'—l K, Henry IV., 
n. iy. 242. 

Pegge has ' Peyl, to strike, or beat. Lane' 

PEAXHTO [pee'h'kin], Pulverbatch. [pee'ldn], Wem, adj, sickly ; 
drooping : said of young poultry for the most part. ' A wet May 's 
bad for turkies; Pye lost seyend, an' theer^s more looks yeryjpecfHn'.' 

' And as poore sillie hen 

Soone droopes and shortly then beginnee to peaked 

TussEB, p. 158, ed. E. D. S. 

\ same as above. — Atoham ; Wellington. 

PEA OP THE ETE, same as Candle of the Eye, q. y. — Ellesmerb. 

PEA-EISEKS, PEA-BISES [r'ei-zur'z], Newport, [rei-siz], Elles- 
merb, Bh, pi. pea-rods, or sticks. 

* A pese Ty9 ' occurs in The Treatise of Walter de Bibleeworth, xiii. 
cent., in Wr. yocabs., yol. i. p. 154. See Bise (1) and (2). 

PEAET [pee*ur*t and pi'ur''t], adj. brisk; lively, — well in health 
and bright in spirits. Com. 'Pm glad to see yo' so pedrt agen, 
John.' ' Thank yo', Maister, I'm a <Q'el better, but Mr. Glover says 
I shall never be my own mon agen.' 

' There was a tricksie girle, I wot, albeit clad in grey. 
As peart as bird, as straite as boult, as freshe as flowers in May.' 

Warner's Alhione England^ 1592, in Wr. 

* Quick she had always been, and *^ peart " (as we say on Exmoor), 
and gifted with a leap of thought too swifb for me to follow.' — B. D. 
Blaokmore, Loma JDoone, A Eomance of Exmoor, p. 283, ed. 1878. 

Cf. Harket-peart. 

PEABTEH, PEABTLE [pi'ur'*tn], Shrewsbury; Pulverbatch. 
Qy. com. [pyur*t'l], Wem, ffopton, v. a. and v. n. to revive; to 
enliven; to cheer. (1) 'Oh! yon soon pearten up, yo' beginnen to 
look better a'ready.' (2) * 'Er quoite pyurtled 'im dop w'en 'er come 

PEABTISH, adj. diminutive of P^brt— Ludlow. Qy. com. ' 'Ow 
binyo'P' * Oh, i)«or«M^like.' 

PEASEV [pai-zun], eb. pi. peas ; pease (collective). — Corve Dale. 

* Al ^e pore peple * pese-coddes fetten, 
Bake 6enee in Bred * pei brouhten in heor lappes. 


Honger eet ^ia in haste * and asked aftor more 
pen ne Hs ^olk for fere * fetten him monye 
Poretes, and Peo$en * for ^i him plese wolden.' 

Piers PL, Text A. pass. yii. 1. 285. 

Grose gives * Peasen, Pease. Berks.' 

O.E. pe$e (sing, sb.}, pi. pesen. The modem pea is a false form. 
See Dr. MoRBias Hutaricci English Accidence^ p. 97. 
A.S. pise, pL pisan; Lat. pisum, 

FECK, PICK [pek*], Shrewbbxtrt ; Pulvbrbatoh ; Worthen. 
[pik*], Wem ; Ellesmerb, v. n. to pitch forward ; to go head first ; 
to oyer-balance. * Mind the child dunna peek out on 'is cheer.' 

* Porter, You i' the camlet, get up o' the rail ; 
ril peck you o'er the pales else.' 

K Henry VIIL, V. iv. 95, 

PECKLED, adj. speckled, — * speckled 'en.' Com. * 

*Peckled' occurs in Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy [a.d. 1621], 
p. 94, in Nares. 

PECKLED^DICK, sh. the Goldfinch.— Beidonorth. Cf. Seyen- 
coloured-Iiinnet. See Jack-NicoL 

PECKLEDT-PIED, adj, speckled with black and white. Com. 

PEDLAB'S-BASKET, sh, Saxifraga ^arm«nto«a. — Pulterbatch. 
To the gay appearance of this plant — ^its leaves lined with red, its 
flower-s&lks streaming like rioands — ^the appellation of Pedlar's- 
basket is doubtless due. 0£ Creeping^-sailor (1). 

PEEL, ab, a kind of flat shovel of wood or iron, fastened to a long 
handle, used for putting bread, &o. into the oven, and also for taking 
the same out again, uom. ' Bring the oven-swoop an' the peel, we 
sha'n be ready for 'em in a minute.' 

* Two wodden peeles ' are enumerated amonffst other effects in ' The 
Kytchynse,' in an Inventory, dated at Owlbuxy Manor-House, 
Bishop's Castle, 1625. 

' He beareth Sable, a Baker, with a Peel in his both hands Bend- 
ways, with a Loaf of Bread upon it, Or. Others who ^ve a fuller 
description of it, Blazon it thus, a Baker with his Peel in his hands 
bendwise, with a Loaf thereon, Or, a Cap on his head, his Waistcoat 
stripped above his Elbows, Argent, Breeches and Hose, Grey, Shooes, 
Sable; having an Oven fixed to the dexter side, Gules. This was 
the ancient Crest of the Bread Bakers of Chester, which now they 
have relinquished.' — Academy of Armory, Bk. HL. ch. iiL p. 85. 

* Pele of owen, K. peel for J»e ovyn. Palmula, pdlica {pala, P.).' — 
Prompt. Parv. 

O.Ft, pele ; It pala, a shovel, spade. See Bur. 

PEEP-O'-DAT, same as Betty-go-to-bed-at-noon, q. v. — ^Wem. 

PEFFEL [pef'i'l and pef'l], (1) v. a. to peck at in a worrying 
manner. — Atcham ; Pxtlverbatoh ; Clttn ; Wem ; Ellesmere. 
' Them birds bin peffdin* out that turmit sid sadly.' 

(2) V. a. to beat ; to knock about ; to abuse with violence. — ^Wem. 
' 'E peffded 'im reet well about the yed wuth 'is fisses.' 


PEGH}T, (1) eame as Dolly-peg, q. v. — Shrewsbury ; Ellesmere. 
(2) same as Dolly (2).— /&tU 

PEOOY-NIVE^HOLES, same as Vanny-nin^holes, q. y. — Whit- 


PEGGY, PEGGY -WHTTETHRO AT, sb, Sylvia irochilua, the 
Willow Warbler ; Sylvia tufa, the Chiff-chaff; and Sylvia Hbildtrix, 
the Wood Warbler, are respectiyely and alike caHod Peggy and Peggy- 
Whitethroai. Qy. com. See Billy- Whitethroat. Cf. Jack-straw. 

PELCE, sh. a fat, corpulent person. — Ellesmere. ''E's gettin' a 
despert pelch.' 

PELL [pel'], (1) V, a. to make bare, as of sheep or cattle eating down 
a pasture, &c. — ^Pulverbatch ; WBLLiNaxoN; Newport; Wem; 
Ellesmere. ' Them ship han peUed that fild as bar* as yore *ond.* 
Er. peler, to make bare ; to peel. Cf . Pill. 

(2) V, a, and v. n. to pick ; to take in small bits : said of food 
chiefly, as when children help themselves surreptitiously. — ^Worthen; 
Church Streitok. ' The lad pelled an' pelled at the dumplin' till 'e 
pelled it all away.' 

PELL-VECEED, adj\ having the neck bare of wool : said of sheep, — 
'aj)e/Z-necA^yeow.' — Pulvbrbatoh; Worthen; Ellesmere. 

' Hec adctna. A" pylled hew,' occurs in a Pictorial Vocabulary ^ xv. 
cent, inWr. vocabs., voL L p. 260. 

' FyUed as one that wantetn heare, '' peUu/* ' Palsgrave, in Hal. 

See Cotgrave, mb voce Pill. 

PELBOLLOCK, sb. a faded, ill-dressed, worn-down looking woman. 
— Pulyerbatch; Muoh Wenlook. 'Jim France 'as jined the 
'totallers.' ' A good thing an' all fur 'is fiimily — 'is wife looks a poor 
pdrdlockf an' 'is childem 'afe clemmed.' 

PELT, sb, a sheep-skin of which the wool has faUen away from the 
living animal, in consequence of *skin disease' of some kind. — 
Shrewsbury; Wellinoton. 

PEV, (I) V, a, and v. n. to shut up ; to confine. Com. * I think 
if s a shame to pen the poor childem i' the 'ouse all day ; a bit o' 
fresh ar d6d do 'em a sight more good.' 

' To be a mirrour to all mighty men, 
In whose right hands great power is contayned, 
That none of them the feeble over-ren, 
But alwaies do their powre within just compasse^)en.' 

Spenser, F, Q., Bk.^. c. ii. si xix. 

A.S. pyndauy to shut in ; restrain. 

(2) sb. a shoot for eraffcing.— Atoham ; Pulyerbatch ; Welliko- 
TON. ' The owd garaener's pflt five different pens i' the big par tree, 
so we sha'n 'dve a sortment if they growen.' 

(3) V. a, to pick the soft quills out of poultry when preparing them 
for the table.— Shrewsbxtby; Pulyerbatch; Newport; Wem. 
See below. 


PEV-FEATHEBED [fidh'nr'd], part, adj. baling an undergrowth 
of youn^ feathers. Qy. com. ' I want to send some o' them ducks 
to markit, but I see they bin despert oen^/^Aereci—it'll tak* more time 
to pen 'em than a bin wnth.' See below. 

FEH-FEATHES8 [fidh-nr'z], sh. pi. the young, newly-developed 
quill-feathers as they appear at moulting timei Qy. com. Of. Pern. 

PEVNT» adj. very full of ' pens : ' said of fowls, &c. Qy, com. 
See Pens, below. 

PENHT-BTAL, sh., var. pr. Mentha paUgiurn^ Penny-royaL— 
PuLVERBATCH. Qy. com. *Eobin-run-r-the-'odge, an' Dra^n'a- 
blood, an' Fenny-ryal, bin mighty good yarbs to tak' i' the Spring-o'- 
the 'ear fur clansin' the blood.' 

Tusser enumerates * PeneriaU ' amongst ' Seedes and Herbes for the 
Kitchen.' See E. D. S. ed., p. 94. 

PEnrr STOEE, si. an iion-stone measure. — Colliery ; M. T. 

' The Penny Stone is the most remarkable and prodnctiTe iron-stone 
in Shropshire. It is composed of a series of nodules, producing from 
2,000 to 2,600 tons to the acre, and— 4is proved by smelting--oontai2ifl 
about 35 per cent, of iron. The cavities of these nodules are filled ap 
with sulphate of baryta, silicate of alumina, carbonate of lime, and 
crystals of zinc-blenaa A curious feature in connexion with this 
seam is the presence of petroleum. In certain parts the work appears 
as though it had undergone a washing of tar. It is said that at one 
time petroleum abounded in the coal measures, producing as much ss 
1,000 gallons per week. 

' The Penny Stone is interesting with its appearance and evidence of 
the piercing by burrowing worms, whid^ have left, as a writer says, 
'* heaps of excretions at the doors of their dwellmga." This iron- 
stone contains numerous marine organic remains, £e characteristio 
marine fossil being the Leptcena Scahicula, occurring also in the 
mountain limestone. Several species of Nautilus, Bellerophon, 
Orbicula, TJnio, Terebratula, Lingula, &c., associated with the bones 
and scales of the Megalichthye Hibberti, and the Oyracanthus Formotut* 

* Another characteristic fossil is the Orhicuia Reflexa.* — Notes <m the 
Bhropahire Coal-field, by T. Pabton, P.G.a 1868. 

See Black Stone, also Chance Penny Stone. 

PEV8, sh. pi, the rudimentary quills of feathers, as of fowls, ducks, 
&C.---SHKEWBBUBY ; PuLYEBBATOH ; Newpobt. Qy. com. 

< His flaggy winges, when forth he did display, 
Were like two sayles, in which the hollow wynd 
Is gathered full,, and worketh speedy way : 
And eke the pennes, that did his ]^ineons bynd, . 

Were like mayne-yardes with flying canvas lynd ; V« 

Spknsbb, F. Q., Bk. 1 c xi, 8t X. 

* Pennes, quills. ' — ^Maundeville, p. 269, in Hal. 

< Hec pluma, a fedyre ; Sec pmna, a penne ; Hoc Hum, the pyf ^^ 
the penne,* occur seriatim under the heaa of ' Partes Animdliu,mt ^ ^ 
Nominate, xv. cent., in Wr. vocabs., vol. i. p. 221. 


* O.Fr. penne, plume ; de [Lat.] penna.* —'Bttel 
Cf. Pen-feathers. See Pugs (2). 

PEHTICE [pen'tisl, sh. the shed attached to a smithy, in which 
horses are shod. — Fttlverbatch ; Worthen ; Ellesmere. 

An ancient building called the Pentice^ attached to S. Peter's Church, 
Chester, was taken down, a.d. 1801-6. Hanshall — the county his- 
torian — gives the following copy of a record haying relation to it : — 

'1616. Aug. 23. King James came here. He went to the 
Cathedral, and passed from thence along Shoemaker's-row to the 
Pentice, where he was banqueted,'and had presented to him a gilt 
bowl, with lOOgs. in it.' 

Pentict is a shortened form of appeniicef that which is appended; 
and further, the last syllable of this French word was before Shake- 
speare's time — according to Mr. Earle — anglicized into 'house,' 
making a sort of compoimd, penUhouse, See Philology of the Engluh 
Tongue, p. 292. 

Bailey— ed. 1782 — gives * Pewtice, a Penthouse ; also a Shed.' 

* Pentyce^ of an howse ende. Appendicium. **A pentis, appendix, 
' appendicium, apheduo, (sic) ut dicit Brito ; et dicitur pro/ectum, si de ligno, 

tnenianum, n de lapidebua." — Cath. Ano.' Prompt Parv, and Notes. 

'AppentiSf b^timent has & petit, qui est appuy6 centre im plus 
haut. A shed, an out-house.' — Chamb. 

PEBK See Land Heasnrements (Perch), p. xcii. 

PERK-UP, i;. n. to look up in a bright, cheerful way after a state 
of depression from whatever cause proceeding. Com. * Well, John, 
I'm mighty glad to see as yo' bin beginnin' to perk-up a bit, yo'n 'ad 
a bad bout, but now yo'n made a start, I 'ope yo'n soon be yore own 
mon agen.' 

' .^ . when suddenly up the face 
Of the Piper perked in the market place.' 
Robert Brownino, The Pied Piper o/Hamelin, st. viii. 

PESSTTM [pes-mn], sh, pease-haulm — a contracted form. Com. 
' Theer wuz a noud rot-ketoher as wuz called ** Dicky Pessum ; w'en 
a wuz a young mon, a wuz sen' to stop a glat the pigs maden i' the 
stack -yord, ^e rommed some pessum i' the 'ole, an' wuz called 
** Dicky Pessum " ever atter.' 

The term pessum is sometimes, oddly enough, applied to bean- 
straw, as in the neighbourhood of Wem^ where they speak of bean- 
pessum. Of. Bean-haulm. 

PESTLE, sb. the fore-leg of a slaughtered pig, between the knee and the 
flitch. — ^PuLVERBATCH ; Ellesmere. * We'n 'ftve a pair of pestles an' a 
fowl boiled on Friday, then theerTl be broth for the men's breakfasts.' 
Grose gives * Pestle-of-pork, a leg of pork. Exmoor.' 

* ''Pestds of venison."— Warner's Antiq. Culin, p. 98. " PesUll of 
flesshe, /amfcon."— Palsgrave,' in Hal. 

Cf. Shaokle-bone. 

YEWn [pee-wi't and pai'wi't], sh, Vemellus cristdtus, the Lap- 
wing. — Shrewsbttbt ; Pulverbatch. Qy. com. 

Randle Holme says, «The Lapwing cries Teewit:— Academy, of 
Armory, Bk. II. ch. xiii. p. 310, 



PIAHBT [peiandtl, (1) sb. Pisania officinalis, common Peony. — 
PuLVERBATCH. Qj, oocL. < 'Ei'd got a posy 88 big fts a besom, 65th 
three pianeU, an' a aimfal o' gilliflowers. 

(2) sb., obsoU. the Magpie.— Wobthbn ; Oswestry. Bee Ghatter- 
pie, also ICagpy. 

PICK [pik*], (1) V. 0. to bring forth a calf piematuielj. — ^Atgham ; 
Wobthbn; KTj.TMTinniE. Cf. Oast (3). 

(2) V. a. to bring forth a foal prematurely. — Pulyebbatoh; Wbm. 

(3) See Peck. 

PICKLE, V. a. to steep seed-coin in lye, &c.y preparatory to sowing. 
— ^PuLYEEBATGH. Qy. oom. See Clog (1). 

PIDDLDTO, part, adj, picking; dainty: used with reference to 
takine food.--PuLTSEBATCH. <I doubt itll tak* a despert w*ile to 
feed this pig, 'e's sich a pidcUin' ater.* 

* We took up our knives and forks, laid them down, and took them 

X again; .... piddledy sipped; but were more busy with our 
ws than with our teeth.' — Sir Oharla 0randi9(m, toI. li. p. 105, 
ed. 1766. 

PIE-BALD. See Skew-bald. 

PIECE [pee's], (1) gb. an intermediate meal given to childieD, 
usually consisting of a piece of bread and butter. Com. * Yo' shan* 
a no more pieeet afore dinner, yo'n bin piece, pieu, piecin\ all momin', 
an' then when the garden stujOfs done [cookedl yo'n ate nnthin'.' 
The 'garden stuff' is the cottage dinner of TeffetaDles. 

* I find the word [piece] in a little book of children's yerses, ' dtories 
for Alice * (Fhiladen)hia, 1857), by a lady of EngHah descent living 
in Chester, county Pennsylvania. 

** And on the dresser you will find 
At twelve o'clock your|>teoe. 

The piece was two nice corn-meal cakes." ' — N, and Q., 4th Series, 
voL vi p. 249. 

(2) eb, a field. — Ohttbch Stebtton; Cobvb Dale; Glee Hills. 

' I removed the house to another peice, called the Old Feild . • • 
Thejpeioe from whence the house was removed is to this day called 
Ore^apeioe.* — Oouoh's History of MyddU, p. 83. 

Cf Patch. 

(3) eb, a somewhat contemptuous term for a woman. Com. "Et^s 
a poor j»eoe; w'y 'er dunna know 'ow to we^ 'er 'usban's shirt fox all 
'er brags 'erself for everythin'.' 

PIED-PIHCH, sb. FringiUa codebe, the CbaffincL Qy. com. So 
called from its parti-coloured plumage. 01 Pine-flnch. 

PIE-FINCH, same as above. ^ Shbewbbubt ; Chxtboh Strbtton; 
Bbidonobth; Nbwpobt. 

PIO-COTE, sb,, obaoUA a pig-sty. — Pulverbatoh. 

* Hec porcaria. A' swyn-cote,' occurs in an English VocdbtUary, xv. 
cent., in Wr. vocabs., voL i. p. 204. 

PlOOnr [pig'in], (1) «&, obsols, a wooden bowL Com. The piffgin 
was formerly used for eating porridge or other ' supping' out of; it 


gaye place to the * pollinger,* which in its torn was supplanted by 
the ordinary earthenware oasin, or tin can. Figgins were in common 
use durinff the era of pewter platters. As the wooden piggin gave 
place to ouier eating vessels, so there was a progressiye refinement in 
food and language, as the following Shropshire doggerel sets forth : — 

* Dame an' porridge, 
Miffiis an' broth, 
Madam an' tay.' 

' 2 Piggifu ' are comprised in an Inventory ^ dated at Aston Botterell 
about 1758. 

' Heigh, diddle, diddle, 
The cat an' the fiddle ; 
The cow jumped o'er the moon, 
The littie dog laughed to see sich sport ; 
And the piggin ran after the spoon.' 

Shropshire version of the * Old Nursery Rhyme,* 

Cf. aoaigh (1). See Treen. 

(2) eh, a wooden pail, one of the staves of which being left much 
longer than the rest, forms an upright handle. — ^Wem. A piagin- 
calf IB a calf reared by hand, and is so called from the piggin being 
. used to hold its * suppmg.' 

Bay has * A Piggin^ a little Fail or Tub, with an erect Handle,' 
amongst ' North Oountry Words.' Of. Gaun (2). 

PIGkOBASB, PI0-BTT8H, eh. Polygonum avictdare, common Knot- 
grass. — ^Wellingtok. The pest of light soils in some parts of Salop. 

PI0-2IUX, fb, Buniumflexuosum, common Earth-nut. — Pulyebbatch. 

' And I with my long nails will dig thee pig-nute,' 

Tempest, U. ii. 172. 

PI0S-FAB8HIP, sb. Heracleum apJumdylium, common Cow- 

B, (1) sb, a toll-bar; a turnpike-gate. Com. 

(2) V. a. to pick. — ^Pulvebbatoh. Qy. com. * We mef n as well 
pike a bit i' the owd stubble as sit under the 'edge waitin' fax the 
tother — they hanna finished luggin' the barley yet. 

< « he calles them knaues your hignes keei>e, 
with-all hee calls them somewhatt worsse, 
he dare not come in without a lonee staffe, 
hees fifeard lest some bankrout wold pike his pursse." ' 

The pore man <fe t?ie Kinge, 1. 108. Percy Folio MS., 
ToL iii p. 201, ed. Hsdes and Furmyall. 

* O.Du. pecken (manticulari) ; pike (pick).'— Stbat, 

(3) sh. a pick.— Nbwfobt. O.Du. picke.—Idem, 

(4) sh. a hay-fork ; a pitch-fork. — Oleb Hills ; Lttdlow. 

' Pikes and nkesJ^Atuctioneer's Catalogue (Stoddesden), 1870. 

* A rake for to hale vp the fitchis that lie, 
tkpike for to pike them yp handsom to diie.' 

TiTSSEB, Hushandtie furniture, p. 37, ed. E. D. S. 

* A.S. pic, a pike; acufeus, euspis,' — Stbat. 



PIKEL [pei'kil], ah, a hay-fork ; a pitch-fork. Com. 

* One dozsen pilceU in lots.' — Auctianeer^s Catalogue (Longvill©), 1877. 

* For the Pitchfork ^or Pikdy which we vulgarly call it) it is an 
Instrument much used m Husbandry for their Loading and Stacking 
of Hay and Com.* — Academy of Armory y Bk. III. ch. yiii. p. 331. 

Gough, in his History of Myddle^ makes repeated mention of a 

* pike-evilly* apparently the same thing as a pikel — * pikeeavdl g^ins ' — 

* a long pikeevilly &c. At this day evil is similarly used in oompoation 
by Shropshire folk for the names of other kinds of fork. See Dun^ 
evily also ShareviL C£ Xril. 

PIKELET [pei'klet], sK a tea-crumpet — Shrewbbubt ; Ludlow ; 
Bridonorth; Newport. 

* However, Mrs Jerome herself could not deny that Janet was a 
very pretty-spoken woman : ** She al'ys says she niver gets sich pike- 
lets as mine nowhere ; I know that very well— other folks buy 'em at 
shops — ^thick, unwholesome things, you might as well eat a sponge." ' 
— Georoe Eliot, Scenufrom Clerical Life (Janet's Bepentanoe). 

Bailey — ed. 1782 — gives * Bara-picJclet iWdsh] Cakes made of fine 
Flower kneaded with Yeast.* 

Cotgrave has French ' popelinSy soft cakes of fine flour, &c., fiuhioned 
like our Welsh harrapyclids.' W. bora, bread. See Flap, also Lig^ht- 

PIKES, sb. pl^ short ' buts ' ploughed in pointed furrows of gradu- 
ated lengths; filUnff up spaces — ^left by the long 'buts' lying at 
right angles — ^in fields of irregular form. — Pulvxrbatch. Qy. com. 
A.S. pic, a point. 

PILES [pei'lz], sb, pi the awns of barley. — ^Pulverbatch ; Craves 
Arms ; Glee Hills ; Wem. Qy. com. 

PILIHO-IEONS, sb. an implement for removing the awn& — Ihid. 
* . . riddles, sieves, and barley piling^irons in lots.* — Audioneer'B 
Catalogue (Longville), 1877. 

PILIHOS, sb, pi, trusses of threshed-out straw. — Newport. * Rota 
bin nippers for jptZtn'a.' 

PILL, V, a. to strip ; to deprive of the outer skin or covering ; to 
peel.— Shrewsbury ; Pulverbatch; Chttrch Stretton. 
' Lads mak'n poor laisers generally — they'n aVavs got a stick to